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OF THE 

■S cho o 1 . of i^e die i n e. 




Presets ted Joy 



DR. KIRKC 




THE NEW 



Pontoon jflefcfcai atft Surgical 

DICTIONARY; 



INCLUDING 



ANATOMY, 
CHYMI^TRY, 
^ | *|<BOTA^Y, 

MATERIA MEDICA, 



MIDWIFERY, 

PHARMACY, 

PHYSIOLOGY, 



WITH 



THE COLLATERAL BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY, 

NATURAL HISTORY, 



By J. S. FORSYTH, Surgeon, &c 

AUTHOR OF THE NEW LONDON MEDICAL POCKET-BOOK, &c. &C- 



LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR SHERWOOD, GILBERT, AND PIPER, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 

1826. 



£c» 





/Asf- 




Cd 




RUI 


9 


. f 73 




If 


B tt*Miilnn, Printer, 


Bmv Street, Coveitt Gnrdew. 








PREFACE. 



A principal object in the arrangement of the following 
Work has. been, to bring* the technicals and phraseology of 
Medicine and Surgery, with those of the collateral branches 
of these Sciences, and the requisite explanation on each 
subject, into a more connected and condensed point of view, 
by disburdening them of all irrelevant lumber and opposite 
disquisition that might tend to increase the bulk of the book, 
and augment the price, without adding any thing to its 
value or utility, either as a guide or a medium of reference 
to professional research; but, wherever it has been found 
expedient to dilate on any particular topic, beyond the ordi- 
nary space allotted to each article, less essential matter has 
invariably given way to more important detail. A brief his- 
tory accompanies each word after its explanation ; cases are 
occasionally given, and works generally referred to, to illus- 
trate approved Medical or Surgical practice. The most 
esteemed modern authors in Surgery, Medicine, Mid- 
wifery, Pharmacy, Botany, Chymistry, &c. have been 
consulted and compared ; their writings, with the date of 
publication, &c. quoted ; and, though many respectable autho- 
rities are necessarily here omitted, to prevent this feature 
from transgressing its proportionate degree of interest, we 
have preferred, nevertheless, to be select rather than diffuse. 

a3 



VI PREFACE. 

The etymologies, generally faulty, many of them harsh and 
unfeasible, have been either corrected, or entirely omitted. 

Thus far we have been enabled to profit by several im- 
portant errata and deficiencies, hitherto neglected or over- 
looked, in Medical Lexicography ; and, to keep pace with the 
many improvements in Medical and Philosophical Science, 
a multiplicity of words, things, and subjects, of high import to 
the student and general practitioner, are introduced ; which, 
on reference, will not be met with in any similar work. 

In a preliminary form, a Synoptical view of Latin Syntax- 
is laid down ; intended as much to revive the memory, apt 
to flag amidst the energy of professional pursuits, and the 
bustle of professional practice, as to lay down, in a simplified 
form, the ground-work of a more finished system of Latin 
study. As regards this subject, our plan has been limited 
to the terminations of the different declensions of nouns, 
their varieties in the formation of the genitive case, par- 
ticularly those of the third declension. A Table of Declensions 
in the Greek form has also been given ; and, in the arrange- 
ment of nouns, in alphabetical order, to which the gender, &c. 
is annexed, those most frequently met with in medical phra- 
seology have been selected. A Classical Index of Latin 
Verbs follows, shewing how to form their Preterperfects and 

pines. 

in the Appendix, some equally useful and appropriate 
Tables are exhibited : 

J. The new French Weights and Measures; (Torres- 



PREFACE. Vii 

PONDENCE OF ENGLISH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES with 

those used in France ; and between English and other 
i Foreign Weights and Measures, &c. 

II. Correspondence of ^Thermometers of Fahrenheit 
and Reaumur, and that of Celsius, or the Centigrade 
Thermometer of the modern French Chymists. 

m 

III. The Elastic Force of the Vapour of Water in inches 
\< of mercury. 

IV. The Elastic Forces of the Vapours of Alcohol, Ether, 
Oil of Turpentine, and Petroleum, or Naphtha. 

V. & VI. A collective View of all the Frigorific Mixtures, 
with or without Ice, contained in Mr. Walker's publication, 
1808. 

VII. Frigorific Mixtures selected from the foregoing 
Tables, and combined so as to increase or extend Cold to 
the extremest Degree. 
i VIII. The Solubility of some Solids in Water. 

The usefulness of such Tables to the professional philo- 
sopher, need scarcely be alluded to. 

Throughout the body of the Work, every attention has been 
paid to brevity with efficiency and perspicuity. In the 
respective branches of Medical and Surgical Science, we 
have extracted and illustrated from every standard authority, 
and embodied much respectable opinion on various interest- 
ing points of general practice. 
I In endeavouring to avoid erroneous redundancy, by ob- 

serving something like an intermediate course, we run no 



Vlll PREFACE. 

risk, it is hoped, of interfering- with the private library either 

of the student or the practitioner, to which, it is scrupulously 

presumed, the one and the other will more implicitly trust, 

than to superfluous extracts from the very works which ought 

necessarily to comprise it,— works, indeed, they are already 

familiarly acquainted with, and with which they cannot 

prudently dispense. 

The most recent improvements and inventions of surgical 

apparatus, &c. &c. at home and abroad, have met with their 

due share of notice ; without, therefore, particularizing every 

novel feature in the New London Medical and Surgical 

Dictionary, taken as a whole, we beg leave at once to 

refer our readers, generally, to an impartial investigation of 

comparative merits. 

THE AUTHOR. 

20, Devonshire-street, TFest y 
Mile-End, 



EXPLANATION OF THE SEVERAL CONTRACTIONS USED IN 

THIS WORK. 



Anat. Anatomy, or Anatomically. 

Arab. Arabian. 

Bot. Botany, or Botanic-ally. 

c g. Common gender. 

Chym . Chy m icall y. 

d. g. Doubtful gender. 

ft Feminine. 

Fr. French. 

Gal, Galen. 

Gr % Greek. 



Hipp. Hippocrates. 

Htb. Hebrew. 

Ital. Italian. 

Med. Medically, or Medicinally. 

m. Masculine. 

?i. Neuter. 

Pkarm. Pharmacy, or Pharmaceu- 
tical^. 

Surg. Surgery, or Surgically, 
&c. &c. 



TABLE OF THE LATIN DECLENSIONS. 

There are in Latin five regular Declensions of Substantives, distinguished 
by the ending of the genitive case. 



Declensions. Genitive singular. 




( 


lenitive plural. 




1. 


ae 








arum. 




2. 


• 

i 








orum. 




3. 


is 








um & ium. 




4. 


us 








uum. 




5. 


ei 








erum. 


They go 


through their different cases 


according to the following table : 




N. G. D. 


A. 


V. 


A. 






] . Sing. 


a ae ae 


am 


a 


a 




musa, ae ; f. 


Plural. 


ae arum is 


as 


ae 


is 




musae. 


2. Sing. 


us i o 


um 


e 


o 




dominus, i ; m. 




r i o 


um 


r 


o 




magister, ri ; m. 




um i o 


um 


um 


o 




regnum, i ; n. 


Plural. 


i orum is 


OS 


• 


is 




domini, magistri. 




a orum is 


a 


a 


is, 


n. 


regna. 


3. Sing. 


is is i 

• • 


em 


is 


e 




f lapis, idis ; ?n. 
J nubes, is ; f. 




US IS 1 


us 


us 


e 




(^opus, eris ; n. 


Plural. 


Turn 1 ., 
es < . >ibus 
\ium J 


es 


es 


ibus 


flapides. 
1 nubes. 




a um ibus 


a 


a 


ibus, n, 


(^ opera. 


A. Sing. 


us us ui 


um 


us 


u 




gradus, us ; m. 




u u u 


u 


u 


u 




cornu, u j n. 


Plural. 


us uum ibus 


us 


us 


ibus 


gradus. 




ua uum ibus 


ua 


ua 


ibus, n, 


, cornua. 


5. Sing. 


es ei ei 


em 


es 


e 




facies, ei ; /. 


Plural. 


es erum ebus 


es 


es 


ebus 


facies. 


TABLE OF DECLENSIONS 


IN THE 


GREEK FORM. 




N. G. D. 


A. 


V 


• 


A. 




1 . Sing. 


as ae a? 


Tarn 
\ an 


*}• 




a 


jEneas, ae ; m. 




es ae ae 


Tern 
\en 


*}: 


*}- 


f Anchises, ae ; m. 
\ Cometa&Cometes,/. 


Plural. 


ae arum is 


as 


ae 




is 


Cometae, pi. 


2. Sing. 


fei & 1 eo & 
eus < > • 
\eos Jei 


~) eum 
jea 


>eu 


eo 


Orpheus, ei ; m. 




os i o 


on 


e 




o 


logos, i ; vi. 




on i o 


on 


on 


o 


llion, i ; n. 


Plural. 


i orum is 


os 


• 

i 




is 


logi. 




a orum is 


a 


a 




\s,n 


. Ilia. 


3. Sing. 


fanis &1 
an < - > am 
( anos J 


ana 


an 


ane 


Titan, anis ; ut. 




fonis Scl 
o < * > oni 
\us J 


onem o 




one 


Dido, onis ; f. 




is idis ldi 


fida 
tin 


& }i 




ide 


Daphnis, idis; m. 


Plural. 


es um ibus 


f es 
1 as 


>es 




ibus 


Titanes. 









On the preceding scale, any of the following nouns usually occurring 
in medical translation, may be declined according to the termination of 
their genitive case, the greater number of which are of the third declension. 

Varieties in the Formation of the Genitive of Nouns, and 
principally those of the third Declension. 

Genitive, 



Nominative, 

abies 

acetum 

adeps 

adolescens 

aes 

aetas 

balneum 

bipes 

bubo 

calor 

calx 

caput 

caro 

cataplasma 

charta 

cochleare 

collum 

collyrium 

congium 

cor 

crus 

«rystallus 

cyathus 

dens 

duplex 

electUarium 

embrocatio 

faex 

fel 

femur 

flos 

forceps 

frigus 

frons 

gargarisma 

genus 

glans 

glottis 

haustus 

hcpar 

homo 

index 

infans 

lac 

lapis 

latus 

lex 

liquor 



abietis, f. 3. 
aceti, n. 2. 
adipisy d. g. 3. 
adolescentis , c. g. 3. 
cerisy n. 3. 
cetatis, f. 3. 
balneiy n. 2. 
bipedis, adj. 
bubonisy d. g. 3. 
calor is, m. & n. 3. 
calcisy f. 3. 
capitis y n. 3. 



carms, 



f. 3. 



cataplasmatis , n. 3. 
charta , f. 1. 
cochlearisy n. 3. 
colli , n. 2. 
coltyriiy n. 2. 



conga ^ 



n. 2. 



cordis y n. 3. 

cruris, n. 3. 

cry stalti, f. &. m. 2. 

cyathi, m. 2. 

dmtisy m. 3. 

dupliciSy adj. 

electuarii, n. 2. 

embrocationis , f. 3. 
facisy f. 3. 
fell is, n. 3. 
femoris, n. 3. 
fioris, m. 3. 
forciptSy d. g. 3. 
frigarisy n. 3. 
frontisy f. & m. 3. 

gargarisinattSy n. 3. 

gencrisy n. 3. 

glandiSy f. 3. 

glottidiSy f. 3. 

haustus , m. 4. 

hepatisy n. 3. 

hnminisy c. g. 3. 

indicisy c. g. 3. 

infautiSy C. g. 3. 

lactisy n. 3. 

lapidis, m. 3. 

later is, n. 3. 

legiSy f. 3. 

Honoris, in. 3. 



a fir tree 

vinegar 

fat 

a young man 

brass 

age 

a bath 

two-legged 

a bubo 

heat 

lime 

the head 

flesh 

a poultice 

paper 

a table-spoonful 

the neck 

a lotion for the eyes 

a gallon 

the heart 

the leg 

crystal 

a tea-cup 

a tooth 

double 

an electuary 

an embrocation 

dregs 

gall 

the thigh 

a flower 

forceps 

cold 

the forehead 

a gargle 

kind, or genus 

a gland 

the glottis 

a draught 

the liver 

man 

index 

an infant 

milk 

a stone 

the side 

a law 

liquor, or solution 



XI 



Nominative, 

mel 

mortftriura 

nox 

mix 

ordo 

OS 
OS 

pectus 

pecten 

pes 

pilula 

pix 

plus 

pollex 

pondus 

pubes 

pubes et puber 

pulvis 

pus 

quies 

radix 

receptaculum 

ren 

retorta 

rex 

sal 

sanguis 

simplex 



Genitive. 



sinciput sincipitis-, 



spiritus 

tcmpus 

thorax 

triceps 

ulcus 

vetus 

vis 

viscus 

vulnus 



me Ms, n. 3. 
mortarii, n. 2. 
nnctis, f. 3. 
nucis, f. 3. 
ordinis, m. 3. 
oris, n. 3. 
ossis, n. 3. 
pectoris, n. 3. 
pectinis, ra. & n, 3. 
pedis, ra. 3. 
pilulce, f. 1. 
picis, f. 3. 
pluris, adj. n. 
pollicis, m. 3. 
ponderis, n. 3. 
pubis, f. 3. 
puber is, adj. 
pulveris, d. g. 3. 
puris, n. 3. 
quietis, f. 3. 
radicis, f . 3. 
receptaculi, n. 2. 
renis, m. 3. 
retortce, f. 1. 
regis, m. 3. 
«<&, m. et rar. n. 3. 
sanguinis, m. 3. 
simplicis, adj. 

sijicipitis; n. 3. > 

spirit us, m. 4. 
temporis, n. 3. 
thoracis,, ra. 3. 
tricipitis, adj. 
ulceris, n. 3. 
veteris, adj. 
w, pi. vires, f. 3. 
visceris, n, 3. 
vulneris, n. 3. 



honey 

a mortar 

night 

a nut 

order 

the mouth 

a bone 

the breast 

a comb 

a foot 

a pill 

pitch 

more 

the thumb 

weight 

the groin 

full grown 

powder 

pus 

quiet 

a root 

a receptacle 

the kidney 

a retort 

a king 

salt 

blood 

simple 

the sinciput, or 

fore part of the 

head 
spirit 
time 

the breast 
three-headed 
a sore, an ulcer 
old 

strength 

bowel, or viscus 
a wound 



ADJECTIVES. 



Adjectives and participles vary their terminations, and agree in gender, 
number and case, with the nouns which they accompany ; e. g. bonus, for 
the masculine j bona, for the feminine ; and bonum, for the neuter. 





SINGULAR. 








PLURAL. 






M. 


F. 


N. 




M. 




F. 


N. 


N. 


Bonus 


bona 


bonum 


N. 


Boni 




bonse 


bona 


G. 


• 

-l 


-ae 


* 

-l 


G. 


-orum 


-arum 


-orum 


D. 


» -o 


-ae 


-o 


D. 


-is 




-is 


-is 


Ac* 


-urn 


-am 


-um 


Ac. 


-OS 




-as 


-a 


V. 


-e 


-a 


•urn 


V. 


• 

-l 




-83 


-a 


Ab. 


-o 


-a 


-0 


Ab. 


-is 




-id 


-is 



Xll 





SINGULAR. 






N. 


Tener tenera 


tenerum 


N. 


G. 


-eri -erae 


-eri 


G. 


D. 


-ero -erae 


-ero 


D. 


Ac. 


-erum -eram 


-erum 


Ac 


V. 


like the nominative. 


V. 


Ab. 


-ero -era 


-ero 


Ab. 



PLURAL. 

Teneri tenerae tenera 
-erorum -erarum -erorum 
-eris -eris -eris 

-eros -eras -era 

like the nominative, 
-eris -eris -eris 

* # * The termination of the masculine and neuter is the same as that of 
nouns of the second declension ; and the termination of the feminine is the 
same as that of nouns of the first declension. 

Some adjectives, and the participle of the present tense (that which in 
English ends in ing, and in Latin in ans or ens), are declined like nouns 
of the third declension. 

Among adjectives some have three different terminations in their nomi- 
native, as acer, sharp or violent; some two, as levis, light ; and some have 
only one termination, as/e/ur, happy. Thus : 





SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 






M. F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


Acer acris 


acre 


acres 


* 


acria 


G. 


-ris * 


* 


-rium 


* 


* 


D. 


-ri * 


* 


-ribus 


* 


♦ 


Ac. 


-rem * 


-re 


-res 


* 


-rh 


V. 


like the nominative. 








Ab. 


-ri * 


• 


-ribus 


» 


« 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 




N. 


Levis * 


leve 


leves 


♦ 


levia 


G. 


-is * 


* 


-ium 


• 


• 


D. 


-i * 


* 


-ibus 


• 


* 


Ac. 


-em * 


-e 


-es 


* 


# 


V. 


like the nominative. 








Ab. 


-i * 


* 


-ibus 


« 


# 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 




N. 


Felix * 


• 


felices 


• 


icia 


G. 


icis * 


• 


icium 


* 


# 


D. 


1CI * 


# 


icibus 


* 


* 


Ac. 


icem * 


ix 


ices 


# 


icia 


V. 


like the nominative 








Ab. 


ice, or i * 


• 


icibus 


* 


• 



The feminine or neuter termination, where supplied by an*, is the same 
as the masculine. 

The adjective Duo, two, on account of its extreme irregularity, is here 
declined at full length. 

F. N. 

duae duo 

duarum duorum 

duabus duobus 

duas duo 



N. 

G. 

D. 

Ac. 

V. 

Ab. 



M. 
duo 

duorum 
duobus 
duos, or duo 



like the nominative, 
duobus duabus 



duobus 



xm 



Model for the Declension of Participles of the Present Tense. 





SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 






M. 


F. N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


A mans, loving 


* * 


amantes 


* 


-tia 


G. 


-tis 


* * 


-tium 


# 


* 


D. 


-ti 


* * 

• 


-tibus 


* 


* 


Ac. 


-tern 


* -mans 


-tes 


* 


-tia 


V. 


like the nominative. 








Ab. 


-te, or -ti 


* * 


-tibus 


# 


* 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

durus, hard durior durissimus 

fortis, strong fortior fortissimus 

Comparison of adverbs derived from adjectives. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

dure, or duriter durius durissime 

fortiter fortius fortissime 

Remark 1st. The superlative has three terminations, and is declined like 
bonus. 

2nd. The comparative has two terminations in the nominative, as durior 
for the masculine and feminine, and durius for the neuter, and is thus 
declined : 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

M. F. N. 

N. Durior * durius 

G. -is * * 

D. -i * * 

Ac. -em * durius 

V. like the nominative. 

Ab. -re, or i * * -ibus * * 

Remark 1st. Sometimes the adjective in Latin is found after the sub- 
>tantive, and sometimes before. 

2nd. When adjectives and participles refer to several substantives, they 
ought to be in the plural number. 

3rd. Sometimes the substantive is understood, as in the formula for con- 
fectio opii y and then the adjective is put in the neuter gender. 



M. 


F. 


N. 


duriores 


# 


duriora 


■urn 


* 


* 


-ibus 


* 


* 


-es 


* 


duriora 



ADJECTIVES OF NUMBER. 

Cardinal. Ordinal. 

1. unus, una, unum 1st. primus, prima, primum, and 

so on with all the rest. 

2. duo, duae, duo 2nd. secundus 

3. tres, tres, tria 3rd. tertius 

4. quatuor, indeclinable, and sol . , 

. • / • i 4in. ciuarcus 

on to centum, inclusive y l 

5. quinque 5th. quintus 
(>* sex 6th. sextus 

7. septem 7th. Septimus 

8. octo 8th. octavus 

9. novem 9th. nonus 
10. decern 10th. decimus 



XIV 
Cardinal. 

11. undecim 11th. 

12. duodecim 12th. 

13. tredecim 13th. 

14. quatuordecim 14th. 

15. quindecim loth. 

16. sexdecim, or sedecim 16th. 

17. septemdecim 17th. 

18. octodecim 18th. 

19. novemdecim 19th. 

20. viginti 20th. 

21. viginti unus, or unus et viginti 21st. 
30. triginta 30th. 
40. quadraginta 40th. 
50. quinquaginta 50th. 
60. sexaginta 60th. 
70. septuaginta 70th. 
HO. octoginta 80th. 
90. nonaginta 90th. 

100. centum 100th. 

200. ducenti, -ae, -a, 200th. 

300. trecenti, -ae, -a, 300th. 

400. quadringenti, -ae, -a, 400th. 

500. quingenti, -ae, a, 500th. 

<)00. sexcenti, -ae, -a, 600th. 

700. septingenti, -ae, -a, 700th. 

800. octingenti, -ae, -a, 800th. 

900. nongenti, -ae, -a, 900th. 

1000. mille 1000th. 



Ordinal. 
undecimus 
duodecim us 
decimus tertius 
decimus quartus 
decimus quintus 
decimus sextus 
decimus septimus 
decimus octavus 
decimus nonus 
vigesimus, or vicesimus. 
vigesimus primus 
trigesimus, or tricesimus 
quadragesimus 
quinquagesimus 
sexagesimus 
septuagesimus 
octogesimus 
nonagesimus 
centessimus 
ducentesimus 
trecentesimus 
quadringentesimus 
quingentesimus 
sexcentesimus 
septingentesimus 
octingentesimus 
noningentesimus 
millesimus 



PRONOUNS. 

There are in all languages three subjects of discourse — the person that 
speaks — the person spoken to — and the person spoken of. The person that 
speaks is the first person, and called ego, I ; the person spoken to, the se- 
cond person, and called tu 9 thou ; the person spoken of, the third, and 
called, ille, he. The signs of these three persons are called personal pro- 
nouns. As the subject of discourse may be more than one person, each 
personal pronoun has a plural number. The first and second persons, ego, 
tu, with their plurals, nos and vos, express male and female, without any 
distinction of gender ; while ille, the third, expresses the three genders by 
three different terminations. 
Mas. ille he, 
Fern. ilia she, 
Neu. illud it, 
Ille is also considered as 
will be found declined. 

The primitive or personal pronouns are ego, I ; tu, thou ; and sui, of 
himself, herself, or themselves ; these being substitutes for nouns, are of 
the nature of nouns, and are thus declined : 



illi they, for masculine nouns. 

ilia they, for feminine nouns. 

ilia they, for neuter nouns, 

a demonstrative pronoun, among which class it 



Sing. 






Plu 


ral. 




N. Ego 


tu 




Nos 


vos 




G. rnei 


tui 


sui 


Nostrum, 


or i vestrum, 


or i sui 


D. mini 


tibi 


sibi 


Nobis 


vobis 


sibi 


Ac. me 


te 


se 


Nos 


vos 


se 


Ab. me 


te 


se 


Nobis 


Vobis 


se 



XV 



The properties of personal pronouns, like those of nouns, are gender, 
number, and case. 

All other pronouns, as qualifying nouns, expressed or implied, have the 
nature of adjectives. 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 


- 




M. 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


Ipse 


ipsa 


ipsum 


ipsi 


ipsae 


ipsa 


G. 


-sius 


* 


# 


-sorum 


-sarum 


-sorum 


D. 


-si 


* 


* 


-sis 


* 


* 


Ac. 


-sum 


-sam 


-sum 


-sos 


-sas 


-sa 


Ab. 


-so 


-sa 


-so 


-sis 


* 


* 



Ipse is sometimes joined to personal pronouns, and also to substan- 
tives. — E. g. Balneum aquosum fit, ubi res quaelibet aut aquce ipsi ferventi 
aut ejus vapori exponitur, ut incalescat. — (Here ipsi is used to point out 
more emphatically the word aquce) . — In impetu ipso efFervescentiae sumendus. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

These always require to be united to a noun, and are formed from 
the genitive of the personal pronouns, as meus, mine, from mei, of me ; and 
so with tuus, thine; suus, his, hers, or its; noster, ours; vester, yours. 

Mens, tuus, and suus, are declined like bonus ; noster and vester like 
tener ; and all agree, like adjectives, with the substantives to which they re- 
fer. — E. g, suo vase contenta — concretum sui geiieris. 







DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 




M. 






F. 






N. 




Hie* 


^ 




Haec "J 


1 




Hoc ^ 




Ille 


( he 


, thisy 


Ilia 1 


[ she 


', this, 


Illud ( 


it, this, 


Iste 


( or 


that. 


Ista | 


f or 


that. 


Istud ( 


or that. 


Is 


J 




Ea J 


1 




Id J 








* Hie is 


sometimes termed the article. 








SINGULAR. 








PLURAL. 






M. 


F. 


N. 




M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


Hie 


haec 


hoc 




Hi 


hae 


haec 


G. 


hujus 


* 


# 




horum 


harum 


horum 


D. 


huic 


* 


• 




his 


* 


* 


Ac. 


hunc 


hanc 


hoc 




hos 


has 


haec 


Ab. 


hoc 


hac 
SINGULAR. 


hoc 




his 


* 
PLURAL, 


* 




M. 


F. 


N. 




M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


ille 


ilia 


illud 




nil 


ilia 


ilia 


G. 


-ius 


* 


* 




-orum -arum* 


-orum 


D. 


• 

-l 


* 


* 




-is 


# 


* 


Ac. 


-um 


-am 


-ud 




-OS 


-as 


-a 


Ab. 


-0 


-a 


-0 




-is 


* 


m 



b 2 



XVI 







SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 






1ft. 


F. 


N. 


If. 


F. 


X. 


X. 


Iste 


ista 


Istud 


Isti 


ista? 


ista 


G. 


-ius 


* 


* 


-orum -arum 


-orum 


D. 


-i 


# 


* 


-is 


• 


* 


Ac. 


-um 


-am 


-ud 


-OS 


-as 


-a 


Ab. 


-o 


-a 
SINGULAR. 


-o 


-is 


* 
PLURAL. 


* 




M. 


F. 


N. 


M. 


F. 


N. 


N. 


Is 


ea 


id 


Ii 


eae 


ea 


G. 


ejus 


# 


* 


eorum earum 


eorum 


D. 


ei 


# 


* 


iis, 


veleis * 


* 


Ac. 


emu 


earn 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Ab. 


eo 


ea 


eo 


iis, i 


ff/eis * 


# 



Remark 1st. The conjunction que is often joined to pronouns, so as 
r ^ appear but one word : — E. g. eamque toties cola — toque adjice ferrum. 

2nd. Idem, eadem, idem, the same, is declined like is, ea, id — E. g. 
eandera mensuram — ad eundem gradnni calefactum. 

3rd. Hie and We are often employed together, to signify this and that, or 
the latter and the former. Thus — dein tincturani et decoctum separating 
cola, et hoc consumatur, ilia distillet, donee utrumque spissescat. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 
Qui, who or which. 







SINGULAR. 








PLURAL. 






Iff. 


F. 


N. 




M. 


F. 


N. 


\\ 


Qui 


quae 


quod 




qui 


quae 


quae 


G. 


cujus 


* 


# 




quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


D. 


cui 


* 


# 




quibus, 1 
or queis J 


* 


* 
















Ac. 


quem 


quam 


quod 




quos 


quas 


quae 


lb. 


quo 


qua 


quo, or 


qui 


quibus, 1 
or queis f 


* 


« 



INDEX OF VERBS, &c. 



The following Index will probablv be found of great utility to refta 
the memory of students for the formation of the Latin verbs: the only merit 
of which, perhaps, above the At in prcpsenti, which may by many be 
thought sufficient for the purpose, is the alphabetical arrangement. 
N. B. The figures 1, 2, 3, 4, show the conjugation in each verb. 





/ iinitice ac' 




Infinitive pas±i\:> 


Ittj 


end> 


in 


a! 




ari 


2d, 


ends 


in 


ere long 




cri 




en 


in 


ere short 




i 


4 th, 


ea 


in 


ire 




• 

in 



A CLASS CAL INDEX. 



SHEWING HOW TO FORM THE I'RLTERPERFECTS AND B UP JIN 

Of Till 1 ATIN VERBS. 



Pn M nt. 




/' :t. 


Supine, 


ABDO 


- 


abdidi 


abditom 


Abscond*' 


- 


condi - J 


' absconditum A 
■htOOnsum 


ieoem 3. 


- 


BT1 


acccraUiun 


\< id 


- 


accidi 




Adipiscor 


- 


:us sum 


adeptum 


-co 3. 


- 


agnovi 


agnitum 


\_-.> 3. 


- 


- 


nn 


Alli( io 


- 


allcxi 


allectum 


Alo 3. - 


- 


alui 


alitum & altum 


». 


- 


r% t 


cart t 


Amicio 1. 


- 


amicui <& amixi - 


amictum 


An_ 


- 


anxi 




Aperio i- 


- 


aperui 


apcrtum 


Apixui 


- 


.rn 


aptum 


Applico 1 . 




f applicui & appli- 1 


applicitum & ap 




| cavi - j 


plicatmn 


\rceo 


- 


arcui 


cnrit 


Araaw 3. 


- 


arcessivi 


arcessitum 


Ardeo - 


- 


arsi 


irn 


Atoando 3. 


- 


ascendi 


ascensum 


Audeo 2. 


- 


ausus sum 


aasum 


Am- 


- 


auxi 


auctum 


Avco 2. 


- 


car< t 


ret 


BIHO 3. 


■ 


bibi 


bibitum 


( ADO 3. 


■ 


cecidi 


im 


C'aedo 3. 


- 


cecidi 


caesura 






b 


3 



Mi 
I 



} 



tend t 
hnjjj 

'ttain 
acknou 

flo y }>rrf' 
allien. 

be in d< 
clothe 

open 

j n PPh 

call J 
bum 

• g° "P 
dar> 

incrr 

1 1 h 

dm. 

fall 

bent 



XVlll 



Present. 


Preterperfect. 


Supine, 


Meaning, 


Caleo 2. 


• calui 


- calitum 


to be hot 


Calefacio 3. 


- calefeci 


- cale factum 


- make hot 


Calvo 3. 


- calvi 


- ' caret 


- deceive 


Calveo 2. 


- calvi 


- caret 


- be bald 


Calvesco 3. 


- calvi 


- caret 


- grew bald 


Cambio 4. 


- campsi 


- campsum 


- exchange 


Cano 3. 


- cecini 


- cantum 


- sing 


Capesso 3. 


f capessi & capes 
" \ sivi 


- Ccapessum & ca- 7 t * 
i pessitum .J ««*»««*» 


Capio 3. 


cepi 


- captum 


- take 


Careo 2. 


fcaruiand cassus 1 caritum & cas-? 
- < > > want 
\ sum -J sum -3 


Carpo 3. 


- carpsi 


- carp turn 


- gather 


Caveo 2. 


- cavi 


- cautum 


- beware 


Cedo 3. 


- cessi 


- cessum 


yield 


Cello 3. obsolete ceculi & cellui 


- culsum & eel sum break 


Censeo 2. 


- censui 


- censum 


think 


Cerno 3. 


- crevi 


- cretum 


- perceive 


Cieo 2. 


- civi - 


- citum 


- incite 


Cio 4. 


- civi - 


- citum 


- stir up 


Circumpango 


3. circumpegi 


- circumpactum 


set round 


Glaudo 3. 


- clausi 


- clausum 


- shut 


Cluo 3. 


caret 


- caret 


be famous 


Cceno 1. 


( coenavi&ccenatus ") 
- < > ccenatum 
( sum 


- sup 




ccepi, defect. 


- cceptum 


- begin 


Coerceo 2. 


- coercui 


- coercitum 


restrain 


Cognosco 3. 


- cognovi 


- cognitum 


- know 


Cogo 3. 


- coegi 


- coactum 


- force 


Cohibeo 2. 


• cohibui 


- cohibitum 


restrain 


Collido 3. 


- collisi 


- coliisum 


dash together 


Colo 3. 


- colui 


- cultum 


worship 


Comedo 3. 


- comedi 


f coraestum & coO 
- < > eat up 
\ mesum -J r 


Commiruscor 


3. commentus sum commentum 


invent 


Como 3. 


- compsi 


- comptum 


comb 


Compatior 3. 


- compassus sum 


- compassum 


- P*ty 


Comperio 4. 


- comperi 


- compertum 


- find out 


Compesco 3. 


- compescui 


caret 


- pasture togcti 


Complaceo 2. 


- complacui 


- complacitum 


- please well 


Complico 1. 


fcomplicui&com-l complicitum & I ,. , , . 
-< i- • > v * > fold tosctner 
\ phcavi comphcatum 


Concino 3. 


concinui 


- concentum 


sing together 


Conditio 3. 


- concussi 


- concussum 


shake 


Condemno 1. 


- condemnavi 


- condemnatum 


condemn 


Condo 3. 


- condidi 


- conditum 


lay up 


Confcrcio 4. 


- confersi 


- confertum 


- fill up 


Confiteor 2. 


- confessus sum 


- confessum 


confess 


Conjicio 3. 


- conjeci 


- conjectum 


cast together 


Conniveo 2. 


- connivi&connixi connicjtum 


wink at 


Consulo 3. 


- consului 


- consultum 


consult 


Coqno 3. 


- coxi 


- coctum 


cook 


Corrigo 3. 


correxi 


- correctum 


correct 


Corripio 3» 


- corripui 


- correptum 


snatch 


( orruo 3. 


- conui 


- coriutum 


» tumble down. 



XIX 



Present. 
Credo 3. 
Crepo 1. 
Cubo 1. 
Cumbo 3. 
Cupio 3. 
Curro 3. 
DAMNO 1. 
Decerpo 3. 
Decipio 3. 
Dedo 3. 
Deferv T eseo 3, 
Defetiscor 3. 
Dego 3. 
Deleo 2. 
Deliteo 2. 
Demo 3. 
Depango 3. 
Deposco 3. 

Desilio 4. 

Detrecto 1. 
Dico 3. 
Dio I. 
Diffiteor 2. 
Digredior 3. 
Diligo 3. 
Diluo 3. 
Disco 3. 
Dispergo 3. 
Dispesco 3. 
Displiceo 2. 
Divido 3. 
Do 1. 
Doceo 2. 
Doleo 2. 
Domo 1. 
Duco 3. 
EDISCO 3. 
Edo3. 
Edo 3. 
Edoceo 2. 
Egeo 2. 



Preterperfect, 
credidi 
crepui 
cubui 
cubui 
cupivi 
cucurri 
damnavi 
decerpsi 
decepi 
dedidi 

defervi & deferbui 
defessus sum 
degi 
delevi 
delitui 
dempsi 



Supine, 
creditum 
crepitum 
cubitum 
eubitum 
cupitum 
cursum 
damnatum 
decerptum 
deceptum 
deditum 
caret 
defessum 
caret 
deletum 
caret 
demptum 



Emineo 2. 
Emo 3. 
Eo4. 

The 

\ I »eo 
Adeo 
Circumco 
Coeo 
Exeo 
I neo 
Introeo 
I Mjco 



depegi & depanxi depactum 

depoposci - caret 

fdesilii, dcsilivi & ^desilitum & de 
\ dcsilui 

dctrectavi 

dixi 

dieavi 

diffessus sum 

di^ressus sum 

dilexi 

dilui 

didici 

■ dispersi 
dispescui 
displicui 
divisi 
dedi 
docui 
dolui 
domui 

■ duxi 
edidici 
edi 
edidi 
edocui 
egui 
eminui 

- emi 

- 1V1 



J sultum 
detrectatum 
dictum 
dicatum 
dilfessum 
digressu'u 
dilectum 
dilutum 
caret 

■ dispersum 
caret 

displicitum 
divisum 
datum 
doctiim 
dolitum 
domitum 

- dnctom 

caret 

■ esum & estum 
editum 
edoctum 
caret 
caret 

- emptum 

- itum 



Meaning, 
to believe 
creak 
lie in bed 

- lie down 
covet 
run 
condemn 

• pluck off 
deceive 

- give up 

■ grow cool 
be weary 
inhabit 
blot out 

- lie hid 
take off 

- fasten down 
require earnestly 

down 



> leap 



slander 
say 

dedicate 
deny 
step aside 

Ion' 

wash off 

learn 

scatter 

drive out of pasture 

displease 

divide 

give 

teach 



grieve 

tame 

lead 

learn perfectly 

eat 

publish 

teach perfectly 

want 

excel 

buy 

g° 
compounds of eo are formed after the same manner — as : 



abivi 

adivi 

circumivi 

coivi 

exivi 

inivi 

introivi 

obivi 



abitum 
aditum 
cireumitum 

coitum 

exitum 

initum 

introitum 

obitum 



to go away 

- go to 

- go round 

- meet together 
go out 

go in 
enter in 

- undergo 



XX 



Present, 


Preterperfect, 


Supine, 


Meaning, 


Pereo 


- perivi 


peritum 


to perish 


Depereo 


- deperivi 


deperitum 


languish 


Dispereo 


- disperivi - - 


disperitum 


be ruined 


Prodeo 


- prodivi 


proditum 


come forth 


Prseeo 


- prseivi 


prseitum 


- go before 


Praetereo 


- praeterivi 


pragteritum 


- pass by 


Redeo 


- redivi 


reditura 


return 


Subeo 


- subivi 


subitum 


- go under 


Transeo 


- transivi 


transitum 


go beyond 



These compound* ofeo, take rather ii than ivi, hi the preterperfect 

for abivi, adii for adivi, &c. 



as, 



abii 



Epasco 3. 
Eripio 3. 
Esurio 4. 
Excludo 3. 
Exculpo 3. 

Excurro 3. 

Excutio 3. 
Exedo 3. 
Exigo 3. 
Exoleo 2. 
Expergiscor 3. - 
Experior 4. 

Explico 1. 

Exuo 3. 

FACESSO 3. - 
Facio 3. 
Fallo 3. 
Farcio 4. 
Fateor 2. 
Fatisco 3. 
Fatiscor 3. 
Faveo 2. 
Ferio 4. 
Fero 3. 
Ferveo 2. 
Fervesco 3. 
Fido 3. 
Figo 3. 
Findo 3. 
Fingo 3. 
Fio, fieri, irreg, 
Flavco, 2. 
Flecto 3. 
Fleo 2. 
Flo 1. 
Fluo 3. 
Fodio 3. 
Frango 3. 
Frico 1. 
Frigeo 2. 



■i 



epavi 

eripui 

esurivi & esurii 

exclusi 

exculpsi 
Cexcurri & excu 
£ curri 

excussi 

exedi 

exegi 

exolui & exolevi 

experrectus sum 

expertus sum - 

explicui 



epastum 

ereptum 

esuritum 

exclusum 

exculptum 

excursum 



to eat up 
• snatch off 
be hungry 
- shut out 



carve 



- run about 



•I 



\ 



exui 

facessi & ivi 

feci 

fefelli 

farsi 

fassus sum 

caret 

fessus sum 

favi 

percussi 

tuli 

ferbui & fervi - 

fervi 

fidi & fisus sum 

fixi 

fidi 

finxi 

factus sum 

flavi 

flexi 

flevi 

flavi 

fluxi 

fodi 

frcgi 

friciii 

frixi 



excussum 

exesum 

exactum • - 

exoletum 

experrectum 

expertum 

explicitum & ex- 

plicatum 
exutum 
facessitum 
factum 
falsum 
fartum 
fassum 
caret 
caret 
fautum 
percussum 
latum 
caret 
caret 
fisum 
fixuin 
fissum 
fictum 
factum 
caret 
flexum 
fletum 
llatum 
fluxum 
fossum 
fractum - 
frictum & fricatum rub 
frictum • - be told 



shake off 

consume 

require 

grow out of use 

awake 

try 

declare 

put off 
execute 
do, make 
deceive 
stuff 
confess 
gape, leak 
be weary 
favour 
strike 
bear, sujj 
be hot 
grow hot 
trust 
fasten 
cleave 
pretend 
be done 
be yellow 
bend 
weep 
blow 
flow 
dig 
break 



XXI 



Present. 

Fruor 3. 

Fugio 3. 
Fulcio 4. 
Fundo 3. 
Furo 3. 

Fuo, obsolete, 3. 
GAUDEO 2. - 
Gero 3. 
Gigno 3. 
Glisco 3. 
Gradior 3. 
HABEO 2. 
Haereo 2. 
Haurio 4. 
ICO 3. 
Immineo 2. 
Impertio 4. 
Impingo 3. 
Incesso 3. 
lncido 3. 
Incipio 3. 
Inculco 1. 
Indigeo 2. 
Indo 3. 

Indulgeo 2. 

Inficio 3. 
Ingruo 3. 
Insanio 4. 
Insero 3. 
Insero 3. 
Jntelligo 3. 
Irascor 3. 
JACEO 2. 
Jacio 3. 
Jubeo 2. 
Jungo 3. 

Juro 1. 

Juvo 1. 
LABOR 3. 

Lacesso 3. 

Lacio 3. 
Lacto 1. 
Laedo 3. 
Lambo 3. 
Lateo 2. 

Lavo 1. 

Lego 3. 

Lego 1. 

Leo 2. 

Libet, impers. 2. 



Preterperfect. Supine. Meaning 

{fruitus & fructus^ fruitum&fruc- 1 ^ ^. 
sum -J turn -J * - 



•{ 



fugi 

falsi 

fudi 

furui 

fui 

gavisus sum 

gessi 

genui 

care/ 

gressus sum 

habui 

haesi 

hausi 

ici 

imminui 

impertivi 

impegi 

incessivi 

incidi 

incepi 

inculcavi 

indigui 

indidi 

indulsi 

infeci 

ingrui 

insanivi 

insevi 

inserui 

intcllexi 

iratus sum 

jacui 

jeci 

jussi 

junxi 



fugitum - - avoid 
fultum - support, prop 

fusum - - pour out 
caret - be mad 

futum, obsolete - be, exist 

rejoice 



■ gavisum - 
gestum 

• genitum - 
caret 

• gressum - 
. habitum 

- haesum 

- haustum 
ictum 
caret 

impertitum 
impactum 
incessitum 
caret 
inceptum 
inculcatum 
caret 
inditum 

findultum & in- 
(^ dulsum 

infectum 

caret 

insanitum 

insitum 

inscrtum 

intellectum 

iratum 

jacitum - 

j actum 

jussum 

junctum 



carry 
beget 
increase 
go on 
possess 
stick 
draw 
strike 
hang over 
bestow 

dash against 
provoke 
happen 
begin 
drive into 
want 
set in 



}< 



indulge 



stain, tingi 
invade 
grow mad 
graft 
insert 
understand 
be angry 
lie down 
throw, cast 
command 
join 

swear 



juravi & juratusj . . 

sum -J J 

juvi - - jutum 

lapsus sum - lapsum 

, . . , . flacessitum & la^ 

lacessivi&lacessi< 

\ cessum 

lexi - lectum - allure 

lactavi - lactatum - suckle 

laesi - laesum - hurt 

Iambi - caret - lick 

latui - latitum - lie hid 



:} 



help 
slide 

provoke 



lavi 

legi 

legavi 

levi 

libuit 



{lautum, lotum,! , 
lavatum - j 1 



lectum 

- legatum 
letum 

- libitum 



read, gather 
send, dispatch 
anoint 
it. pleases. 



xxu 



Present. 
Licet, wipers. 2. 
Lingo 3. 
Lino 3. 
Linquo 3. 
Liquefio 3. 
Liveo 2. 
Loquor 3. 
Luceo 2. 
Ludo 3. 
Lugeo 2. 
Luo 3. 
MALO, malle, 

irreg. 3. 
Mando 3. 
Mando 1. 
Maneo 3. 
Medeor 2. 
Medicor 1. 
Meio 3. 
Mereor 2. 



Preter perfect. 
licuit 
linxi 

lini, livi & levi 
- liqui 



Supine. 
licitum 
linctum 
litum 
lictum 



- liquefactus sum liqucfactum 



i 



caret 

locutus sum 

luxi 

lusi 

luxi 

lui 

malui 



Metior 4. 

Meto 3. 
Metuo 3. 
Mico 1. 
Mingo 3. 
Misceo 2. 
Misereor 2. 
Mitto 3. 
Moereo 2. 
Mordeo 2. 
Morior 3. 
Mulceo 2. 



mandi 

- mandavi 

- mansi 

- medicatus sum 

- medicatus sum 

- minxi 
meritus sum 

_ Cmensus sum 
\ metitus 

- messui 

- metui 

- micui 

- minxi 

- miscui 

- misertus sum 

- misi 

- mcestus sum 

- momordi 

- mortuus sum 

- mulsi 



& 



i 



caret 

locutum 

caret 

lusum 

luctum 

luitum 

caret 

mansum 

mandatum 

mansum 

medicatum 

medicatum 

mictum 

meritum 

mensum 

messum 

caret 

caret 

mictum 

mistum 

misertum 

missum 

caret 

morsum 

caret 

mulsum 



Meaning, 
it is lawful 
to lick, lap 

daub, cover 

leave 

be melted 

- be black and blue 
• speak 

- shine 

- play 

lament 
atone for 

- have rather 

chew 
command 
stay, tarry 

- heal 
cure 

- make water 
deserve 

measure 

- reap 

- fear 

- glitter 

- make water 

- mingle 

- 9*9 

- send 

mourn 
bite 

- die 
appease 



Mulgeo 2. 

Multiplico 1. 
NANC1SCOR3. 
Nascor 3. 
Neco 1. 
Necto 3. 
Neo 2. 
Nexo 1. 
Nideo 2. 
Nigreo 2. 
Ningo 3. 
Niteo 2. 

Nitor 3. 

Niveo 2. 

No 1. 

Noceo 2. 
Nolo, nolle, 

irreg. 
Nosco 3. 
Nubo 3. 



- mulsi & mulxi 



multiplicavi 

nactus sum 

natus sum 

necui 

nexui & nexi 

nevi 

nexui 

caret 

nigrui 

ninxi and nixi 

nitui 
Cnisus & 
\ sum 

nivi 

navi 



5 mulsum & mule- 1 .,, 
' I turn y m 

- muitiplicatum - increase 

- nactum 



nixus? 



natum 

nectum 

nexum 

netum 

nexum 

caret 

caret 

caret 

caret 



obtain 

be bom 

kill 

knit 

spilt 

knit 

shine 

be black 

snow 

shine 



nisum & nixum endeavour 



\ 



nocui 
nolui 



caret 

natum 

nocitum 



caret 



- novi 

- nupsi 



notum 
nuptum 



wink 

stvim 
hurt 

be unwilling 

know 

be married 



xxm 



Present, 


Preter perfect. 


Supine, 


Meaning* 


OBDO 3. 


- obdidi 


- obditum 


- to bolt 


Obliviscor 3. 


- oblitus sum 


- oblitum - 


- forget 


Occido 3. 


- occidi 


- occisum 


- kill 


Occido 3. 


- occidi 


• occasum - 


- fall 


Occludo 3. 


- occlusi 


- occlusum 


shut up 


Occulo 3. 


- occului 


- occultum 


- hide 


Oleo 2. 


- oliri 


- olitum 


smell 


Olfacio 3. 


- olfeci 


- olfactum 


- sce?it 


Operio 4. 


- operui 


- opertum - 


cover 


Oppango 3. 


- oppegi 


- oppactum 


- join to 


Ordior 4. 


- orsus sum 


- orsum 


begin 


Ordior 4. 


- orditus sum 


- orditum 


weave 


Orior 4. 


- ortus sum 


- ortum 


rise 


PACISCOR 3. 


- pactus sum 


- pactum 


- agree upon 


Pando 3. 


- pandi 


- passum 


open 


Pango 3. 


- pepigi 


- pactum 


bargain 


Pango 3. 


- pegi t 


- pactum 


- settle 


Pango 3. 


rpanxi, pegi, & 
\ pepigi 


1 

> pactum 


- fasten 


Pango 3. 


- panxi 


- pactum 


sing 


Parco 3. 


- peperci 


caret 


- spare 


Parco 2. 


- parol 


- paritum 


obey 


Partio 4. 


- partivi 


- partitum 


- divide 


Parturio 4. 


- parturivi 


- parturitum 


- produce 


Pasco 3. 


- pavi 


- pastum 


- feed 


Pateo 2. 


- patui 


caret 


be evident 


Patior 3. 


- passus sum 


- passum 


- suffer 


Patro 1. 


- patravi 


- patratum 


commit 


Pavco 2. 


pavi 


caret 


- far 


Pecto 3. 


- pexi & pexui 


- pexum 


comb 


Pedo 3. 


- pepedi 


- pod i turn 


rumble 


Pedo 3. 


- pepuli 


- pulsum 


drive away 


Pendco 2. 


- pependi 


- pensum 


hang 


Pendo 3. 


- pependi 


- pensum 


weigh 


Pcrago 3. 


- perogi 


- peractum 


- finish 


Percutio 3. 


- percussi 


- percussum 


- strike 


Perdo 3. 


- perdidi 


- pcrditum 


lose 


Pergo 3. 


- perrexi 


- perrectum 


" go forward 


Perimo 3. 


- peremi 


- peremptum 


destroy 


Perlcgo 3. 


- perlegi 


- perlectum 


read thoroughly 


Permaneo 2. 


- permansi 


- pennansum 


tarry 


Pernosco 3. 


- pernovi 


- pernotum 


know perfectly 


Perpetior 3. 


- perpessus sum - perpessum 


suffer much 


Perplacco 2. 


- perplacui 


- perplacitum 


- please much 


Persisto 3. 


- perstiti 


- perstitum 


- persist 


Persto 1. 


- perstiti 


- perstatum 


abide patiently 


Pertingo 3. 


- pertigi 


- pertaetum 


touch widely 


Pertundo 3. 


- pertudi 


- pertusum 


beat soundly 


Pessundo 1. 


- pessundedi 


- pessundatum 


destroy 


Peto 3. 


- petivi & petii 


- petitum 


ask, go 


Pi get, impers, 


, 2. piguit 


- pigitum 


be grievous 


Pingo 3. 


- pinxi 


- pictum 


- paint 


Pinso 3. 


- pinsui 


- pistum 


bake 


Placeo 2. 


- placui 


- placitum 


- please 


Plaudo 3. 


- plausi 


- plausum 


applaud 



XXiV 



Present, 


Prefer perfect. 


Supine. 


Meaning. 


iPlecto 3. 


- plexi 


plexum 


to punish 


Pleo 2. 


- plevi 


pletum 


- jiu 


Plico 1. 


- plicavi & plicui 


fplicatum & 
\ citum 


pli -}>w 


Pluo 3. 


- plui & pluvi 


pluitum 


rain 


Polleo 2. 


- caret 


caret 


be able 


Pono 3. 


- posui 


positum 


- put, place 


Posco 


- poposci 


caret 


- require 


Poto 1. 


f potavi & potus 
\ sum 


> potatum et potum drink 


Praecurro 3. 


- praecucurri 


prSecursum 


run before 


Praelego 3. 


- praelegi 


praelectum 


read before 


Praemineo 2. 


- praeminui 


caret 


excel 


Praesto 1. 


- praestiti 


praestitum 


- perform 


Prandeo 2. 


f prandi& pransus 
\ sum 


> pransum 


- dine 


Premo 3. 


- pressi 


pressum 


- press 


Prodo 3. 


- prodidi 


proditum 


betray 


Pronciscor 3. 


- profectus sum - 


profectum 


depart 


Proluo 3. 


- prolui 


prolutum 


wash 


Proraineo 2. 


- prominui 


caret 


hang out 


Promo 3. 


- prompsi 


promptum 


draw out 


Psallo 3. 


- psalli 


caret 


- sing 


Pudet, impers. 


2. puduit 


puditum 


be shameful 


Pungo 3. 


- pupugi & punxi 


punctum 


sting 


QUiERO 3. 


- quaesivi 


quaesitum 


seek 


Quatio 3. 


- quassi 


quassum 


- shake 


Queror 3. 


- questus sum 


questum 


- complain 


Quinisco 3. 


- quexi 


caret 


- nod 


RADO 3. 


- rasi 


rasum 


shave 


Rapio 3. 


- rapui 


raptum 


s?iatch 


Raucio 4. 


- rausi 


rausura 


be hoarse 


Recido 3. 


- rccidi 


recasum 


- fall hack 


Reddo 3. 


- reddidi 


redditum 


render 


Redoleo 2. 


- redolui 


redolitum 


- smell of 


Refello 2. 


- refelli 


refalsum 


refute 


Refringo 3. 


- refregi 


refractum 


break open 


Rego 3. 


- rexi 


rectum 


rule 


Rejicio 3. 


- rejeci 


rejectum 


reject 


Relego 3. 


- relegi 


relectum 


read again 


Relcgo 1. 


- relegavi 


relegatum 


send away 


Reminiscor 3. 


recordatus sum 


recordatum 


remember 


Renuo 3. 


- renui 


caret 


- deny 


Reor 2. 


- ratus sum 


ratum 


imagine 


Repango 3. 


- repegi 


repactum 


- fasten agaih 


Reperio 4. 


- reperi 


repertum 


- find 


Replico 1. 


f replicui & rcpli- 
"^ cavi 


replicitum & 
plicatum 


re " > reply 


Rcprimo 3. 


- reprcssi 


rcprcssum 


- restrain 


Repungo 3. 


- repupugi&repunxi rcpunctum 


- sting again 


Respicio 3. 


- rcspexi 


respectum 


consider 


Rcspondeo 2. 


rcspondi 


rcsponsum 


answer 


Rcspuo 3. 


- respui 


resputum 


- refuse 


Resumo 3. 


- resurapsi 


rcsumptum 


resume 


Rcticeo 2. 


- reticui 


caret 


- be siUnt 



XXV 



Present, 


Prefer perfect. 


Supine. 




Meaning-. 


Retineo 2. 


- retinui 


- retentum 




to retain 


Rideo 2. 


- risi 


- risum 


- 


laugh 


Ringo 3. 


- 'rinxi 


- rictum 


- 


fret 


Rodo 3. 


* rosi 


- rosum 


- 


gnaw 


Rudo 3. 


- nidi 


caret 


- 


bray 


Rumpo 3. 


• rupi 


- ruptum 


- 


break 


Ruo 3. 


* rui 


- ruitum 


- 


rush 


SACRO 1. 


- sacrav T i 


- sacratura 


- 


dedicate 


Salio 4. 


- fsalui, salii, 
\ salivi 


>saltum 


- 


leap 


Salio & Sallio 


4 f salii, salivi, 
' \ sallivi 


Isalsum 


- 


season with salt 


Salto 1. 


- saltavi 


- saltatum 


- 


dance 


Sancio 4. 


. . . f saneitum& 
- sancivi & sanxi < . 


sanc- 


> establish 


Sapio 3. 


- sapui & sapivi 


i caret 


- 


know 


Sarcio 4. 


- sarsi 


- sartura 


- 


patch 


Satago 3. 


- sategi 


caret 


- 


endeavour 


Scabo 3. 


- scabi 


- caret 


- 


scratch 


Scalpo 3. 


- scalpsi 


- scalptum 


« 


scratch, enyrave 


Scando 3. 


- scandi 


- scansum 


- 


climb, scan 


Scindo 3. 


- scidi 


- scissura 


- 


cut 


Scio 4. 


- scivi 


- scitum 


• 


know 


Scribo 3. 


- scripsi 


- scriptum 


- 


write 


Seco 1. 


• secui 


- sectum 


- 


cut 


Sedeo 2. 


- sedi 


- sessum 


m 


sit 


Scntio 4. 


- sensi 


- sensum 


- 


feel 


Sepelio 4. 


- sepelivi 


- sepultum 


- 


bury 


Sepio 4. 


- sepsi 


- septum 


- 


hedge 


Sequor 3. 


- secutus sum 


- seeutum 


* 


follow 


Sero 3. 


- sevi 


- latum 


* 


sow 


Sero 3. 


- serui 


- sertum 


m 


set in order 


Serpo 3. 


- serpsi 


- serptum 


- 


creep 


Sido 3. 


- sedi & sidi 


- sessum 


- 


settle, sink 


Singultio 4. 


- singultivi 


- singultum 


• 


sob 


Sino 3. 


- sivi 


- situm 


- 


permit 


Sisto 3. 


- stiti 


- statum 


- 


stand 


Soleo 2. 


- solitus sura 


- solitum 


M 


be accustomed 


Solvo 3. 


- solvi 


- solutum 


- 


loose 


Sono 1. 


- sonui 


- sonitum 


- 


sound 


Sorbeo 2. 


- sorbui & sorpsi sorptum 


- 


sip 


Spargo 3. 


- spars i 


- sparsum 


- 


spread 


Specio 3. 


- spexi 


- spectum 


- 


behold 


Sperno 3. 


- sprevi 


- spretum 


- 


despise 


Spondeo 2. 


- spopondi 


- sponsum 


- 


bail 


Statuo 3. 


- statui 


- statutum 


- 


resolve 


Sterno 3. 


- stravi 


- stratum 


- 


spread 


Sterto 3. 


• stertui 


- caret 


m 


snore 


Sto 1. 


- steti 


- statum 


- 


stand 


Strepo 3. 


- strepui 


- strepitum 


- 


resound 


Strideo 2. 


- stridi 


caret 


- 


creak 


Stringo 3. 


- strinxi 


- strictum 


- 


holdfast 


Struo 3. 


- struxi 


- structum 


• 


build 


Suadeo 2. 


- suasi 


- suasum 


• 


persuade 


Sublego 3. 


- sublegi 


- sublectum 
c 


• 


read cursorily 



XXVI 



Present. 


Preterpeifect. 


Supine. 


Meaning. 


Suboleo 2. 


subolui 


- subolitum 


to 


suspect 


Suesco 3. 


suevi & suetus sum suetum 


- 


accustom 


Suffero 3. 


sustuli 


- sublatum 


- 


suffer 


Sugo 3. 


suxi 


- suetum 


- 


suck 


Sum verb, subst. 3. 


fui 


caret 


- 


be, exist 


Sumo 3. 


sump si 


- sumptum 


- 


take 


Supplico 1. 


supplicavi 


- supplicatum 


- 


beseech 


Surgo 3. 


surrexi 


- surrectum 


- 


arise 


TACEO 2. 


taeui 


- taciturn 


- 


be silent 


Teedet, impers. 


tseclnit 


- perteesum 


it 


wearies 


Tango 3. 


tetigi 


- tactum 


to touch 


Tern no 3.' 


tempsi 


- temptum 


- 


despise 


Tendo 3. 


tetendi & tendi 


- ten sum 


- 


stretch 


Teneo 2. 


tenui 


- tentum 


- 


hold 


Tepeo 2. 


tepui 


caret 


- 


be ivarm 


Tepesco 3. 


tepui 


- caret 


- 


grow warm 


Tergeo 2. 


tersi 


- tersum 


- 


wipe 


Tero 3. 


trivi 


- tritum 


- 


wear off 


Texo 3. 


texui & texi 


- textum 


- 


weave 


Timeo 2, 


timui 


caret 


- 


fear 


Tollo 3. 


sustuii 


- sublatum 


- 


lift up 


Tondeo 2. 


totondi 


- tonsum 


- 


s It car 


Tono 1. 


tonui 


- tonitum 


- 


thunder 


Torqueo 2. 


torsi 


- tortum & iorsu 


m 


twist 


Torreo 2. 


torrui 


- tostum 


- 


roast 


Trado 3. 


tradidi 


- traditum 


- 


deliver 


Traho 3. 


traxi 


- tractum 


- 


draw 


Tremo 3. 


tremui 


caret 


- 


tremble 


Trado 3. 


trusi 


- trusum 


- 


thrust 


Tueor 2. 


tuitus sum 


- tuitum & tutu 


m 


protect 


Tuor 2. 


tuitus sum 


- tuitum & tutum 


look at 


Tulo, obsolete, 3. 


tuli 


- latum 


- 


bear 


Turaeo 2. 


tumui 


caret 


- 


swell 


Tundo 3. 


tutudi 


- tunsum 


- 


beat hard 


ULCISCOR 3. - 


ultus sum 


- ultum 


- 


nvengc 


Urgeo 2. 


ursi 


- ursum 


- 


press 


Uro 3. 


ussi 


- ustum 


- 


burn 


I J tor 3. 


usus sum 


- usuin 


- 


make use of 


VAPO 3. 


vasi 


- vasum 


,- 


go move 


Valeo 2. 


valui 


- valitu m 


- 


be strong 


Velio 3. 


vulsi 


- vulsum 


- 


pluck off 


Vendo 3. 


vendidi 


- venditum 


- 


sell 


. cnco 4. 


venii & venivi 


- venn m 


- 


be sold 


Venio 4. 


veni 


- ventum 


- 


come 


Yenundo 1. 


venundedi 


- venundatum 


- 


tet to sale 


Vergo 3. 


versi 


- versum 


- 


dccliiK 


V "rro 3. 


verri & versi 


- versum 


- 


sweep 


Verto 3. 


verti 


- versum 


- 


turn 


Vescor 3. 


pastus sum 


- pastu m 


- 


eat 


Vctol. 


vetui 


- vetituin 


- 


forbid 


Video 2. 


vidi 


- visum 


- 


see 


Vico 2. 


vievi 


- victum 


- 


bind 


Yincio 4. 


vinxi 


- vinctum 


- 


tic up 


Vinco 3. 


vici 


- victum 


- 


(•■lll(j:(< f 


Viso 3. 


\ isi 


- visum 


- 


vi*it 



XXV11 



Present, Preterperfect. Supine. 

Vivo 3. - vixi - victum 

V r olo,velle^Vreg-.3.volui - caret 

Volo 1. - volayi - volatum 

Volvo 3. - volvi - volutum 

Vomo 3. - vomui - vomitum 

Some verbs, when they are compound, change 
verbs into other vowels. 

The following compounds change, in all their 
of their simple verbs into e ; as — 

- condemno 

- allecto 

- cons<?cro 

- rcfello 
ccerceo 

- detrecto 

- defetiscor 

- dejecto 

- perpetior 
congredeor 

- imp'Ttio 

- decrrpo 

- perpetro 
ascendo 

- dispergo 

- reptrio 



J)amno 1. 


- 


/ condemn ; 


L«cto 1. 


- 


suckle ; 


Sacro 1. 


• 


dedicate ; 


Fallo 3. 


- 


deceive ; 


^rceo 2. 


- 


drive away ; 


Trr/cto 1. 


- 


handle ; 


Frttiscor 3. 


- 


be weary ; 


JrtCtO 1. 


- 


throw ; 


IV.tior 3. 


- 


suffer ; 


Grftdior 3. 


- 


step ; 


Portio 4. 


- 


divide , 


(;<vrpo 3. 


- 


crop ; 


Patrb 1. 


- 


commit ; 


Scan do 3. 




climb ; 


Spr/rgo 3. 




spread ; 


Parip 


- 


bring forth t 


The foil 


owing 


compounds c 


the simple 


verbs i 


Into i; as — 


Habeo 2. 




/ have ; 


Lateo 2. 


- 


lie hid ; 


SrdlO 4. 


- 


leap ; 


S/atuo 3. 


- 


resolve ; 


Cr/do 3. 


- 


fall; 


I,<rdo 3, 


- 


hurt ; 


(Vmo 3. 


- 


sing; 


Ou^to 3. 


- 


seek ; 


Ccedo 3. 


- 


cut ; 


Tango 3. 


- 


touch ; 


Ageo 2. 


- 


want ; 


r iVneo 2. 


- 


hold ; 


Trtceo 2. 


- 


am silent ; 


Sr/pio 3. 


- 


know ; 


Rr/pio 3. 


- 


sjiatch ; 



Meaning, 
to live , 

be willing 

- fly 

roll 
vomit 

the vowels of their simple 
tenses, the first vowel a 

I convict 
allure 
consecrate 
refute 
restrain 
slander 
be over -tired 
throw down 
suffer much 
step together 
bestow 

- pluck off 
commit rashly 
ascend 
disperse 

- find out 



change, in all their tenses, the fir3t vowel of 



colwbco 


- 


/ restrain 


del/teo 


- 


lurk 


restlio 


- 


leap back 


const /tuo 


- 


appoint 


occulo 


- 


die 


COll /do 


- 


hit together 


cone ino 


- 


sing together 


requtro 


- 


require 


occ/do 


- 


kill 


pertmgo 


- 


extend, reach 


indtgeo 


- 


want greatly 


ret/nco 


- 


retain 


ret/ceo 


- 


keep a secret 


destpio 


- 


play the fool 


corn'pio, 


er/pio 


take by violence 



Some other compounds change the first vowel of their present tense, 
(and of the tenses derived from it) into i ; but not of the preterperfect tense, 
and seldom of the supine ; as — 



f-'/go 3. 


- egi 


- actum 


to 


do 


\ Ex2go 3. 


- cxcgi 


- exactuni 


- 


require 


( Emo 3. 


- emi 


- emptum 


- 


buy 


( IV rim o 3. 


- peremi 


- peremptum 


- 


destroy 


leo 2. 


- sedi 


- sessura 


- 


sit 


(( onsj'deo 2. 


- consedi 


- consessum 


- 


sit together 



xx vm 



Present, 
fRfgo3. 
| Corn'go 3. 

Frango 3. 

Refnngo 3. 

Capio 3. 

Incipio 3. 

{Jacio 3. 
Conjtcio 3. 
{Lcrcio 3. 
Alh'cio 3. 
{Specio 3. 
Resptcio 3. 
Premo 3. 
Repnmo 3. 
Pango 3. 
Impingo 3. 



Preter per feet. 

rexi 

correxi 

fregi 

refregi 

cepi 

incepi 

jeci^ 

conjeci 

lexi 

allexi 

spexi 

respexi 

pressi 

repressi 

pegi 

impegi 



Supine, 
rectum 
correctum 
fractum 
refractum 
captum 
inceptum 
j actum 
conjectum 
lectum 
allectum 
spectum 
respectum 
pressum 
repressum 
pactum 
impactum 



Slighter irregularities are left to practice, and a 
translations and exercises. 



Meaning, 
to rule 

- correct 
break 

- break open 
take 
begin 
throw 

* cast together 

- ensnare 
allure 
behold 
look back 

- press 

- repress 

- join 

dash against 

regular course of Latin 



<jT 



9 



ERRATA. 



Page 3. Right hand col. 2d art. from bottom, for ASINTHIUM, read ABSINTHIUM. 
13. After ADENOUS ABSCESS, for Abcessus adensvs, read Abscessus adenosus. 
100. Right hand col 2d line from top, for mulibre, read muliebre. 
279. Left hand col. 7th line from the top, after inflammatory, read fever. 
288. Right hand col. 3d line from bottom of art. FILTER, for bolulous, read 

bibulous. 
368. Left hand col. 24th line from top, for patiative, read palliative. 

Right hand col. 3d line from top. for Esperer, read Especes. 
373. Left hand col. 4th line from the bottom, for deliquim, read deliquium. 
416. Left hand col. last word in art. K.ERATONYXIS, for rectonation, read recti- 

nation. 
445. Right hand col. 15th line from top, for Dr. Gmelion, read Dr- Ginclin. 
453. Left haud col. hfter LUNG, transpose -omit. f. after Pulmo. 
474. Left hand col. 27th line from top, for See also detire, read delire. 
407. Left hand col. 28th line from bottom, after form, read of. 
556. Left hand col. last word in art. Not/ius, for nothce, read notha. 
573. Left hand col. 22d & 23d line from top. dele of the transverse. 

Right hand col. ait. CESTREUM VENEREUM, 3d line, for agitate?, read 

irritates. 
606. Left haud col. 27th line from the bottom, for eighth, read right. 2d line 

from the bottom, for indigitaticus. read indigitations. 
853. Left hand col. art. Tinctura THEBAICA, for Verum. read Vinvm. 
1>C6. Right hand col. last word after vine, for Vitus, read Vitis- 



THE NEW 



UtwlJOH jsteirical att& Surgical 

DICTIONARY. 






ABA 



•*• Aa. Ana. (From avv y which 
signifies of each) . A term in phar- 
macy, used after two or more ingre- 
dients, implying that equal quanti- 
ties of each ought to be taken ; e. g. 
Iji Mucilaginis G. Acacia?: Syntpi 
Simplicity aa *^ij, i, e. An equal 
quantity of mucilage of gum acacia*, 
and simple syrup, is to be taken. 

A'abam. An old chymical term 
for lead. 

Aba'ctls. Abigcatus. A term used 
by the ancient physicians, for a mis- 
carriage ; in contradistinction to abor- 
tus, which meant a natural abortion. 

A'bacus. (From a Hebrew word, 
signifying dust). A table for prepa- 
rations, so termed from the custom 
adopted by mathematicians, of draw- 
ing their figures upon tables sprink- 
led with dust. 

Abai'ser. Abasia. Spodium Ara- 
hvm. Ivory-black. Calcareous powder. 

Xrai.iena'tio. A decay, or ca- 
chectic state of the body, or mind. 

Abauena'tus. Corrupted. A part 
so far destroyed as to require imme- 
diate removal. Faulty, or total loss 
of the senses, external or internal. 

A'banet (Heb. The girdle worn 
by the Jewish priests). A girdle-like 
bandage. 

Aba'nga. Ady. The palm of the 
island of St. Thomas ; the principal 
ingredient in Thernal's restorative. 



ABD 

Abapti'sta or Abafti'ston. (From 
a, priv. and /3a7r7w, to plunge) . The 
crown of the old trephine. This term 
is used by Galen, Fabricius ab Aqua- 
pendente, Scultetus, and others, to 
denote the conical saw with a circu- 
lar edge (modiolus or terebraj, for- 
merly used by surgeons in perforat- 
ing the cranium. 

Abarnahas. Ovumruffum. An old 
chemical term used in the transmu- 
tation of metals, signifying luna 
plf/ia, magnes, ox magnesia. 

Aba'rtamen. Lead. 

Aba'rticulation. (From ab, and 
articulus, a joint) . That species of 
articulation which has evident mo- 
tion. See Diarthrosis. 

A'bas. (Arab.) The scald head ; 
also epilepsy. 

Abas'is. See Abaisir. 

Abbreviation. Medicinal abbre- 
viations are principally used in pre- 
scribing by physicians, for dispatch 
and conveniency; e. g. Jjk stands for 
recipe ; P. L. Pharmacopoeia Londi- 
nensis ; p. T. n. pro re nata; Tinct . 
for Tinctura, &c. 

%* Compound medicines, with 
their several ingredients, are fre- 
quently written up only to their first, 
second, or third syllable. A point 
placed at the end of such syllable, 
shews the word to be incomplete. 

Abdo'men. (Abdomen } inis. n. from 
B 



ABD 



ABI 



abtlo, I hide, because it confines or 
conceals the viscera. Also from ab- 
it ere, to hide, and omentum, the 
caul) . The belly. — Surgically speak- 
ing, the cavity of the abdomen is 
confined to the space included in the 
peritoneal sac. Consequently, nei- 
ther the kidneys nor the pelvic vis- 
cera, are, properly, parts of the 
abdomen ; which, by anatomists, is 
distinguished into different regions ; 
r . w. hypochondriac, epigastric, um- 
bilical, pubic, &c. Sec Body. 

Abdominal hernia. See Hernia ab- 
tloniinalis. 

Abdominal ring. See Annulus ab- 
dominis. 

^Abdominal regions. See Body. 

Abdu'cens. See Abductor. 

Abdu'cens labio'rum. See Leva- 
tor anguli oris. 

Abducent nerves. See A'ervi abdu- 
■ > nips. 

Abducent mvscUs. See Abductor. 

Abdi/ctor. (From abducrre, to 
draw away). Abducens. A muscle, 
whose office is to draw or carry the 
member to widen it is affixed from 
some other. Its antagonist is called 
adductor. 

+ lbduitor auricularis. See Poste- 
rior auris. 

Abductor aur is. See Posterior auris. 

Abductor brevis alter. See Abductor 
pollicis man iis. 

Abdu'ctor i'ndicis ma'ncs. An 
internal interosseous muscle of the 
fore-finger. Abductor of Douglas. 
Scmi-intcrosseus indicis of Winsiow. 
. tbductor indicis of Cowper. 

Abdu'ctor i'ndicis te'dis. An in- 
ternal interosseous muscle of the 
fore -toe. 

Abductor longus pollicis manus. See 
tl.vtensor ossis mctacarpi pollicis ma- 
il /'is. 

Abdu'ctor me'dii di'giti rr/nis. 
\n interosseous muscle of the foot. 

Abdu'ctor mi'mmi di'giti ma- 
nus. A muscle of the little finger, 
situated on the hand. Carpo-phu- 
langirn du petit doigt of Dumas. JC.v- 
tcfisor trrtii intrrnodii minimi digiti 
of Douglas, ffypofhenar minor of 
Winsiow. 

Aurn/i iou .mi'mmi Dl'dTl Pfifrl9. 



A muscle of the little toe. Cafcmmeo- 
phalangien du petit doigt of Duma/*, 
Adductor of Douglas. Parathenar 
maj'tr Of Winsiow, by whom this 
muscle is divided into two, parathr- 
nar major, and metatarseus. Ad- 
ductor minimi digiti of Cowper. 

Abdi/ctor o'cui.i. See Pectus 
extern us oculi. 

Abdi/ctor po'llicis ma'nus. A 
muscle of the thumb, situated on tl;e 
hand. Scaphosus-phalangien du poure. 
of Dumas. Adductor pollicis manus, 
and Adductor brevis alter of Albinus. 
Adductor thenar liiolani of Douglas. 
(The Adductor brevis alter of Albinus 
is the inner portion of this muscle; . 
Adductor pollicis of Cowper. 

Abdu'ctor follic'is tt/dis. A 
muscle of the great toe, situated on 
the foot. Calcaneo - phalmigien du 
pouce of Dumas. Abductor of Dou- 
glas. Thenar of Winsiow. Abduc- 
tor pollicis of Cowper. 

Abdu'ctor te'rtii di'giti tedin. 
An interrosseous muscle of the foot ; 
used to pull the third toe inwards. 

Abeb.*:'os. (From a, neg. and 
fteGawc,, firm). Abebaus. Weak, in- 
firm, unsteady. Used by Hippocra- 
tes. J)e sign is 7norborum. 

Abelmo'schus. (Arab.' Abelmoscb. 
abelmusk. The seeds of the Hibiscus 
Abclmoschus. See Hibiscus. 

Abekka'i'Io. (From ab, and crr^rr, 
to wander from) . Lusus naturcr. Dis- 
location. 

Abf/sS!. (Arab/) Filth. The al vine 
evacuations. 

A'besi m. Ouirk-lime. 

Abevacua'iio. (From ab, dim. 
and cranio, 1 pour out 1 . A par r 
or complete evacuation of the pec- 
cant humours, either naturally Of 
by art. 

A'bies. (Abies, etis, fern, from 
ubirc, to proceed, because it rises to 
a great height ; or from airioc,* a wild 
pear, to the fruit of which it.- cob 
are somewhat similar;. The fir. Aa 
evergreen tree. Gcqoi Fiaus. l.'<mt. 

A'bies Canadensis. See Piim» 
lialsamra. 

Ahigeaius. See Abactus. 
- Abi'otos (From a, neg. and /3t 
to live). A name given to hemlock, 



ABR 



ABS 



from its deadly qualities. See Co- 
ninm. 

Aet acta'tjo. From ab, from, and 
l-ae. milk;. Ablactation. Weaning; a 
child from the breast. 

Abla'tion. ( From anferre, to take 
away . Removal of any thing useless 
or injurious to the body ; reduction 
of diet ; the interval betwixt two 
paroxysms of fever. ChymicuUy, the 
removal of any thing, either finished, 
»«r no lonirer necessary in a process. 

Ahlll'mia. (Abbtentia, sc. ,mdi- 
C4cnr7tta, from abluere, to wash away . 
Abstergents, abluents. Medicine* sup- 
posed formerly to cleanse or purify 
the blood. 

Am.L'TiON. (From abluere, to wash 
off . The washing or cleansimr either 
of the body or the intestines, Chen. 
the purification of a body by repeated 
affusions of a proper liquor. 

Abo'it. Arab.; An obsolete term 
for white lead. 

Abolition. From abofire, to de- 
stroy . The destruction or separation 
of diseased parts. 

\bortion. (Abortio, from ahoriri, 
to be stcrilj. Aborsus. .Miscarriage, 
or the expulsion of the foKfU from 
the uterus before the seventh montli, 
after which it is called ]>remature 
labour. It occurs for the most part 
between the eighth arid eleventh 
weeks of pregnancy* but may hap- 
pen at a later period. In early gesta- 
tions, the ovum sometimes comes otf 
entire; the t'evtus is sometimes first 
expelled, and the placenta afterwards. 

\BORTiVB8. Medicines occasioning 
an abortion or miscarriage in preg- 
nant women. 

\lMt\s\. (From ubrad< f< . to shave 
off). Ulcers attended with abrasion 
oi' pa*t of the substance. 

ABRASION. (Abrasi), from abradere, 
t«> tear off . Employed to signify the 
u-. si ruction of the natural mucus of 
any part, as that of the stomach, 
intestines, urinary bladder, &c. Ap- 
plicable also to any part slightly 
eroded by attrition. 

A'brathav A corruption of Abro- 
tanunty southernwood, Si\> Arte /nisia. 
' A'flUUVl'a. See Hibiscus. 

Vanir. (Arab. Sulphur. Obsolete. 



Abro'ma. 'rt,neir. and /3pw/*u, food ; 
' i. e. not tit to be eaten). A tree of 
New South Wales, yielding a gum. 

Abro'tamm. , A£uor«eo>', from U, 
ncjr. and floorer, mortal ; because it 
j never fades : or from a£ooc, soft, and 
tovoc, extension ; from the delicacy 
of its texture . Common southern- 
wood. See Artemisia. 

Abkotanlm mas. See-//7<////.v/f/. 

Abrotoni'teS. i : ro\i\ abr ot a nu,u J. 
A wine mentioned by Dioseorido, 
impregnated with southernwood, in 
the proportion of about 100 oz. of the 
dried leaves to about seven gallon* 
of must. 

Ans< kde'viia. 'From absndn'c, u* 
separate The decayed parts of the 
body separated from the sound. 

Abschss. (From absvedcre, to da* 
part; because parts which were ptv 
viously in contact, become separatee!, 
or depart from each other i . Ahsc*s.\i». 
Ab.s( ct.st/.s. Impost hinna. A collection 
of pus in the cellular membrane, 
viscera, or bones, preceded by in- 
flammation. 

%* The varieties of abscess are 
named according to their seat : as 
panaris or paronychia, when in anv 
of the tin ire rs ; vomica, in the lun<r> ; 
t mpyema, in the cavity of the pleura ; 

hypopyon, in the anterior chamber of 

the eye ; urthropuosix, in a joint ; in 
the loins, lambar abscess, &£. These 
are also divided into two principal 
kinds, viz. acute and chronic 

Ai.m ission. (Abscissio ; from ah, 
and scindere, to cut] . 

Ai'oroer. The removal of som< 
morbid or other substance, by means 
of a cutting instrument. 

AsiMlllLM. \\^ivQiov, from a, 
neir. and \ltuGoc, pleasant ; so called 
from the disairreeableness of the 
taste). A geftUS of plants ranked un- 
der Artemisia in the Linnajan sys- 
tem : Class, Syngenesis; Order, Po- 
ly iramia Super Hua. Wormwood. For 
other varieties, see Artemisia, 

Absorbents. .Ibsorbentia. 1. Small, 
delicate, transparent vessels, which 
take up tluids from the surface of tin 
body, or any cavity in it, and carry 
them to be mixed with the blood. Sc< 
I. (u teals and Lymphatics. — £. Th< 

8 2 



ACA 



ACA 



medicinfes are also termed absorbents, 
which, possessing no acrimony them- 
selves, neutralize acidities in the sto- 
mach and bowels ; e. g. prepared 
chalk, oyster- shells, crabs'-claws, 
magnesia, &c. 

Absorption. (From absorbeo, I 
suck up). A function in animals, 
arranged by physiologists under the 
head of natural actions. The taking 
up of substances applied to the mouths 
of absorbing vessels : thus the chyle, 
or nutritious part of the food, is 
absorbed from the intestinal canal 
by the lacteals ; mercury, by the 
lymphatics of the skin, &c. 

Abste'ntio. A word used by Cae- 
lius Aurelianus, to express a sup- 
pression or retention. Thus, absten- 
tio stercorum, a retention of the ex- 
crements, which he mentions as a 
frequent symptom in satyriasis. In 
a sense somewhat different, he ap- 
plies the word abstenta to the pleura, 
where he seems to mean, that the 
humour of the inflamed pleura is 
prevented by the neighbouring bones 
from extending itself. 

Abstergents. (Abstergentia scili- 
t-tt medicament a; from abstergere, to 
cleanse away) . Lotions, or other ap- 
plications, that cleanse or clear away 
foulness. A term seldom used by 
modern writers. 

Abstraction. (From abstratio, to 
draw away) . Chan. The process of 
humid distillation, signifying, thatthe 
fluid is again drawn off from the solid, 
which it had dissolved. 

Abstra'ctitius. (From abstrahcre, 
to draw away). Native spirit, not 
produced by fermentation. 

Absus. The Egyptian lotus. Obs. 

\bvacu.\'tio. (From abvacucre, to 
empty). Local or morbid discharge. 
V large evacuation of any fluid, as 
of blood from a plethoric person. 

Aca'ca.( From a, ncg. and x«xoc, 
Ir.id). Diseases rather troublesome 
than dangerous. 

Aca'cia. (Anojurt, from a*a£<* 9 to 
sharpen). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnajan system. The 
K^yptian thorn. 

Aca'cia CATECHU, A plant afford- 
iag* a drug, formerly supposed to be 



an earthy substance brought from 
Japan, and therefore called terra Jap- 
ponica, Japan earth; afterwards it 
appeared to be an extract, prepared 
in India, and till lately supposed to 
be from the juice of the Mimosa Ca- 
techu of Linnaeus : the shrub is now 
ascertained to be our acacia, and is 
termed Acacia Catechu. 

*** Where astringents are re- 
quired, this is particularly useful in 
alvine fluxes. 

Aca'cia Germamca. German Aca- 
cia, or the German black-thorn or 
sloe tree. Fallen into disuse. 

Aca'cia Indica. See Tamarind** 
In die a. 

Aca'cia Nostras. See Acucia 
Germanica, 

Aca'cia Vera. A name given by 
Wildenow to the Mimosa NUotica of 
Linnaeus. — The Egyptian thorn. This 
tree yields the true Acacia gum, or 
gum Arabic ; called also gum acan- 
thi /una, &c. 

Aca'ciaVeravel, See Acacia Vera, 

Aca'cia Zeylonica. Logwood. Sec- 
Hematoxylon campechianum. 

Aca'lai. (Arab.) Common salt, 
or muriate of soda. 

Aca'lclm. Tin. 

Aca'matos. (From a, ncg. and 
xajjivio, to grow weary). 

Aca'nor. (Hebrew). A chemical 
furnace. 

Aca'ntha. (Axtt»'0tt, from ax/y, 
a point). A thorn, or any thing 
pointed, as the shin, or spina dor^i. 

Acantha'bolus. (From ymavGa, a 
thorn, and fiaWo, to cast out 1 . An 
instrument, or forceps, for taking 
out or removing thorns, or whatever 
may stick in the flesh. Paulas &gi- 
neta. 

AcAMiir. The ancient name of 
the artichoke. 

AcaSthimm. (From uxavOa, a 
thorn). Gum arable was so called, 
because it is produced from a thorny 
tree. 

Aca'ntiiulus. The name of a 
surgical instrument to extract thorns 
or splinters, or to remove extrane- 
ous bodies from wounds. 

Acanthi s. ( A xtu'0o<_\ from </x«j'tf a, 
a thorn ; so termed from being rout h 



ACC 



!i 



ACE 



and prickly", . The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Difli/namia; Order, Aftgtos- 
/jtrmia. Bear's-breast. Brank-ursine. 

Acanthi. s mollis. \ai>9oc, from 
«Kii'9a, a thorn ; so named from its 
rough and prickly surface). Bear's- 
breast, or Brank-ursine. Acanthus 
M+tiit, folii s sinua/is inermibus of 
Linnaeus, Brum a- ur.si.na of the shops. 

%* The leaves and loots abound 
with mucilaar, readily extracted by 
boiling or infusion. It has fallen 
into disuse. 

Aca'i'non. From «, priv. and 
a <rt'or, smoke] . Common wild mar- 
joram. Lnsmokcd honey. 

Acarus. fFrom «x;o»/yr, small). 

\n insect which breeds in the skin. 

( higre, a kind of sand fly, which 

proves very troublesome in the West 

Indies. 

Acatalf/fsia. Prom a, negc and 
*araXdfl€av& 9 to apprehend;. Un- 
certainty in the prognostication or 
judgment of diseases. 

wa'iai.is. ProfB a, Btfg. and 
\uT6io} to want . The juniper ; so 
named from the abundance of its 

ds. 

vcuaVoms. 'From a, neg. and 
A.traTrii'f), to swallow ), Difficult de- 
glutition. 

' i'sYATOS. Pfom <r, neL r . and 
■* i9t?i)fil, to determine . Incon- 
stant. Fevers anomalous in their 
app ad irregular in their 

paroxysms, are so called. Also 
furbid urine without sediment. 
Aca'zpir. Tin. 
Accelerator ihin?;. Trom «r- 

teftr'trr^Xo hasten, or propel) . Ejak u- 
i'linr 9tminU. A muscle of the penis. 
li*ihn-.\i/7ulvsinrt-cfrvt rnru.t of Dumas. 
Kulho-carernoM/s of \\ inslow. J 
To eject the urine and semen. 

Ac Ci>siov. From accerlo, 1 ap- 
i» >aeH). The approach or com- 
mencement of a disease. Most ap- 
plied to fevers with paroxysms or 
exacerbations : thus the accession of 
n*v, r, means the commencement or 
approach of the pyrexia] period. 

Accf.sso'rh Willfsh. (Accesso- 
;iV, tc. nervi, from accedo, I ap- 
ureack ; having connection, with by 



contact or approach : so called irorrj 
the course they take).' The name 
given by Willis to two nerves, which 
ascend, one on each side, from the 
second, fourth, and fifth cervical 
pairs of nerves, through the great 
foramen of the occipital bone, and 
pass out again from the cranium 
through t\uz foramina laccra, with tl^ 
par ragnm, to be distributed on lh<- 
Trapezius muscle. 

A(( esso'rius. Accessory. Con- 
nected by contact or approach. 

\< < F.SSo'rU S LUMBALI8. A UHMPClc 
of the loins. See Sacro-huabalLs. 
Accib. Lead. Obs. 
Acci'imter. {Yromaccipioy I take . 
The hawk ; so named from its vo- 
racity. The name of a bandar , 
from its resemblance to a hawk's 
eiaw, or from the tightness of ltd 
grasp. 

Acciritri'na. The herb hawk- 
weed, which, according to Pliny, 
was so called, because hawks are 
accustomed to scratch it, and apply 
it to their eyes, to prevent blind - 
neat. 

Act li'vis. A muscle of the abdo- 
men, thus named from the obl'e, 
ascent of its fibres. See ohliquiu in* 
t emirs abdominis. 

Accoucheur. French). A man- 
midwife. 

Accouctimkvf. Lying-in; the pro- 
cess of parturition. 

Accretion. (From ad, and cm* 
cere, to grow or increase). Nutri- 
tion, growth. Growing of the fingers 
or toes together*. Any unnatural ad- 
hesion of parts. 

Accuba'tio. (From accumhe.rc* fed 
recline). Child-bed. Reclining. 

Acf/dia. (From a, priv. and aqcoc, 
care). Carelessness, neglect in the 
administration of medicines or t' 
application of remedies. In his tn 

on the glands, Hippocrates son u 
time uses this word to signify troubh . 
or fatigue. 

Acl'phalus. (Axs<pa\or, from a, 
priv. and x£0aX/;, a head). Applied 
to monsters born without heads. 

A'cf.r. (Acer, en's, neut. from 
acer, sharp; so called, from i 
sharpness of its juice). The mime 
1*3 



\CE 



6 



ACE 



#f a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Polygamia; Order, 
Man (re I a. 

A'cer pseudo pla'tamus. The ma- 
ple tree, or bastard sycamore. Called 
^.Iso Platanus traga. Common in 
England, though not much used me- 
dicinally. 

Ace'ratos. (From a, neg. epaw, 
or atpawttfti, to mix). Unmixed, 
uncorrupted. Applied sometimes to 
the humours of the body by Hippo- 
crates. A plaster of the same name 
is mentioned by Paulus yEgineta. 

Ace'rbitas. Acidity, sourness. 

Ace'rides. (From a, priv. and 
K//poc, wax). Soft plasters made 
without wax. 

Vc esc est. Substances running 
readily into the acid fermentation. 

A'cesis. (From aHeopai, to cure). 
A remedy or cure. The herb, water- 
sage ; so termed from its reputed all- 
healing qualities. 

Ace'sta. (From auto fiat, to cure). 
Distempers easily cured. 

Ace'stjs. l^orax. See Soda- sub- 
bores. 

Ace Vi'okis. (From the Greek, to 
cure). Signifying a female physi- 
cian. A midwife. 

Acetabulum. (From acetum f vi- 
RCgar ; so called from its resem- 
blance to the acetabulum, or vinegar 
cruet of the ancients). The cup-like 
cavity of the os innominatum, which 
receives the head of the thigh-bone. 

Aceta'uia. Salads or pickles. 

Ace'tas. An acetate. The acetates 
are salts, formed by the combination 
of the acetic acid with alkalis, earths, 
«.nd metallic oxides. Those used me- 
dicinally, lire the acetates of ammo- 
nia, lead, potash, and zinc. 

Ace'tas ammonia;. A salt com- 
posed of ammonia and acetic acid ; 
so deliquescent, that it is always kept 
in a liquid state. See Ammonice acc- 
tatis liquor. 

Ace'ias PLUMB!. Acetate of lead. 
A metallic salt, composed of oxide 
of lead and acetic acid; of which 
there arc two varieties. See Plumb i 
s«ptracttvs 9 and plumbi snbacctatis 

^4cttas pcttuw. See Pvfasscp acettit. 



Ace'tas Zinci. A metallic salt, 
composed of zinc and acetic acid. 

%.* Used by some as an astrin- 
gent against inflammations of the 
eyes, urethra, and vagina, diluted in 
the same proportion of water as the 
sulphate of zinc. 

Acetate of potash. SeePotassa? act test, 

Acetate of ammonia. See Ammonite 
acetatis liquor. 

Acetate of zinc. See Acetas zinci. 

Acetaled vegetable alkali. See Po- 
tass ce acetas. 

Acetic acid. See Acetum. 

Acetification. Chymically used 
to denote the process by which vine* 
gar is formed. 

Acetometek. An instrument for 
estimating the strength of vinegars. 

ACETOSA. (From asccscere, to turn 
soar). Sorrel. A genus of plants in 
some not very popular systems oi 
botany. See Rmmex. 

Acetos'ella. ( From ace/osa; from 
the acid sourness of its leaves' . See 
Oxalis. 

Acetous acid. Distilled vinegar. 
See Acetum. 

Acetous fermentation. See /'/•/•- 
mentation . 

Acetum. (From am*, sour). Vine- 
gar. A sour liquor obtained from 
many vegetable substances dissolved 
in boiling water, and from fermented 
and spirituous liquors ; by exposing 
them to heat, and contact with air. 
Under these circumstances, they 
undergo the acid fermentation, and 
aftbrd the well-known liquor called 
vinegar — an article of considerable 
use in surgery, &c. 

Ace'tum AROMa'tiCUM. Aromatic 
vinegar. 

%* Supposed to be an improve* 
ment of the cinaigrede quatre voteur.s 
(thieves' vinegar) . P. E. — Its virtues 
are antiseptic ; and is an useful pre- 
paration to smell at in crowded courN, 
thiols, hospital*, and wherever there 
is offensive air. 

Acetum Culchici. See Colchicum. 

\< BT1 M distii.LATU.M. Distilled 
vinegar. 

ACETl M 8CILLJB. P. L. Vineirar of 
squills, Attenuant, expectorant, and 
diuretic, Pose xv to lx drop-. 



ACH 



ACl 



A'cheir. From a, neg. and x €< P> 
hand). Having" no hands. 

ACHl'cOLUM. The formix, tholus, 
or sudatorium of the ancient baths — 
a hot room where they used to per- 
spire. Ccet. Art!. Acut. lib. iii. 
tap. 17. 

Achille'a. (A^iXXfta, from Achil- 
li'S, of which he is said to have 
made his tents, or to have cured 
Telcphus with it) . The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Sy agenesia; Order, Po- 
ly gemia super/tua. Milfoil. 

%* Three species of this genus 
are employed in medicine ; viz. the 
Achillea Ageratum (Maudlin, or 
maudlin tansy) ; the Achillea Mille- 
folium, the systematic name of the 
milfoil; the Achillea Ptarmica, the 
systematic name of the sneeze-wort 
Pxeudojiyrcthrum, Pyre thrum Sul- 
rrstre, tic. Their principal use is as 
a sternutatory or masticatory. 

Achillea foliii pinnatis. See Or - 
nij/ii Vi rum. 

tCHl'ixiS TENDO. (Derived from 
the well-known fable of Thetis, the 
mother of Achilles, who held him by 
that part when she dipped him in the 
river Styx to make him invulnerable, 
<Su\ j The strong and powerful tendon 
formed by the junction of the gas- 
trocnemius and soleus muscles, ex- 
tending- along the posterior part of 
the tibia from the calf to the heel. 

A'chlys. (AgXvg)« Darkness. 
Cloudiaess, generally applied to a 
close foggy air, or a mist. Con- 
densed air : Hippocrates de Morbis 
Mulieruniy lib. ii. — A loss of the 
usual lustre and loveliness observed 
about the eye during health. Galen. — 
\ scar left by an ulcer. The Caligo 
Cornea of Cullen. 

Achma'dilm. Antimony. 

Aciime'lea. See Spilanthus. 

A'cfine. Chaff, scum or froth of 
the sea. A white mucus in the fauces, 
like froth, thrown up from the lungs ; 
also, according to Hippocrates, a 
whitish mucus in the eyes of those 
who .have fevers. It likewise sig- 
nifies lint. 

A'cholus. Deficient in bile. 

Vchor. -a\oip f cm, axviopj from 



a X l '*h bran. Blanchard says it is 
derived from a, priv. and ^cupec 
space, as occupying but a small com- 
pass) . Lactumen : abas ; acores : 
cenon : favus. Crust a lac tea of au- 
thors. The scalled head ; so called 
from the branny scales thrown off. 
See Willan on the Definition of 
Pu.stulcsy &e. Bell's Treatise on 
Ulcers. Sec also Crust a Lactea. 

Achori'stos. Inseparable. Speak- 
ing of accidents, symptoms or signs, 
inseparable from other things ; e. g. 
pain in a never failing symptom of 
inflammation. 

Acmsi'oN. Useless. Applied by 
Hippocrates to limbs that become 
useless through weakness. 

ACHROi'A. Paleness. 

Aciiyron {a\}'()0Vy bran, chaff, or 
straw . A straw, hair, or any thing 
that sticks upon a wall. 

A'cia. (From era?/, a point). V 
threaded needle for surgical opera- 
tions. 

A'cicys. Weak, infirm, or faint 
Hipp, de Morb. lib. iv. 

Acids. The most important v\v.» 
of chemical compounds. An acid is 
that which impresses upon the organs 
of taste a sharp or sour sensation, 
defined by modern chemists to be a 
salt of a sour taste ; capable of chang- 
ing the blue colour of various vege- 
table pigments to a red colour. 

%* The vegetable pigments usually 
employed to ascertain the presence 
of acids, are the tincture of tounn - 
sol or litmus, and syrup of viole.'s. 
Acids readily combine with alkalis, 
earths, and metallic oxides, and form 
neutral salts. According to the king- 
dom of nature in which they are 
found, they are divided into mineral, 
vegetable, and animal. See Ure*& 
Diet, of Chew, at the word Acius. 

+ hid, ucrial. See Carbonic Acid. 

Acid, acetic. Acidum. Distilled 
vinegar. Vinegar. 

%* The acid of vinegar deprived 
of its water by congelation, becomes 
the radical, or concentrated acid of 
vinegar. The excellent effects of 
vinegar, when immediately applied 
to burns and scalds, were particu- 
larly noticed by Mr. Cleghorn, a 



ACI 



ACM 



brewer in Edinburgh, whose senti- 
ments were deemed not unworthy of 
publication by Mr. John Hunter. 
(See Med. Facts and Obs. vol. ii. 
And the word Burns. For other 
aeids, see Acidum. 

Acidification. The formation of 
an acid. The impregnation of any 
thing with acid properties. 

Acidity. Addiias, f. Sourness. 

Acids, animal. Those obtained 
from animal substances ; e. g. The 
phosphoric, lactic, saccholactic, for- 
mic, prussic, boml'/ic, lithic, or uric. 

Acids, dulciiied. /Ethers are 
now so called. 

Acids, imperfect. Those acids 
which, in chemical nomenclature, 
are not fully saturated with oxygen. 
Their Latin names end in osum, and 
ill English hy ens ; e.g. acidum ni- 
trosum, or nitrons acid. 

Acids, mineral. Those acids 
found to exist in minerals, as the 
sulphuric or vitriolic, nitric, mu- 
riatic, carbonic, &c. &c. 

Ac ids, perfect. In chemical no- 
menclature, an acid is termed per- 
fect, when it is completely saturated 
with oxygen. Their Latin names end 
in icuniy their English in ic; e. gr. 
tcidum iiifricuMy or nitric acid. 

Acids, vegetable. Those found 
in the vegetable kingdom, as the 
acetic, malic, citric, &c. 

Acidulous waters. Mineral 
waters containing so great a quantity 
of carbonic acid gas, as to render 
them mildly tart to the taste. See 
Mineral H (iters. 

A'cidum ace'ticum. See tectum. 

Vcidum aceto'sum. See Aatnm. 

A'cidlm STHBttkl m. The sul- 
phuric acid. 

A'cidum alumino'sum. The sul- 
phuric acid. 

A'cidlm catho'licon. The acid 
of sulphur. 

A'cidlm arsf/mcum. Sec Amu ir 
Ac id. 

A'cidum benzoh i m. Siv lien zoic 

tiid. 

A'cidlm dora'cicum. See lioru< 
.4 rid. 

A'cidlm carbo'niclm. See Car- 
tonic Acid. 



A'cidum citricum. See Citric acid. 

A'cidum muriaticum. See Mu- 
riatic Acid. 

A'cidlm m'triclm. See Nitric 
Acid. 

A'cidum m'tricum dilutlm. Di- 
lute nitric acid, fy Nitric acid J, 
Distilled water fix. Mix. 

A'cidlm ni'trosum. See Nitrdb 
Acid. 

A'cidum r:iospno'RicuM. SeePkoe- 
phoric Arid, 

A'cidum pkimiginum. See Sulphu- 
ric Acid. 

A'cidum succimcum. See Sm - 
cinic Acid. 

A'cidum sulphu'reum. See Sul- 
phuruus Acid. 

A'cidum sulpiiu'ricum. See Sul- 
phuric Acid. 

A'cidlm sulphuricum diluti m. 
Dilute sulphuric acid. V K Sulphu- 
ric acid sjss, distilled water ^xivss. 
Add the water gradually to the acid. 

A'c.dlai tarta'riclm. See Tar- 
taric Acid. 

A'cidum \rnuo'LicuM. See Vi- 
triolic Acid. 

A'cidum vitrio'licum DILUTUM. 
See Acidum sutpharicuih dilution. 

A'ciBS (Lat). Steel. 

Aclne'sia. Loss of motion and 
strength. 

A'ciNl Bll.io'si. (From Aci»ux y a 
grape-stone). The Small glandiform 
bodies of the liver, which septfratH 
the bile from the blood, we<-e for- 
merly so called ; they are now, how- 
ever, more properly termed poucitii. 

Aci'NIIOKM TLMC. Tuuicu <ni- 
nosa. The coat of the eye, called 
the uvea, from its colour being 
usually found, in brutes, on dis- 
section, to resemble an unripe grape. 

Acinus. A grape. Glands growing 
together in clusters are by some call . d 
acini gtandidusi . 

\( WA'StiCOS. A species of syno- 
chus, where the species of beat eon- 
Kims of the. same temperature la 
the end. .fciuariu\. 

A'cmf. (From o;:jtn y a point*. 
The height or crisis of a dtaoai 

* # * The ancients distingui 
diseasfefl into four :■ -1. The 

afvhe, tht beginning or lir-t tXh* 



ACO 



ACR 



— 2. Anabasis, the growth. — 3. Acme, 
the height. — 4. Paracme, or the de- 
Wine of the disease. 

Acme'lla. See Spilanthus. 

A'cne. Acna. {\\kvtj). A small 
pimple," or hard tubercle on the face . 
See IVillan on Porrigo, &c. 

Acne'stis. (From a, priv. and 
\vcojj % to scratch) . That part of the 
spine of the back, which reaches from 
the metaphrenon, which is the part 
betwixt the shoulder blades, to the 
loins. — This part seems to have been 
called so originally in quadrupeds 
only, because they cannot reach it to 
scratch. 

A'coe. (Axon). The sense of 
hearing. 

Acoe'lius. (From a, priv\ and 
aoi\ia, the belly;. Without belly. 
Applied to those who are so wasted, 
as to appear as if they had no belly. 
Galen, 

Acoe'tus. (Axoiroc). An epithet 
for honey, mentioned by Pliny. 

Acomon. (Axoviov). A particular 
form of medicine among the ancient 
physicians, made of powder levigated, 
and, in all probability, like colly ria 
for the eyes. 

Acomtlm. (Various derivations 
rue given for this word, which are not 
of much consequence, and all equally 
incongruous). Aconite. Wolfsbane. 
Monk's-hood. — A genus of plants in 
the Linnsean system : Class, Polyan- 
ttria; Order, Trigynia. 

%* Every species of this genus of 
plants have powerful effects on the 
human body. The acomtlm rltel- 

II s, and the ACOMTLM AV1HOKA, 
are the two preferred to the rest 
for medicinal purposes. 

Xcg'mlm. A little mortar. 

A'COPON. (From «, priv. and xottoc, 
weariness). Originally it implies 
whatever is a remedy against weari- 
ness, and in this sense it is used by 
Hippocrates. (Apk, viii. lib. ii.) 
The word, however, in time was 
applied to certain ointments. 

%* According to Galen and Pau- 
Uib^Egineta, the A cop a pharmaca are 
remedies for indispositions of body 
caused by long or vehement motion. 

A'cor. Acidity. Used sometimes 



to express that sourness in the sto- 
mach, a consequence of indigestion, 
whence flatulence and acid eructa- 
tions. 

Acordina. An obsolete term for 
Indian tutty. 

Acor'ia. (From a, priv. andxopew, 
to satiate). Insatiability. Good ap- 
petite and digestion. Hippocrates. 

Acorites venum. (Froui axopoi', 
galangal). A wine made with ga- 
langal, liquorice, &c. infused with 
wine. Dioscorides. 

Acorn. The fruit of the oak. 
See Quercus. 

Acortinus. A lupin. 

A'corus. (Axopoi', froniKoo//, the* 
pupil ; from being esteemed good for 
the disorders of the eyes). The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Hexandria; 
Order, Dtgynia. Sweet flag. Sweet 
rust. — The following species are used 
in medicine : 

Acorls calamus. The systematic 
name of the acorus aromaticus. 
Acorus vents. Calamus odoratus. Ca- 
lamus vulgaris, &c. Sweet flag, or 
acorus. 

A'corus PALUSTRis. See Iris pa- 
lust r is. 

Acorls verus. Sec Acorus ca- 
lamus. 

Acorls vulgaris. See IrU pu- 
lustris. 

Acos. (From aatopai, to heal). 
A remedy or cure. 

Acosmia. (Froma,neg. andno^ior, 
beautiful;. Baldness. Ill health. Ir- 
regularity, particularity of the critical 
days of fevers. 

Aco'ste. (From njton/, barley). 
An ancient food prepared from barley, 

Acoustica. (Acoustica, sc. Medi- 
eamenta, uKuwrntci from axono, to 
hear). Remedies employed to restore 
the sense of hearing, when wanting 
or defective. 

Acoustic nerves. See Nerve and 
Portio Mollis. 

AcpvsTfC duct. The external 
passage of the ear. 

Acoustics. A branch of general 
science which treats on the origin, 
propagation, and perception of sound , 

Ac HA. (Arab.; Ac rai nymph&m'c-- 



ACR 



JO 



ACR 



tiid. Excessive venereal appetite. 
The time of the catameniai dis,- 
charge. 

Acrai'pala. Acrtppalos. (From a, 
neg. and >toai7ra\?j, surfeit). Re- 
medies for the effects of a debauch. 

Acra'sia. (From a, and ztpaoj, 
to mix). Unhealthiness, The same 
with Acratia. 

Acra'tia. (From a, and tcparoc, 
strength). Weakness or intem- 
perance. 

Acrati'sma. (From a*paTov> un- 
mixed wine). A breakfast among the 
old Greeks, consisting of a piece of 
bread, soaked in pure wine. 

Acratomeli. (From anaarov, pure 
wine; and fieXi, honey) . Mulsum, 
or wine mixed with lionev. 

Acre. (From crxooc, extreme). 
The tip of the nose. 

A'crea. (From axooc, extreme^!. 
Acroteria. The extremities ; i. e. 
the legs, arms, nose, and ears. 

Acr.epalos. See Acrcepala. 

Acreibei'a. (From atepdhjg; ac- 
curate). An exact and accurate de- 
scription and diagnosis, or distinc- 
tion, of diseases, 

Acrid. Acris. A term employed 
In medicine to express a taste, the 
characteristic of which is pungency 
combined with heat. 

Acrimony. Acrhnonia. (From 
merit , acrid). A quality in substances 
by which they imitate, corrode, or 
dissolve others. 

A'cms. Any fractured extremity. 

Aciti/siA. (From a, priv. and 
x'lit'io, to judge or separate]. A 
turbulent state of a disease, scarcely 
Mitfering any judgment to be formed 
of it. 

AY'Knrs. i nun u, aeg. and 
:<i>wo), to judge). Diseases without 
regular cures, whose event it would 
be hazardous to prognosticate. 

AcRoiiv'sriA. I From afcpoc, ex- 
Irene, and p»>w, to cover). The 
extremity of the pressure. 

A< 'Rocueiri/sim. (From atun 
extreme, and \un, a battd). An 
rxereise among the aneienls. * 

Acrochei'im*. From axpoc, ex- 
treme, and Yttp, a hand . The arm 
from the elbow to the end- of the 



fingers; x h 0j signifying the arm, 
from the scapula to lingers' end. 
Gome us. 

Acrocho'rdon. (From fuftbc, 
extreme, and \optrj, a string . A 
round excrescence on the skin, with 
a slender base, taking its name from 
its situation on the surface of the 
skin. Galm. — The Greeks call that 
excrescence an ttchrockordo/t y where 
something hard concretes under the 
skin, which is rather rough, and of 
the same colour as the skin, slender 
at the base, and broader above ; the 
size of which seldom becomes larger 
than the size of an ordinal*)' bean. 

Acroco'lia. (From azettg, ex- 
treme, and kjjXov, a limb . The 
extremities of animals used in food ; 
as the feet of calves, swine, sheep, 
oxen, or lambs, and of the broths of 
which jellies are made. Castcllus 
from Budams says, that the internal 
parts of animals are also called by 
this name. 

Achrole'mon. The same, ac- 
cording to Castellus, as the ()U< r«* 
nan. 

Acroma'ma. (From auwv, ex- 
treme, and pavia, madness;. Total, 
or incurable madness. 

Acro'mion. .From «xooe, extre- 
mity, and tafiog, the shoulder). A 
process of the shoulder-blade. See 
Svapltfat, 

Acwompha'i.jim. [AHfopfakw, 
from axooc, extreme, and OK^orX'oc, 
the navel;. Aeramphuion. The ex- 
tremity of tfte navel. 

Acro'nja. From <:y.o:>v, the ex- 
tremity. The amputation of am 
extremity. 

Acro'pathos. (From axpoc, ex- 
treme, and GraQoc, a disease . AlTO- 
jHithtt.s. Literally, a dise; -e at the 
top, or superior part. Applied by 
Hippocrates (Tract, dc Superfaft*- 
tionej to the internal orifice of the 
uterus ; and to eaneers (Pru-d'ut. 
lib. ii.) which appear on the Surface 
of the body. 

AdRo'PIS. (From axooc, the ex- 
tremity, and o^, the voice). Imper- 
fect articulation, from a fault in the 
tongue. 

AcKoroVjiJi'., (from caper, the 



II 



AGU 



extremity, and iroaQri, the prepuce). 
The extremity of the prepuce ; or 
that part which is cut off in circum- 
cision. 

Acro'csilon. (From crxpoc, ex- 
treme, and r-fXoc, hlack). The ex- 
tremity of the denuded glans penis. 

Acro'fselos. Acrcpselus. The 
Branus Dioscorides, or wild oat- 
jrrr ss; so called, because its ears or 
tops are of a blackish colour. 

Acrote'ria. (From axpoc, ex- 
treme). The extremities of the 
body. 

Acroteria'smus. (From axporpia, 
extremities, and this from ajcpoc, 
snmmvs). Amputation of an ex- 
tremity. 

Acrothy'mion. (From gkooc, 
extreme, and &Vftog f thyme). ~ltro- 
thvmia. Avrothumium. A kind of 
wart, described by Celsus as hard 
and rough ; a narrow basis, and 
broad at top. The top is the colour 
of thyme ; it easily splits and bleeds : 
also called Thymus. 

Act a: 'a. (Fromayoi, to break). 
Acte. The elder tree. See Sam- 

A'CTINE. 
Xrtpvs. 

Actixoboli'smus. (TrotTi (tyJlV, 
a ray, and /3oX\w, to cast out; . Ir- 
radiation, it is applied to the spi- 
rit-, conveying the inclinations of 
the mind to the body : called also 
Dcridatio, 

A'ction. (From agcre, to act). 
Those powers, faculties, and func- 
tions of the body, usually divided by 
physiologists into vital, animal, or 
natural. 

Acton WATCH. One of the 
strongest purging waters near Lon- 
don ; procured from Acton, where 
there is a well that affords it. Jt 
was considered beneficial in scorbutic 
and cutaneous affections, but is not 
muMi resorted to at present. 

A'cTiJAi.. Any thing possessing 
lUe property of acting by an imme- 
diate and inherent power. It is the 
antithesis of potential. 

Actual Cautery. A heated iron, 
formerly much used in surgery for 
the extirpation and cure of diseases. 



The herb Ziunias, or 



%* Actual cauteries were Wf 
! called, in opposition to other appli- 
cations, which, although they were 
not really hot, produced the same 
effect as fire, and consequently were 
named, virtual, or potential cau- 
teries. Cautery is still in use among 
the French surgeons and English far- 
riers. Pouteau, Percy, Dupuytren, 
Larrey, Roux, and Maunoir, are all 
advocates for the practice (see Mair- 
noi/s Observations on the Use of the 
Actual Cautery , Med. Chirurg. Trans, 
vol. ix. p. 364, &c). 

Actla'rius. Originally a title of 
dignity bestowed upon physicians at 
the Court of Constantinople: it after- 
wards became the proper name of a 
celebrated Greek physician, John 
(the son of Zachary, a Christian 
writer) , who flourished there about 
the 12th or 13th century. 

Acti. a'tion. ( From agcre, to act) . 
That change effected on a medicine, 
or any thing taken into the system, 
by the vital heat, which is necessary 
to its operation and consequences, l> 
called by this name. 

Acu'itas, tatis. f. Acrimony. 

Acit'tio. (From acucre, to sharp- 
en . Increasing the power of anv 
medicine by the addition of some- 
thing that has the same power in a 
greater degree. To increase the 
acidity of any medicine. 

A'culon. (From a, neg. and 
xrXow, to roll round : so termed 
from its fruit not being enveloped iu 
a cup or sheath, like others) . Aculos. 
The fruit or acorn of the ilex, or 
scarlet oak. 

A'cumen. A point. The extre- 
mity of a bone. 

Acuplnctire. (From acus, a 
needle, and jmngere, to prick). The 
operation of puncturing certain parts 
of the body with a needle, as prac- 
tised in Siam, Japan, and other ori- 
ental countries, for the cure of head- 
achs, lethargies, chronic rheuma- 
tism, &c. (see Phil. Trans. No. 148 ; 
and With. Ten. Ufa/nc, dc Arthri- 
tide, mantena Schemativa y <yr. Lond. 
8vo. 16*83; also Berlioz, Mem. sur 
les Maladies Chro7iiquei> f cttur I'A/m- 
pvneture, p. 305-309, Byo. Paris, 



AD,£ 



12 



ADD 



1816*; Churchill's Treatise, 1823; 
Pellet an, &c), where acupuncture 
has been introduced with some suc- 
cessful results, and in chronic rheu- 
matism, &c. and would seem to 
warrant a longer trial, before, in 
English practice, it be virtually 
consigned to the tomb of the Ca- 
pulets. 

* # * Berlioz, the author above 
quoted, although censured at home, 
and rashly, we conceive, abused 
abroad, has given some striking 
reasons for his practice. He thinks 
he punctured the stomach, but, per- 
haps, without intending it, in a case 
of convulsive hooping cough, in a 
patient aged forty years, and where 
every other means had failed. His 
practice, however, like other des- 
perate operations, cannot be too 
cautiously recommended. 

A'cureb. Plumbum, or lead. 

A'clron. (From a, neg. and 
xt/paj, to happen). A name of the 
AUsma, so called because it pro- 
duces no effect when taken in- 
wardly. 

Acupasto'kis. A name of the 
Scandix Anthriscus, the Shepherds' 
Needle, or Venus' Comb. See Scan- 
dix. 

Acu'te. Morbus aeutus. A term 
applied to a disease which is attended 
with violent symptoms, terminates 
in a few days, and is attended with 
danger. It is opposed to a chronic 
disease, which is slow in its progress, 
and not so generally dangerous. 

Acutena'culum. (From acus, a 
needle, and tenaculum, a handle). 
A name given by Heister to the 
port-aiguille. The handle for a nee- 
dle, to make it penetrate easily when 
stitching a wound. 

Acy'isis. (From a, ncg. and 
x>}io, to conceive). Barrenness; a 
defect of conception. VogeVs Nos. 

A'cyrus. (From a, priv. and 
KVpot, authority: so culled from its 
little note in medicine). The Arnica 
Montana, or (ierman Leopard's bane. 
See Arnica* 

%* The i tymology of this word 
is worse than none. 

Ad*:mo'nia. (From a, priv. and 



caifnov, a genius of fortune) . The 
restlessness and anxiety of acute fe- 
vers. 

Adaiges. Sal-ammoniac, or mu- 
riate of ammonia. See Murias Am- 
monia*. 

A'damas. (From a, neg. cafiaio, 
to conquer ; as not being easily 
broken) . The adamant, or diamond, 
supposed, formerly, to possess ex- 
traordinary cordial virtues. 

Adami'ta. A hard stone in the 
bladder. 

Adam's Apple. See Pomum 
Adami. 

Adam's Needle. Yucca Gloriosa 
of Linnaeus. A farinaceous root, the 
meal of which is converted into 
bread by the Indians in times of 
scarcity. 

Adanso'nia. (From Adanson, who 
first described the European sour 
gourd, a species of this genus). 
Baobab. Bahobab. It grows mostly 
on the west coast of Africa, from the 
Niger to the kingdom of Benin. The 
bark is called lalo. It is powerfully 
sudorific, and is highly spoken of as 
an equally powerful remedy against 
the epidemic fever of the country 
that produces these trees. 

Ada'rces. (From n, neg. and 
Sepaio, to see). A saline concre- 
tion found about the reeds and grass 
in marshy ground in Galatia, and 
so called because it hides them. It 
is used in leprosies, tetters, freckles, 
&c. Dr. Piatt has given an account 
of this production in his Natural 
History of Oxfordshire. 

Adari'ges. An ammoniaeal salt. 

Ada'rneck. Auripigmentum, or 
orpiment. 

Adarticulation. Sec Artkrodia. 

ADDEPHA'OIA. (From afajv, abun- 
dantly, and0«y<u, to eat). Insatia- 
bility. Voracious appetite. See Bu- 
limia. 

Additamf/mi m. (From addere, 
to add) . A term formerly considered 
as synonimous with Epiphysis, but 
now applied to distinguish two por- 
tions pf sutures of the skull. Ser 
J.amdoidal and Squamous sutures. 

AdditameViim co'li. See .//>- 
pendicula cores J'vrmijormis. 



ADD 



13 



ADE 



Addu'ctor. (From ad, to, and 
tlticere, to draw) . A drawer or con- 
tractor. A name given to several 
muscles, whose office is to bring for- 
ward, or draw together, those parts of 
the body to which they are annexed. 

Addi/ctor bre'vis fe'moris. A 
muscle, which, with the adductor 
longus, and magiius femoris, forms 
the triceps adductor femoris. The 
adductor femoris secundus of Douglas. 
Triceps secundus of Winslow. See 
Triceps adductor femoris. 

Addu'ctor fe'moris pri'mus. See 
Adductor long us femoris. 

Addu'ctor fe'moris secu'ndus. 
See Adductor brevis femoris. 

Addu'ctor fe'moris te'rtius. See 
Adductor via gnus femoris. 

Addu'ctor fe'moris qua'rtus. 
Sec Adductor ma gnus femori It . 

Addu'ctor i'ndicispe'dis. An ex- 
ternal interosseous muscle of the fore- 
toe. — Use: To pull the fore-toe in- 
wards from the rest of the small toes. 

Addi/ctor lo'ngus fe'moris. A 
muscle situated on the posterior part 
of the thigh, which, with the ad- 
ductor hrcvis, and magnus femoris, 
forms the triceps udductor femoris. 
The adductor femoris primus of 
Douglas. Triceps minus of Winslow. 
See Triceps adductor femoris. 

Addu'ctor ma'gnus fe'moris. A 
muscle of the thigh, which, with the 
adductor brevis femoris, and the ad- 
ductor longus femoris, forms the tri- 
ceps adductor femoris. The addw tor 
femoris tertius et quartus of Douglas. 
Triceps magnus of Winslow. See 
Triceps adductor femoris. 

Addu'ctor mi'mmi di'giti fe'dis. 
An interosseous muscle of the foot. 

Addu'ctor o'cui.i. See Rectus 

interims oculi. 

Addu'ctor po'llicis ma'nus. Ad- 
ductor pollicis. Adductor ad minimum 
digitum. A muscle of the thumb, 
situated in the hand. — Use: To pull 
the thumb towards the fingers. 

Addu'ctor po'llicis pe'dis. A 
muscle of the great toe, situated on 
the foot. — Use: To bring the great 
l#e nearer the others. 

Addu'ctor prosta't*. Levator 
prostata. A name given by Sancto- 



rini to a muscle, and which Winslow 
calls jrrostaticus superior. Albinus, 
from its office, called it compressor 
prostata. 

Addu'ctor te'rth di'giti petks. 
An external interosseous muscle of 
the foot. — Use: To pull the third toe 
outward. 

A'dec . Sour milk , or butter-milk . 

Ade'ctos. Adecia. (From a, priv. 
and caKvojy to bite). A name given 
to those medicines which relieve from 
pain, by removing the uneasy sensa- 
tion caused by the stimulus of acri- 
monious medicines. 

Ade'lphia. (A$s\<f>ia, a relation). 
Diseases resembling each other. Hip- 
pocrates. 

Adeno'mia. (From a, priv. and 
caifiuv, a genius of divinity or for- 
tune). This word is used by Hip- 
pocrates for uneasiness, restlessness, 
or anxiety, felt in acute diseases, 
and some hysteric fits. 

A'den. {Acnv, a gland). A gland. 
A bubo. See Gland. 

Ade'mfohm. (Adcniformis ; from 
a den, a gland, and forma , resem- 
blance). Resembling a gland. Glan 
diform. Applied sometimes to the 
prostate gland. 

AdendeVies. An epithet applied 
to ulcers which corrode and destroy 
the glands. 

Adeno'grapiiy. (From aStjv, a 
gland, and ypa^w, to write). A 
treatise on the glands. 

Adeno'ides. Resembling a glana 1 . 
Applied also to the prostate. 

Adeno'logy. (From ac nv, a gland, 
and \oyoc, a treatise). The doctrine 
of the glands. 

Adenous abscess. Abcessics Aden- 
sus. (From acnv, a gland). A hard 
glandular slowly suppurating ab- 
Bcew. 

Adepiia'gia. (From aSrjv, abun- 
dantly, and (payojy to eat). Insati- 
able appetite. Sec Bulimia. 

Adeps. (Adeps, ipi Sy m. & f.) 
An oily secretion from the blood 
into the cells of the cellular mem- 
brane. See Fat. 

A'deps anseri'nus. Goose-grease. 

A'deps sui'lla. Hog's-lard. 

Adf/pta medici'na. That which 
C 



ADI 



14 



ADI 



treats of diseases contracted, as for- 
merly supposed, by celestial opera- 
tions, or communicated from Heaven. 

Ade'pta philoso'phia. Adept phi- 
losophy. That philosophy, the ob- 
ject of which is the transmutation 
of metals, and an universal remedv. 

Adepts. (From adipiscor, to be 
obtained). A name given to the 
skilful alchymists, or those who 
pretend to some extraordinary skill 
in chymistry. 

Adfla'tus. A blast or blight ; a 
kindof erysipelas. 

Adhadto'da. The Malabar nut- 
tree, which is a species of Justieia. 
It is used in India for expelling the 
dead foetus in abortion, which, it is 
said, is the meaning of the word in 
the Zeylanic language. 

Adhe'sion. (From adhcererc, to 
stick to). The growing together of 
parts. 

Adhesive inflammation. That 
kind of inflammation which glues, 
or makes parts of the body adhere, 
or grow together. The process by 
which recent incised wounds are 
often united without any suppuration. 
Frequently synonimous with union 
bv the first intention. See Union by 
the first intention. 

Adhesive plaster. Made of com- 
mon litharge plaster and resin. It 
takes its name from its adhesive 
properties. 

Adiacnv'ios. (From a, neg. and 
ckavvii) % to diffuse, scatter, or be 
profuse) . Decent in point of dress. — 
Hippocrates thinks foppery in dress 
derogatory to the character of a 
physician, though he thereby hide 
his ignorance, and obtain the good 
opinion of his patients. 

Aoia'ntuum. (Adianthum, aoiav- 
• •>■. from «, neg. and aaivio y to 
grow wet ; so called, because its 
leaves are not easily wetted). Mai- 
den-hair. The name of a genus of 
plants iii the Linnrean system : Class, 
Cryptogamia; Order, Filiccs. 
Vdia'nthum cati'llus ve'keris. 

liiden-hair. This is the species 
used in medicine. Its properties are 
demulcent. — The syrup of capillaire 
made from it. 



Adia'nthumau'reum. The golden 
maiden -hair. See Polytrichum. 

Adiapho'rous. A term synoni- 
mous with neutral ; and is particu- 
larly used when speaking of some 
spirits and salts, which are neither of 
an acid nor of an alkaline nature. 

Adiapneu'stea. (From a, priv. 
and c ici7r veo>, perspirare, to perspire) . 
Diminution or obstruction of natural 
perspiration, attributed by the an- 
cients to be the cause of fevers, &c. 

Adiarrho?/a. (From a, priv. and 
ciapptco, to flow out, or through) . 
A total suppression of the whole of 
the necessary evacuations from the 
bowels. 

Adiathrorosus. A spirit distilled 
from tartar. 

A dib at. Mercury. 

Adice. (A&xh). A nettle. 

Adipocere. (From adeps, fat, 
and cera, wax). Animal matter 
converted spontaneously into a sub- 
stance considerably resembling sper- 
maceti. 

*#* Although this fact has been 
long well known, and is said to have 
been mentioned in the works of 
Lord Bacon, Fourcroy may neverthe- 
less be said to be the scientific dis- 
coverer of this peculiar matter, as well 
as of the saponaceous ammoniacal 
substance contained in bodies aban- 
doned, in large masses, to spontane- 
ous destruction. — See an excellent 
paper on this subject, in the Philos. 
Trans, for IB 13, by Sir E. Home 
and Mr. Brande. 

Adipose membrane. The fat col- 
lected in the cells of the cellular 
membrane. 

Adi'psa. Medicines, &c. so called 
by the Greeks, which quench thirst. 
Hippocrates applies it to oxymel. 

Adi'psia. (From «, neg. and 
ci\pa, thirst) i A want of thirst. A 
genus of disease in the Class Locales, 
and Order l)y so /{.vice, of Cullen's No- 
sology. Symptomatic, for the most 
part, of some disease of the brain. 

Adi'psos. The palm-tree (so called 
by the Greeks) ; the fruit of which 
is said to be the viyrobalans. Called 
Adip*o$ 9 because its fruit quencheth 
thirst. Theophrastus gives it the 



ADR 



15 



MDO 



name of Balanos. Also a name for 
liquorice. 

Adj'kige. Ammoniacal salt. 

Adjuto'rium. (From ad, andju- 
care, to help) . A name of the hu- 
merus, from its usefulness in lifting 
up the fore-arm. 

Adjlva'ntia. Whatever assists in 
removing disease. 

A D N a't A Tu'.MCA. (A dn a ta , f ro m 
adnate, infin. of the verb adnascor, 
I grow to, and tunica, a tunic, or 
covering). Albuginea oculi; Tunica 
albuginea oculi. 

*#* This membrane is not unfre- 
-fjuently confounded with the con- 
junctiva. It is, however, formed in 
the following manner : Five of the 
muscles which move the globe of the 
eye, take their origin from the bot- 
tom of the orbit, and the sixth arises 
from the edge of it ; these are all 
inserted, by a tendinous expansion, 
into the anterior part of the tunica 
sclerotica; this expansion gives the 
whiteness peculiar to the fore-part of 
the eye. The tunica adnata lies be- 
tween the sclerotica and conjunctiva* 

A'doc. Milk. 

Ado'mon. (From \i«>vir, the 
youth from whose blood it was 
feigned to have sprung . Adonium. 
Southernwood. 

Ano'PTER. Tubus intermedins. A 
\ • -v-el with two necks, passed be- 
tween a retort and a receiver, and 
serving to increase the length of the 
neck of the former. 

A'dor. A sort of corn; called 
also spelt a. 

A'dos. Water in which red-hot 
iron is cooled. 

Adpo'ndls o'mnium. The weight 
of the whole. Inserted in pharma- 
ceutical preparations, or prescrip- 
tions, when the last ingredient ought 
to weigh as much as the whole put 
together. 

Adra rhi'za. The name of the root 
of the Aristolochia is so called. 
JJlaucard. 

Adra'cnne. The strawberry bay- 
tree. A species of Arbutus. 

A 'pram. Fossil salt, 

Adhara'gb. (Indian,. Garden 



Adrobo'lov. (From vdpoc, large, 
and /3o>Xoc, a globe, bole, or map). 
Indian Bdellium, which is coarser 
than the Arabian. 

Adstriction. Costive ness. 

Adstringents. See Astringents, 

Adustion. Inflammation about 
the brain and its membranes, ac- 
companied with hollowness of the 
eyes, pale complexion, and a dry 
skin. — In surgery, the same as cau- 
terization, meaning the application 
of any substance to the body that acts 
in a manner similar to fire. 

Adventitious. Any thing that 
takes place unexpectedly, and not in 
the ordinary course of common 
causes, yet constitutes a part of an- 
other : e.g. the glands, in strumous 
cases, are said to be adventitious, m 
contradistinction to those naturally 
produced. It is also used as the an- 
tithesis to hereditary : thus, gout 
and scrophula are sometimes here- 
ditary, at least it is thought so, bill 
more frequently adventitious, from 
neither the one nor the other having 
been known before in the family 
where either the one or the other of 
these disorders have occurred. Ad- 
ventitious membranes, &c. 

Adv. Abanga. The palm-tree- 
of the island of St. Thomas. 

Adyna'mia. {AcvvafAta ; from a, 
priv. and Swafug, power). Defect 
of vital power. 

Advna'mi.e. (Plur. of Adynamia), 
Second order of the class Neuroses ; 
comprehending syncope, dyspepsia > 
hypochondriasis, and chlorosis. Cullen. 

Ady'namon. (From a, neg. and. 
cova^w, strength) . Adynamum. With 
ancient physicians, a weak kind of' 
artificial wine, prepared from must 
boiled down with water ; given to 
patients where pure wine might be 
hurtful. 

^Eqoi'a. fFrom aiCoje,, modesty;- 
or from a, neg. and ei£oj, to see ; as 
not being decent to the sight) , The pu- 
denda, or female parts of generation. 

jEdopsottiia. (From aivoia, pu- 
denda, and xjsctptio, to break wind). 
Flatus from the bladder, or womb, 
escaping through the vagina, Used 
by Sauvages and Sagar^ 
C2 



MGO 



16 



MQU 



T 



iEGAGROPiLUS. (From aiyaypoc, , 
a wild goat, and pila y a ball) . JEgro- 
piia. A ball found in the stomach 
of deer, goats, hogs, cattle, &c. con- 
sisting of hairs they have swallowed 
by licking themselves. They have 
no medicinal properties ; although 
Hieronymus Velschius wrote a trea- 
tise on their virtues. A species of 
conferva found in Wallen-fer Moor, 
is also so named, from a resemblance 
to them. 

jE'gias. A white speck in the 
pupil of the eye, which occasions a 
dimness of sight. 

^Egi'des. Aglia. A disorder of 
the eyes, mentioned by Hippocrates. 

jEgi'dion. A collvrium, or oint- 
ment, for inflammations and detiux- 
ions of the eyes. 

^E'gilops. Wild fescue grass ; so 
called from its supposed virtue in 
caring the disorder of the same 
name. A species of Bromus in the 
Linnaean system. 

tEgene'tia. Malabrian broom- 
rape. A species of Orobanche. 

jE'gis. Achlys. A film on the eye. 

jEgo'ceras. (From ail,, a goat, 
and xepag, a horn ; so called because 
the pods were supposed to resemble 
the horns of a goat). Fenugreek. 
See Trigonetla fenum Gr 'tecum. 

.Ego'lethron. (From ai£, a 
goat, and oXetypog, destruction ; so 
named from the opinion of its being 
poisonous to goats. According to 
Tournefort, it is the chamcero doden- 
dron; now the AzeltBa of Linnaeus. 

/Ego'nychon. (From ai%, a goat, 
and ovv$, a hoof, because of the 
hardness of the seed). Gromwell. 
See Lethospermum. 

jKgopo'dium. (From at£, a goat, 
and 7r«c, a foot ; from its resem- 
blance to a gout's foot). Goatweed. 
A genus of plants in the Linnaean 
hvstem : Class, Ptntandria; Order, 
Diiryuia. 

%* Some of this species were for- 
merly much esteemed ; v. g. the 
.E»o/>odiu?n podagraria, in relieving 
the gout, &c. It is not now employed. 

/Egoproso'pon. (From «i£, a 
goat> and 7rpoau)7rov, a face ; so called 
because goats are subject to defects 



in the eyes, or from having in it some 
ingredients named after the goat). 
A lotion in inflammation of the eyes. 

i^E'GYLOPS. (From ai£, a goat, 
u)\p, an eye). The name of a disease, 
from the supposition that goats were 
subject to it. It has been regarded 
by the best modern surgeons, as a 
stage only of fistula lachrymalis. A 
very common term with the old sur- 
gical writers, who certainly did not 
suspect that obstruction in the la- 
chrymal parts of the eye, are so fre- 
quently the cause of the sore as it 
generally is. 

^Egy'ptia muscata. See Hibiscus 
abelmoschus, 

iEGYPTiACUJVi. A name of differ- 
ent ointments of the detergent or 
corrosive kind. 

^Egy'ptium pha'rmacum ad 
au'res. Mentioned by Aetius as ex- 
cellent for cleansing fetid ulcers of 
the ear, which, he says, it cures, 
though the patient were born with it. 

Aei'gluces. (From au, always, 
and yXvxuc, sweet). A kind of 
sweetish wine or must. 

Aeipatheia. (From ast, always, 
and 7ra6og, a disease) . Any disease 
of long continuance. 

i^ENEA. (From tes> brass, being for- 
merly made of brass) . A catheter. 

iEoN. The spinal marrow. 

j^Eonesis. Fermentation. Sprink- 
ling of the whole body. 

.^Eo'neon. The sedum majus, or 
common house-leek. 

JEo'ra. (From anooeio, to lift up, 
to suspend on high). Exercise with- 
out muscular action. A species of 
exercise used by the ancients. 

* # * Of this kind of exercise, 
Aetius gives the following account. 
Gestation, while it exercises the 
body, the body seems to be at rest. 
Of this motion there are several 
kinds — e.g. swinging in a hammock,,, 
beneficial at the decline of a fever ; 
being carried in a litter ; riding in a 
chariot; sailing in a ship or boat, 
&c. These are passive exercises, 
and are frequently attended with con- 
siderable advantage in various chro- 
nic diseases. 

jE'oue. Equally. The same as ana. 



-ESC 



1? 



JETH 



A'er. The fluid which surrounds 
the globe. See Air and Atmosphere. 

JJE'pOS*. An excrescence or pro- 
tuberance. 

JE'ka. Darnel, or lolium. 

jEri'tis. The anagallis, or pim- 
pernel. 

/Eroix/gia. f \tpo\oyia ; from 
«//o, the air, and Xoyoc, a discourse . 
Aeroiogice. Aerology. That part 
of medicine which treats of the na- 
ture and properties of air. 

Aero'meli. Honev dew; also a 
name for manna. 

Aero'ajeter. The name given by 
Dr. Hall to an ingenious instrument 
of hi; invention, for making the ne- 
cessary corrections in pneumatic ex- 
periment^, to ascertain the mean hulk 
of the teases. 

Aerophori. (From «>/», air, and 
$o6oc, fear). Ccelius Aurelianus 
remarks, that some phrenetic patients 
are afraid of a lucid, and others of 
an obscure air; hence In' calls the 
A( rophobi. 

Aeropijo'iiia. Fear of air, or 
wind. A symptom of phrcnitis. 
Also a name given to J/ydropkmbia. 

\ER0S18. The aerial vital spirit 
of the ancient. >. 

Ar.Kos'i \ noN. A name com- 
monlv, though not very correctly, 
given to the act of raising heavy bo- 
dies into the atmosphere, by the 
buoyancy of heated air, or cases of 
small specific gravity, enclosed in a 
hair, which, from being usually of a 
spheroidal form, which is best fitted 
for aerostation, is called a balloon. 

Aero'm s LAPIS* So Pliny calls 
the lapis calaminaris, upon the sup- 
position that it was a copper ore. 

/Eru'ca. Verdigrise, 

vEri co. (AErugO) gtnu 9 f. from 
*?#, copper). The rust of any metal, 
particularly copper. Verdigrise. Suba- 
cetas cupri. Prepared verdigrise. Em- 
ployed by surgeons as an escharotic. 

.jEsCHSOMYTtiB'siS. The obscene 
language of the delirious. 

yKsctLi s. (From area, food). 
Horse-chesnut. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Ihptaudria; Order, 
Muftogyiiifl. 



/Esculus Hippocastanum. The 
systematic name for the Hippocas- 
tanum. Castanca equina, pavlna. 
Common horse chesnut. — Virtues: 
Errhine, tonic, astringent, &c. 

* # * During a scarcity of grain, 
attempts were made, with some 
success, to obtain starch from the 
horse-chesnut. 

iEseuLiNE. An alkali found hy 
M. Curzoneri, in the AZs cuius Hip- 
pocastanum, or /torse chesnut , and 
supposed to be febrifuge. 

jEseca'mm. Auric/talcum, or 
brass. 

/Estates. Freckles on the face. 
Sunburnt. 

/Kstmpuara. Incineration, or 
burning of the flesh, &c. 

iEsTUARiu.M. A stove for com- 
municating heat to all parts of the 
body at once. A kind of vapour 
bath. The name of an instrument 
so called by Ambrose Pare. A con- 
trivance of this name, for sweating 
the whole body, is given by Palma? 
riu.s, ])( Morb. Contag, 

vEmla'tio. The boiling up, or 
rather fermentation, of liquors when 
mixed. 

/EVn a VOLA'tICUS. (From testus, 
heat, and jtdarty to fly). Synonimous 
With phlogosis. Vogtl. Sudden heat 
or scorching, soon going off, but 
which, for a time, reddens the face. 

jE'ther. [.Ether, < ris, m. from 
\i0)}o, an imaginary fine blue sub- 
tile fluid). Liquor JEtkereus. Ether. 
The sulphuric, nitric, muriatic 
ethers, according to the acid with 
Which it is formed in conjunction 
with alcohol. A volatile liquor, ob- 
tained by distillation, from a mixture 
of alcohol and a concentrated acid. 

jEthere'a uerba. The Eryn- 
gium was so named. 

^Ethereal oil. An animal or 
vegetable oil, highly rectified, par- 
taking, as it were, of the nature of 
ether. 

jEtIIER SULPHURICL'S. Naptha, 
Vifrioli. 

JEther vitriolicns. Sulphuric ether, 

jEtiier rectificatus. JEthex 
vitriolicns. Rectified ether. 

jEtfiiops. A name given to ser 
C 3 



Aff 



18 



AFF 



veral preparations, from their black 
appearance. 

jEthiops antimonia'lis. A pre- 
paration of antimony and mercury, 
once in high repute, but now laid 
aside. 

/Etiuops mineral. See Hydran- 
gyri Sulphuretrum Nigrum. 

jEtiina. A chymical furnace. 

jEtho'ces. JEthnlices. Superficial 
pustules on the skin, raised by heat, 
as boils, fiery pustules. 

jEthusa. (From a i6f 8 ca, beggarly) . 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Peutandria; 
Order, Digynia. 

vEthusa meum. The systematic 
name of the meum of the Pharma- 
copoeias. Called also meet, &c. 

-Ethya. K mortar. 

/E'toi phlf/bes. Eagle veins. 
The veins which pass through the 
temples to the head. Rnftis EpheOms, 

^Etiology. Etiology. (AtroXayife; 
from atria, a cause, and \oyog, a 
discourse). The doctrine of the 
causes of disease. 

tEto'cion. AStoUum, Thegramvm 
tni&ium 

/Eto'nychum. See Lithosper min m* 

Affection. [Expressed in Greek 
by 7ra9oc' hence patkana, passio). 
A term indicating any exciting dis- 
order of the whole, or a part of the 
body, as 5>ysteria,^colic, leprosy, &c. 
Thus by adding a descriptive epithet 
to the term affection, most distempers 
may he expressed, e.g. febrile affec- 
tion, cutaneous affection, &c. using 
the word synominously with disease. 

Affinity. (Affimiiaa, a natural 
proximity;. A term used indiscri- 
minately with attraction. See At- 
traction. 

Affinity of aggregation. See At- 
traction. 

Affinity of composition. Sec At- 
traction. 

Affinity, compound. When three 
cr more bodies, on account of their 
HMtaai affinity, unite and form < 
homogeneous body, the affinity is 
ihun I compound affinity or 

attraction. 

Affinity, darllcnt. See Affinity 
%f>ii*. • fit. 



Affinity, double. Double elective 
attraction. When two bodies, each 
consisting of two elementary parts, 
come into contact, and are decom- 
posed, so that their elements become 
reciprocally united, and produce two 
new compound bodies, the decom- 
position is then termed, decomposi- 
tion by double affinity : thus, if com- 
mon salt, which consists of muriatic 
acid and soda, be added to nitrate of 
silver, which is composed of nitric 
acid and oxide of silver, these two 
bodies will be decompounded ; for 
the nitric acid unites with the soda ; 
and the oxide of silver with the 
muriatic acid, and thus mav be oh- 
tamed two new bodies. The com- 
mon salt and nitrate of silver there- 
fore mutually decomposes each other 
by what is called double affinity. 

Affinity, intermediate. Appro- 
priate affinity. Affinity of an inter- 
medium is, when two substances of 
different kinds, that shew to one 
another no component affinity, do, 
by the assistance of a third, combine, 
and unite into one homogeneous 
whole ; e. g. oil and water are sub- 
stances of different kinds, which, by 
means of an alkali, combine and unite 
into one homogeneous substance : 
hence the theory of the lixivia, of 
washing, &c. 

Affinity, quiescent. This term is 
employed by Mr. Kirwan, to mark 
that, by virtue of which, the princi- 
ples of "each compound, decomposed 
by double affinity, adhere to each 
other ; and divellent affinity, to dis- 
tinguish that by which the principles 
of one body unite and change order 
with those "of the other ; e. g. sul- 
phate of potash is not completely 
decomposed by the nitric acid or by 
lime, when either of these principles 
is separately presented ; but if the 
nitric acid be combined with lime, 
this nitrate of lime will decompose 
the sulphate of potash. In this last 
case the affinity of the sulphuric acid 
with the alkali is weakened by its 
affinity to the lime. The acid, there- 
fore, "is subject to two affinities, the 
one which retains it to the alknli, 
called quiescent ; and the other, which 



AG A 



19 



AG A 



attracts it toward the lime, is called 
riivellent affinity. 

Ajfi.it it y ^ reciprocal ; e.g. when a 
compound of two bodies is decom- 
posed by a third ; the separated prin- 
ciple being in its turn capable of de- 
composing the new combination : thus 
ammonia and magnesia will separate 
each other from muriatic acid. 

Affinity, .simple. Simple elective 
attraction; e.g. if a body consisting- of 
two component parts, be decomposed 
on the approach of a third, which 
bus a greater affinity with one of 
those component parts than they 
have for each other, then the de- 
composition is termed, decomposi- 
tion by simple affinity ; for example, 
• if pure potash be added to a com- 
bination of nitric acid and lime, the 
union which existed between these 
two bodies will cease, became the 

potash combines with the nitric acid, 
and the lime being disengaged^ is 
precipitated. The reason is, that 
the nitric acid has a greater affinity 
tor the pure potash than for the lime, 
to combine with the potash. When 
two bodies only enter into chemical 
union, the affinity, which was the 
cause of it, is also termed simple or 
ample elective attraction ; thus the 
solution of sugar in water is produced 
by simple affinity, because there are 
but two bodies. 

A'ffion. Affium. An Arabic name 
for opium. 

Affla'tfs. (From ttd, and /tarr, 
toblow). A blast, vapour, or blight. 
A paccieoof erysipelas, whir h attacks 
people suddenly ; so named upon the 
erroneous supposition that it was 
produced by some unwholesome wind 
blowing on the part. 

\ ill sio, f. Affusion. Pouring a. 
liquor on something; e.j% cold affu- 
sion in fever : it is sometimes also 
svnommoui with tmtfu*io t a cataract. 

Afif.u-birtii. See Placenta. 

AY; a cretf/nsilai. The small 
Spanish milk thistle. 

Agai.actatio. See Agalactia. 

Agala'ctia. (AyaXattTia: from a, 
priv. and ya\a, milk). Agala.iis. 
.Ignlactio. Agalactatio. A defect 
**f milk after child-birth. 



Agala'ctos. (From «, priv. and 
ya\a, miik> An epithet given to 
women who have no milk when they 
lie in. 

Ac at. AX IS. See Agalactia. 

Aga'llocui ve'ri li'gnum. See 
Leg. A It n.s. 

Aga'lllce. Agallugum. A name 
of rite agollochum or armomatic aloe. 

A<3 utic. See Agaricn.s. 

Agark oi'des. A species of agari- 
cus or fungus. 

Agaric us. (Ayaootoc: fromAga- 
ria, a town in Asia; or from Agarus, 
ariverinSarmatia, nowMalawoitda . 
A Laurie. A species of fungus growing 
on the oak, and formerly much cele- 
brated for its efficacy in stopping 
bleeding. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Limueau system . class, 
Criftognuii.fi ; Order, Fungi, 

\f.\uicis aluls. See Buiettt* 
Lav i* is. 

\«.\ KI( l >r \v: BSTRI8. (Linnrrus). 
Mu>hroom. The only specie- eaten 
in this country. See Agarictu /iro- 

ttHMlM, 

Aga'ricis C!i\m\i:u.i,i ». \ 
species of fungus, esteemed h deli- 
cious iiuiTititn bv the French. 

IlGARICI 9 cillM GOV I If. See /i«- 
'• i u ignioritu. 

\>. h'ftlCUS C\ MAJIOME1 S. Brown 
mushroom. A species of agaricus of 
pleasant smell. 

Ac.aricls oebuo'sus. This fan- 
go*, well seasoned and then broiled, 
communicates the flavour of a roasted 
muscle. 

Aga'jucj s murca'rhjs. Bug aara- 
ric, so called from its antipathy to 



DUSTS. 



The agaricus 



nutrcarins of 



Linnaeus. 

AeA'ftlCUS PIPBRA'TUft, The pep- 
per mushroom, so named \ry Lin- 
natus. Pepper agaric. 

Aga'rICUS PRATENS1S. The chain . 
pignon of Hudson's Flora Anglica. 

*** This species has but little 
smell, and is rather dry, yet when 
broiled and stewed, gives out a good 
flavour. Its qualities are similar to 
the agaricus enmpestris. 

Agaricls mofackus. Violet 
mushroom ; of which Hudson's hub 
box us is a varietv. 



AGI 



20 



AGR 



'Age. The ancients reckoned six 
Stages of life : e. g. puerilia, child- 
hood, extending to the fifth year of 
our age; — adoloscentia, youth, to 
the eighteenth ; and youth, properly 
so called, to the twenty-fifth ; — -ju- 
ventus, from the twenty-fifth to the 
thirtv-fifth vear ; — virtiis cetas, man- 
hood, from the thirty-fifth to the 
fiftieth year; — senectus, old age, 
from fifty to sixty ; — crepita (Bias, 
decrepid old age, ending in death. 

Agenne'sia. (Ay evijGia : from 
«, neg. and yevvaio, to beget). 1m- 
potency in man. Vogel* Synon, 
Anaphrodisca and Dytrpermatismus. 

Ager. (Lat.) The common 
earth, or soil. 



ac- 
the 



Ager naturje. The womb. 

Agera'tusla'pis. (A stratus , com- j 
inon). A stone used by cobiers. | 
Pumice-stone. 

Agehatum. (Ay rjprop : from a, j 
priv. and ytjpar, senectus, or old; I a lamb, and castus, chaste). The 
never old; evergreen; because its \ Chaste Tree. See 1 Itex. 
(lowers preserve their beauty a long I Ago'ge. The order, state, or te- 
time). See Achillea ageratum. i nour, of a disease or body. 



Aglacta'tio. Aglazis. Aglac- 
tation. Defect of milk. 

Aglia. Aglium. A shining tu- 
bercle, or pustule, on the face. 
White specks on the eye. See 
JFlgides. 

A'gma. Agme. A fracture. 

A'gnacal. A tree, which, 
cording to Ray, grows about 
isthmus of Daricn, and resembles a 
pear-tree, whose fruit is a great 
provocative to venery. 

Agna'ta. See Adnata tunica. 

Agni'na membra'na. (From ag- 
nus, a lamb, and memhrana, a mem- 
brane). Aetius calls one of the 
membranes which involves the foetus 
by this name, which he derives from 
its tenderness. See Amnios. 

Agnoi'a. (From a, priv. and 
yivioGxw, to know) . Forgetfulness ; 
a symptomatic affection in fevers. 

A'gnus ca'stus. (From agrnts, 



A'ges. (From ayrjc, wicked ; so 
called because it is generally the in- 
strument of wicked acts). The 
palm or hollow of the hand. 

Agglli ina'ntia. Affglutinants. 



Agomphi'asis. Looseness of the 
teeth. 

A'gone. (Ayovrj : from a, neg. 
and yovoq. offspring). Hyoscyamus 
or Henbane ; so called because it 



Adhesive preparations, which heal j was supposed to cause barrenness. 



by causing the parts to stick to- 
gether. 

Agglutina'tio. Agglutination. 
Adhesive union, or sticking together 
of substances. 

Aggluti'to. Agglutition. Ob- 
struction of the oesophagus, or a 
difficulty of swallowing. 

Aggregate glands. (From ag- 
grrgace, to assemble together). An 
assemblage of glands, as those of 
the intestines. 

Aggregation of Affinity. See .11- 
traction. 

Agiiei-'stia. (From «, neg. and 
yivoLiaiygustare, to taste . „ (g < Ui 
Apogeu.stia, Aj>ogfi(sis. Defect, or 
loss of taste. A genus of disease in 
the Class Localm, and Order Dysces- 
thesia' of Cullcn. 

A'gis. The femur, or thigh. 

Ac ;n a to'ria. Convulsive disease- , 
or tho.se culled clonic. 



Acq'ma. Sterility, impotence, 
agony. 

Agoni'sticlm (Ayo)i'iTi-AOp, from 
ayo)viau), to struggle; . Used by 
ancient physicians to signify water 
extremely cold, directed to be given 
in large quantities, in acute erysi- 
pelatous fevers, with a view of over- 
powering or struggling with the fe- 
brile heat of the blood. 

A'GONOS. (From a, priv. and 
■yoi'oe, oryovi], an offspring). Wo- 
men who have not children, though 
they might have, if the impediment 

:« removed. Hippocrates. 

AGO'STOS. (From «y<u, to bring, 
or lead). That part of the arm from 
the elbow to the fingers ; also tin* 
pain 01 hollow of the hand. 

•n. Via. ( A ypior, wild). Ver- 
i.-, which is made from the wild 

pie, The immature fruit of the 
vine. 



AGR 



21 



AGU 



Agre'sten. A name for the com- 
mon tartar. 

Agre'stis. An ungovernable ma- 
lignity in a disease. Old Writers. 

A'gria. A name of the ilex aqui- 
folium, or holly. A malignant pus- 
tule, of which, the ancient surgeons 
describe two sorts. 

Agria'mpelos. (From aypiog, 
wild, and a^nreXog, a vinej. The 
wild vine, or white brvony. See 

' mm 

liruoniu. 

Agriel,e'a. (From aypiog, wild, 
and eyaia, the olive-tree). The 
oleaster, or wild olive. 

Agrifo'lium. (From amg, a 
prickle, and <pvyyov, a leaf). Aqui- 
folium, or holly tree. It should 
rather be called acifolium, from its 
prickly leaves. 

Agrimo'ma. (From aypog, a 
field, and povog, alone : so named 
from its being the chief of wild 
herbs). Agrimony. The name of 
a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system. The pharmacopceial name 
of a plant ; the common agrimony. 
Agrimoni* Eupatoria of Linnaeus. 

*** Jt is common in fields, about 
hedges and shady places, flowering 
in June and July. 

Ac.RIMOMA EUPATORIA. SccAgri- 
iHO/tia, 

Acrimony. See .l^rimmiia. 

Agrimony y hemp. The Jiidrus 
tripartita of Linnaeus. 

\<,kioca'ruamim. From aypiog, 
wild, and aapcafiov, the nasturtium . 
Sciatica cresses, or wild garden crese. 

Agrioca'stanu.m. (From aypiog, 
wild, and Kizavov, the chesnut . 
Earth-nut, or pig-nut. 

Agkuk h'NARA. From aypiog, 

wild, and y.wapa, artichoke .. See 
< iit/u'u. 

\<,riococcjme'la. (From aypiog, 
wild, HinKog, a berry, and /.ujyta, an 
apple-tree). The prunms sylvestris, 

Acriomf/la. The crab apple. 

VgrioMi AgriopkifUoUt The peu- 
1 1 -ilanam titan*., or hog's fennel, or 
sulphur wort. 

Agriophy'llon. See Agriom 

Agriopastina'ca. (From aypiog, 
wild, and pastiiiaca, a carrot). Wild 
carrot, or parsnip. 



See Agri- 



Agriori'ganlm. (From aypiac, 
wild, and opiyavov, marjoram . 
Wild marjoram. See Origanum. 

Agrioseli'num. (From aypiog, 
wild, and vsXivov, parsley). Wild 
parsley. See Smmrnium, 

Agriosta'ri. (From aypiog, wild, 
and raig, wheat). A species of field 
corn, called Triticum creticum. 

Agripa'lma. (From aypiog, wild, 
and 7rayfia, a palm-tree). Agripaltna 
gatlis. The herb mother-wort, or 
wild palm. 

Agripa'lma ga'llis. 
pal ma. 

Agri'pps:. Children born with 
their feet foremost, are so called, 
because that was said to be the caac 
with Agrippa the Roman, who was 
named ah agro partu, from his dim- 
cult birth, 

* # * These births, though reck- 
oned preternatural, are often more 
safe and easy than the natural. 

A'(,riim. An impure sort of na- 
tron, or soda. 1 he purer sort was 
Called hahny-rhaga. 

A'gROM. A disease of the tongue 
.peculiar to the Indians, in which it 
l)i conies extremely rough and chap- 
ped. 

\gru'\iiv\. Leeks, wild onions. 
\<;ry'p\ia. (From a, priv. and 
v-i'og, sleep;. Watchfulness: want 
of sleep. 

Agr\ I'noco'.ma. (From aypinri'oc, 
without Bleep, mu) Kojjjia, a lethargy | . 
A species of coma. A lethargic 
kind of watchfulness, in which the 
patient is stupidly drowsy, and yet 
cannot sleep. 

A(.i k. See Febri* intermittens, 
\(.i b CAKE. The once popular 
name for a bard tumour on the left 
side of the belly, lower than the 
false ribs in the region of the 
spleen, said to be the effect of inter- 
mittent fevers. 

Ague drops. Arsenite of potash 
in solution in water. Fowler's So- 
lution. 

Ague- free. A name given by 
some to sassafras, on account of its 
supposed febrifuge virtue. 

Ague-trek. See Laarus. 

Agui'a. (From a, priv. and yvtov, 9 



AIR 



22 



AIR 



a member) . Paralytic debility. De- 
fective or lost use of the members. 

A'gul. (Arab.) Alhagi. The 
Syrian thorn. The leaves are pur- 
gative. 

Agustine. A new earth disco- 
vered in the Saxon Beryl, or Beryl 
of Georgien Stadt, a stone greatly 
resembling the Bervl of Siberia, bv 
Professor Tromsdorff, of Erfurth in 
Germany, to which he has given the 
name of agustine, on account of the 
property of forming salts which are 
nearly destitute of taste. 

Agutiguepoo'bi Brazjlie'nsis. 
(An Indian term) . Arrow-root : 
dartwort. Esculent and vulnerary, 
and used by the Indians to cure 
wounds made by arrows. 

Agyion. See Aguia. 

Agy'rtte. (From ayvpig, a crowd 
of people, or a mob ; or from ay tip w, 
to gather together). It formerly 
expressed certain strollers who pre- 
tended to strange things from super- 
natural assistances ; but of late it is 
applied to all quack and illiterate 
dabblers in medicine. 

Ahaloth. The Hebrew name of 
lignum aloes. 

Ahame'lla. See Achmella. 

Aho'vai theveticlush. A ches- 
nut-like fruit of Brazil, of a poison- 
ous nature. 

Ahu'sal. Orpiment. 

Ai'lmad. An Arabian name for 
antimony. 

Aimatei'a. A black bilious and 
bloody discharge from the bowels. 

Aimo'rriiois. See Ha?morrhois. 

Aimorrnoz'a. See Hcemorrhagia. 

Aipatiiei'a. (From act, always, 
and iraQoc, a disease of long con- 
tinuance. 

Ai'pl. Aipima co&era. Aipipoca. 
Indian words for Cassada. A poi- 
sonous root of India. 

Air. Atmospherical air, a com- 
pound of oxygen and nitrogen. Com- 
mon air. The word air appears first 
to have been used to denote the at- 
mosphere in general ; but philoso- 
phers afterwards restricted it to the 
elastic fluid, which constitutes the 
greatest and the most important part 
of the atmosphere, excluding the 



water and the other foreign bodies 
which are occasionally found mixed 
with it. See Atmosphere. 

Air is an elastic fluid, invisible, 
but easily recognised by its proper- 
ties. Its specific gravity, according 
to the experiments of Sir George 
Shuckburgh, when the barometer is 
at 30 inches, and the thermometer 
between 50 and 60 deg. is 0.0012, 
or 816 times lighter than water.- 
100 cubic inches of air weigh 31 
grains troy. But as air is an elastic 
fluid, and compressed at the surface 
of the earth bv the whole weight of 
the incumbent atmosphere, its den- 
sity diminishes, according to its 
height above the surface of the 
earth. From the experiments of 
Paschal, Deluc, General Roy, &c. 
it has been ascertained, that the 
density diminishes in the ratio of the 
compression. Consequently the den- 
sity decreases in a geometrical pro- 
gression, while the heights increase 
in an arithmetical progression. Bou- 
guer had suspected, from his obser- 
vations made on the Andes, that at 
considerable heights the densitv of 
the air is no longer proportional to 
the compressing force ; but the ex- 
periments of Saussure, junior, made 
upon Mount Rose, hav r e demonstrat- 
ed the contrary. See Priestley on 
Air, &c. 

Air is dilated by heat. Its spe- 
cific caloric, according to the expe- 
riments of Dr. Crawford, is 1-79, 
that of water being reckoned 1 . 

The property which air has of 
supporting combustion, and the ne- 
cessity of it for respiration, are too 
well known to require description. 
During many ages, it was considered 
as an element, or simple substance. 
For the knowledge of its component 
parts, we are indebted to the Labours 
of those philosophers in whose hands 
chemistry advanced with such ra- 
pid ty during the last forty years of 
the eighteenth century. 

Air i alkaline. See Ammonia. 

Air, atmospherical. See Air. 

Air, azotic. See Nitrogen gas. 

Air, ji.rcd. See Carbonic acid gas. 

Air, fluoric. See fluoric acid gas. 



AIZ 



23 



ALA 



Air, hepatic. See Hydrogen gas, 
■sulphuretted. 

Air, inflammable. See Hydrogen 



gas. 



Air, marine. See Muriatic acid 



gas. 



Air, nitrous. See Nitrous gas. 
Air, phlogisticated. Sec Nitrogen 



gas. 



Air, phosphoric. See Hydrogen 
ifas, phosphuretted. 

Air, sulphureous. See Sulphurous 
acid gas. 

Air, vital. See Oxygen gas. 

Aisthete'rium. (From cuvOavo- 
fiai, to perceive). The sensorium 
commune, or seat, or origin of sen- 
sation. 

Ai'imad. Antimony. 

AlX LA Chape'lle. Called Aken 
by the Germans. Thvrmce Aauis- 
granenriM, A town in the south of 
France, where there is a sulphureous 
water, the most striking feature of 
Which, and what is almost peculiar 
to it, is the unusual quantity of sul- 
phur it contains ; the whole, how- 
ever, is so far united to a gaseous 
basis, as to he entirely volatilized by 
heat : so that none is left in the re- 
siduum after evaporation. In colour 
it is pellucid, in smell sulphureous, 
and in taste saline, hitterish, and 
rather alkaline. The temperature of 
these waters varies considerably, ac- 
cording to the distance from the 
source and the spring itself. In the 
well of the hottest hath, it is, ac- 
cording to Lucas, 136°; Monet, 146'"; 
at the fountain where it is drank, it 
is 112". 

%* This thermal water is much 
resorted to on the Continent, for a 
variety of complaints. It is found 
essentially serviceable in the nu- 
merous symptoms of disorders in 
the stomach and biliary organs, that 
follow a life of high indulgence in 
I he luxuries of the table ; in ne- 
phritic cases, which produce pain in 
the loins, and thick mucous urine, 
with difficult micturition. 

Aizo'on. (From aei, always, and 
sw, to live). Aizoum. An ever- 
jrreen aquatic plant, like the aloe, 
-u\d to possess antiscorbutic virtues. 



Aja'va. (Indian). A seed U3ed 
in the East Indies as a remedy for 
the colic. 

Ajuga. (From a, priv. and c,vyov, 
a yoke) . The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system. The 
pharmacopoeial name of the creep- 
ing bugloss. Called also Consolida 
media. Bugula. Upright bugloss. 
Middle consound. 

*** This plant (Ajuga pyramidalis 
of Linnaeus) possesses subadstringent 
and bitter qualities, and has been 
recommended in phthisis, aphthae, 
and cynanche. 

Ajlra'rat. Lead. 

Al. The Arabian article which 
signifies the; it is applied to a word 
by way of eminence, as the Greek o 
is. 

A'la. (Lat.) Awing. The arm-pit, 
so called because it answers to the 
pit under the wing of a bird. 

Ala'baRI. Lead. 

A'lacah. Sal ammoniac. 

Al/efo'rmis. Any thing like a 
wing. 

\ i i \i 'kjs\ The upper part of 
the external ear. 

A/t,iE nasi. Two cartilages of the 
nose, which form the outer part of 
the nostrils. 

Alt. vespertilio'm m. That part 
of the ligaments of the worn!), 
which lies between the tubes and the 
ovaria ; so called from its resemblance 
to the wing of a bat. 

A'lje imer'n/e mino'res. See 
Xyhipha*. 

A'lafi. Ala/or. Alafort. Alka* 
line. 

Alai'a phthi'sis. (From akaioQ, 
blind, and (pQiaic,, a wasting). A 
consumption from a flux of humours 
from the head. 

A'i.amai). Alamed. Antimonv. 

Ala'mhib. Mercury. 

ALANDAHLA. (Arab, bitter). The 
bitter apple, or colocynth. 

Alantu'ta. (Arab.) A vein be- 
tween the chin and lower lip, which 
was formerly opened, to prevent 
foetid breath. 

Aeapoi/li. See Bilimbi. 

Ala're externum. A name of 
the external pterygoid muscle ; so 



ALB 



24 



ALC 



called, because it takes its rise from 
the wing-like process of the sphenoid 
bone. 

Ala'ria o'ssa. The wing-like pro- 
cesses of the sphenoid bone. 

Ala'ris ve'na. The innermost of 
the three veins at the bend of the 
arm. 

Alasalet. Alaset. Ammoniacum. 

Alasi. Ala/or. An alkaline salt. 

Ala'strob. Lead. 

A'latan. Litharge. 

Alate'rnus. A species of rham- 
nus. 

Ala'ti. Those who have promi- 
nent scapulae, like the wings of 
birds. 

Alau'rat. Nitre. 

Albadal. (Arab.) The sesamoid 
bone of the first joint of the great 
toe. 

Albage'nzi. Albagiazi. (Arab.) 
The os sacrum. 

Albagras nigra. So Avicenna 
names the lepra ichthyosis. Others 
call it lepra Gracorum, 

Albame'n ruM. (From albus, white). 
The white of an egg. 

Alba'num. Urinous salt. 

Alba'ra. (Chald.) The white 
leprosy, 

Alba r as. Arsenic. A white pustule. 

Alba'tio. (From albus, white). 
Albificatio. The calcination or whiten- 
ing of metals. 

A'lberas. (Arab.) White pustules 
on the face : also staphisagria, be- 
cause its juice was said to remove 
these pustules. 

Albe'ston. Quick -lime. 

A'lbetad. Galbanum. 

A'lbi sublima'ti. Muriated mer- 
cury. 

Albica'ntia co'rpora. (Yromalbi- 
care, to grow white). The glands of 
a white colour, usually called Willis's 
glands, in the brain. 

A'lbi M EC Orpiment. See Arsenic. 

Albi'num. See Gnaphalium. 

A'i.bor. Urine. 

A'lbora. A sort of itch ; or ra- 
ther of leprosy. 

Albo'rea. Quicksilver. 

A'i.bot. A crucible. 

Albo'tai. Turpentine. 

A'i.botar. Turpentine. 



A'lbotat. White lead. 

A'lbotim. Turpentine. 

A'lbotis. A cutaneous phlegmon 
or boil. 

Albugi'nea o'culi. (From albus y 
white) . See Adnata tunica. 

Albugi'nea te'stis. Tunica albu- 
ginea testis. The innermost coat of 
the testicle. 

Albu'ginous humour. The aque^ 
ous humour of the eye. 

Albu'go oculo'rum. A white 
opacity of the cornea of the eye. A 
variety of Cullen's Caligo Cornea. 

Albuhar. White lead. 

A'lbum ba'lsamum. The balsam 
of copaiba. 

A'lb u m G r sfc u m . The white du ng 
of dogs. 

A'lbum o'lus. Lamb's lettuce, or 
corn-salad. The Valeriana locust a. 
of Linnaeus. 

Albu'men. Albumine. Coagulable 
lymph. Albumen is very abundant 
in the animal kingdom. It is the 
principal constituent part of the se- 
rum of the blood, and the lymphatic 
fluid. It forms the cheese in milk, 
and makes up the greater part of the 
white of eggs. 

Albu'm en o'v i. The white of an egg. 

A'lcahest. (From the German 
words al and geest, i. e. all spirit) . 
An Arabic word, to express an uni- 
versal dissolvent, which was pre- 
tended to bv Paracelsus and Van 



Helmot. 

A'lcali. (Arab.) See Alkali. 

Alcalization. The impregnation 
of any spirituous fluid with an alkali. 

Alcanna. (Indian word). See 
Anchusa. 

A'lcaol. The solvent for the 
preparation of the philosopher's 
stone. 

A'lcea. (From aX*?/, strength). 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Monadelphia; 
Order, Polyandria. Hollyhock. 

A'lcea ^Egypti'aca villo'sa. See 
Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

A'lcea Indica. See Hibiscus abc/~ 
moschus. 

A'lcea Ro'sea. Common holly- 
hock. 

A'lcebar. See Lignum Aloes. 



ALC 



25 



ALE 



A'lcebris vi'vum. 

vivurn. 

A'lchabric. 
A'lchachil. 
A'lcharith. 



See Sulphur 



Sulphur vivum. 

Rosemary. 

Quicksilver. 

A'lchien. This word occurs in the 
Theatrum Chymicura, and seems to 
signify that power in nature, by which 
all corruption and generation are 
effected. 

Alchemi'lla. (So called because 
it was celebrated by the old alchy- 
mists). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Tetrandria ; Order, Monogynia. La- 
dies' mantle. The pharmacopceial 
name of the plant called ladies' man- 
tle . Alchemilla tndgaris ; Join's iobatis 
of Linneeus ; formerly esteemed as a 
powerful astringent in haemorrhages, 
fluor albus, &c. 

Alchemi'lla vulga'ris. Sec Al- 
chemilla. 

Alchimelec. (Heb.) The Egyp- 
tian melilot. 

A'lchemy. Alchernia. That branch 
of chymistry which relates to the 
transmutation of metals into gold ; 
the forming a panacea or universal 
remedy ; and manv other absurdities. 

A'lchibric. Sulphur. 

Alchimi'lla. See Alchemilla. 

A'lchitron. Oil of juniper ; also 
the name of a dentifrice of Messue. 

A'lchute. Sec Morum. 

A'lciiymy. Alchemy. 

A'lchlys. A speck on the pupil 
of the eye, somewhat obscuring vi- 
sion. 

A'lcimad. Antimony. 

A'lcob. Sal-ammoniac, or mu- 
riat of ammonia. 

Alco'calum. (Perhaps Indian). 
Artichoke, or cinara. 

A'lcofol. Antimony. 

A'lcohol. See Alkohol. 

A'lcola. (Heb.) The aphthae, or 
thrush. 

Alcoli'ta. Urine. 

Alco'ne. Brass. 

A'lcor. JEs ustum. 

A'lcte. The name of a plant 
mentioned by Hippocrates, Foesius 
thinks it is the elder. 

Alcu'brith. Sulphur. 

Alcyo'nium. Bastard sponge, a 



spongy plant-like substance, which 
is met with on the sea-shore : it is 
of different shapes and colours. They 
are calcined with a little salt, as 
dentifrices, and are used to remove 
spots on the skin. 

Alder tree. See Betula Alnus. 

Alder, berry -bearing. SeeRhamnus 
Frangula. 

Ale. Cerevisia. Liquor cereris. 
Vinum hordeaceum. Barley wine. A 
fermented liquor made from malt 
and hops. 

* # * Ale, when well fermented, is 
a wholesome beverage, and seems 
only to disagree with those subject 
to asthma, or any disorder of the 
respiration, or irregularity in the 
digestive organs. 

Aleara. A cucurbit. 

Ale'bria. (From alo, to nourish). 
Nourishing foods, or medicines. 

A'lec. Alech. Vitriol. 

Ale'charith. Mercury. 

Alei'mma. (From aXsupw, to a- 
noint). An ointment. 

Alei'on. ('AXeiov, copious). Hip- 
pocrates uses this word as an epi- 
thet for water. 

Alei'pha. (From a\a0o>, to a- 
noint) . Any medicated oil. 

Alelai'on. (From a\c, salt, and 
tXatov, oil). Oil beat up with salt, 
to apply to tumours. Frequently 
used by Galen. 

Ale'ma. (From a, priv. and Xifiog, 
hunger). Meat, food, or any thing 
that satisfies the appetite. 

Ale'mbic. (Some derive it from 
the Arabian particle al, and afiSiZ, 
from ajiGaivu), to ascend. Avicenna 
declares it to be Arab). Moorshead. 
A chymical utensil made of glass, 
metal, or earthen-ware, and adapted 
to receive volatile products from 
retorts. 

Ale'mbroth, A Chaldee word, 
importing the key of art. A pecu- 
liar earth, probably containing a 
fixed alkali, found in the island of 
Cyprus. A solution of the corrosive 
sublimate, to which the muriat of 
ammonia has been added, is called 
sal alembroth. 

Ale'mzadar. Crude sal ammo- 
niac, or muriat of ammonia. 
D 



ALG 



•26 



ALI 



' Ale'mzadat. Crude sal ammo- 
niac, or muriat of ammonia. 

Alepe'nsis. A species of ash tree 
which produces manna. 

A'les. (From aXg, salt). The 
name of a compound salt. 

Aleu'ron. (From aXsw, to grind) . 
Meal. 

Alexanders, common. This plant, 
Smymium olusatrum of Linnaeus, 
was formerly cultivated for salads. 
Nov/ superseded by celery. 

Alexanders, round - leaved 
Smymium perfoliatum of Linnaeus. 
The blanched stalks of this species 
arc much superior to those of com- 
mon alexanders, and are esteemed 
as stomachic and nervine. 

Alexandria. Alexandrina. The 
bay-tree, or laurel, of Alexandria. 

Alexa'ndrium. Emplastrum vi- 
ride. A plaster described by Celsus, 
made with wax, alum, &c. 

Alexica'ca. (From aXe^oj, to 
drive away, and kclkov, evil). Alexi- 
cactim. An antidote, or amulet, to 
resist poison. 

Alexipha'rmics. (Alexipharmica, 
sc. medicamenta, from aXflw, to ex- 
X>el, and (pappaicov, a poison). Me- 
dicines supposed to preserve the 
body against the power of poisons, 
or to correct or expel those taken. 

Alexipyre'ticum. (From aXe^ui, 
to drive away, and Trvperog, fever). 
A febrifuge. A remedy for fever. 

Alexify'retos. Akxipyretum. The 
same as alexipyreticum. 

Alf/xir. An elixir. 

Alexite'ria. Preservatives against 
contagion. 

Alexite'rium. (From aXe^io, to 
expel, and rrjoeo), to preserve). An 
antidote against poison or contagion. 

Alfa'cta. Distillation. 

Alfa'tide. Muriat of ammonia. 

Alfa'sra. Alphcsara. Arabic terms 
for the vine. 

A'lfadas. Alfidcs. Cerusse. 

A'lfol. Muriat of ammonia. 

A'LFUSA. Tutty. 

A'LGALI. A catheter. Also nitre. 

A'lgakah. Sec A nchilops. 

A'LGAROTH. (So called from Vic- 
♦orius Aigaroth, a physician of Ve- 
rona, and its inventor), Algarot, 



A term met with in Sam-ages* 



Algarothi. Mer curias vita. Pulvu 
Algarothi. The antimonial part of 
the .butter of antimony, separated 
from some. of its acid by washing it 
in water. It is violently emetic in 
doses of two or three grains, and is 
preferred by many for making the 
emetic tartar. 

_ Alge'do. (From aXyoc, pain) . A 
violent pain about the anus, perinae- 
um, testes, urethra, and bladder, 
arising from the sudden stoppage of 
a virulent gonorrhoea. A term sel- 
dom used. 

Alge'ma. (From aXyecj, to be in 
pain). Algemodes. Algematodes. Un- 
easiness, pain of any kind. 

Algk'rije. Algirie. Lime. 

A'lgeroth. See Aigaroth. 

A'lgibic. Sulphur vivum. 

A'lgor. A sudden dullness or 
rigor, 
and Sagar's Nosology. 

Algosarel. The Daucus sylves- 
t?*is 9 or carrot. 

Alguada. A white leprous erup- 
tion. 

Alha'gi. (Arab.) A species of 
Hedysarum. The flowers are pur- 
gative, the leaves hot and pungent. 

Alha'xN'dala. (Arab.) Colocynth, 
or bitter apple. 

Alha'sef. (Arab.) Alhasaf. A 
kind of foetid pustule, called also 
Hydroa. 

A'lia squi'lla. (From aXioc, be- 
longing to the sea, and (wiXXa, a 
shrimp). A prawn. 

A'lica. (From alare, to nourish). 
A grain ; a sort of food admired by 
the ancients. It is not, however, 
certain whether it is a grain, or a 
preparation of some kind thereof. 

A'lices. (From aXi%w, to sprin- 
kle). Little red spots in the skin, 
which precede the eruption of pus- 
tules in the small-pox. 

Aliena'tio mentis. (From alic- 
nare } to estrange). Delirium. Men- 
tal derangement. 

Alifo'rmes mu'sculi. Muscles so 
called, from their supposed resem- 



blance to wings. 



Vide Ptcrigoideus. 



Alimentary canal. Alimentary 
duct. A name given to the whole 
of those passages which the food 



ALK 



27 



ALK 



passes through from the mouth to 
the anus. 

Alimentary duct. See Alimen- 
tary canal. The thoracic duct is 
sometimes so called. 

Alimos. Common liquorice. 

A'limu.m. See Arum. 

Alinde'sis. ('AXivdnmg, from a- 
XivcHfxaiy to be turned about). A 
bodily exercise, which seems to be 
rolling on the ground, or rather in 
the dust, after being anointed with 
oil. Hippocrates says it hath nearly 
the same effect as wrestling. 

Alip/e'nos. (From a, neg. and Xi- 
7raivo), to be fat). Alipanium. Ali- 
pantos. An external remedy, with- 
out fat or moisture. 

Alipa'sma. (From aXtifyco, to a- 
nointj. An ointment rubbed upon 
the body, to prevent sweating. 

Alipe. Remedies for wounds in 
the cheek, to prevent inflammation. 

Alipow. A species of turbith, 
found near Mount Ceti, in Langue- 
doc. It is a powerful purgative, used 
instead of senna, but is much more 
active. 

Ali'fte. (From aXa^w, to anoint). 
Servants who anointed the persons 
after bathing. 

Alisanders, See Smt/rnii/in. 

Ali'sma. (From a\g, the sea). 
Water-plantain. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Linncean system : 
Class, Htxandria ,• Order, Polygyria, 

Ali'stelis. (From «Xc;, the sea). 
Muriat of ammonia. 

A'litt. Alith. Asafoetida. 

Alkafi'al. Antimony. 

A'lkaiiest. An imaginary uni- 
versal menstruum, or solvent. See 
Alcahest. 

A'lcaiiest Glaube'ri. Alkaline 
salts. 

A'lkaiiat Glaube'ri. An alkali. 

A'lkali. (Alcali, in Arabic, sig- 
nifies burnt ; or from al and kali, 
i.e. the essence, or the whole of 
kali, the plant from which it was 
originally prepared, though now de- 
rived from plants of every kind). 
Alcali) alafi, alafor, alafort y calcadis. 
A term given to substances which 
possess the following properties : viz, 
incombustible, and soluble in water j 



an acrid, urinous taste; uniting with 
another class of bodies called acids, 
and forming new compounds, in 
which both the acid and alkaline 
properties are more or less lost. 
They render oils miscible with water. 
They change various blue vegetable 
pigments to green ; red to violet, or 
blue ; and yellow to brown. Blue 
pigments, that have been turned red 
with acids, are again restored by 
alkalis to their primitive colours. 
They attract water and carbonic acid 
from the atmosphere. They unite to 
sulphur by fusion, and by means of 
water. They exert a great solvent 
power on the cellular membrane and 
animal fibre. They also corrode 
woollen cloth, and, if sufficiently 
concentrated, convert it into a sort 
of saponaceous jelly. 

There are only three kinds of al- 
kalis at present known : 1. The 
mineral, called sutla, in the new 
chemical nomenclature. (See Soda). 
2. The vegetable, called potassa, in 
the new chemical nomenclature. (See 
Potassa). 3. Ammonia, or the caustic 
volatile alkali, is the third. See 
. li/imunia. 

To these, some chemists add barytes, 
and some other earths : which, agree- 
ing with alkalis in some respects, are 
properly called alkaline earths. 

Alkalescent. Slightly alkaline. 

Alkali, CAUSTIC. An alkali is so 
called when deprived of the carbonic 
acid it usually contains, for it then 
becomes more caustic, and more 
violent in its action. 

A'lkali fi'xl.m. Those alkalis 
are so called, that emit no character- 
istic smell, and cannot be volatilized, 
but with the greatest difficulty. Two 
kinds of fixed alkalis have only 
hitherto been made known, namely, 
potash and soda. See Potassa and 
Soda. 

Alkali , fossile. See Soda. 

Alkali , mineral. (So called be- 
cause it forms the basis of marine 
salts). See Soda. 

Alkali, vegetable, (So called be- 
cause it abounds in many vegetables). 
See Potassa, 

Alkali, volatile, (So called be- 
D2 



ALL 



28 



ALL 



cause it is volatile, in opposition to 
the other alkalis, which are fixed). 
See Ammonia. 

Alkali'na. A class of substances 
described by Cullen as comprehending 
the substances otherwise termed an- 
tacida. They consist of alkalis, and 
other substances which neutralize 
acids. 

Alkalization. (AlkalizatiOy o?iis y 
f ) . Alkalization. The impregnation 
of any thing with an alkaline salt, as 
spirit of wine, &c. 

A'lkanet. (AlkaiwJiy a reed, Arab.) 
Radix Anchusae. 

Alka'nna. See Anchusa. 

Alka'nna ve'ra. See Lawsonia. 

Alka'sa. Alksoal. A crucible. 

Alka'nthum. Arsenic. 

A'lkant. Quicksilver. 

Alkeke'ngi. (Alkekengi, Arab.) 
The winter-cherry. See Physalis. 

Alke'riyies. A term borrowed 
from the Arabs, denoting a celebrated 
remedy, of the form and consistence 
of a confection, whereof the kermes 
is the basis. See Kermes. 

Alke'rva. (Arab.) Castor oil. 

A'lkoiiol. (An Arabian word, 
which signifies antimony: so called 
from the custom of the Eastern ladies 
to paint their eye-brows with this 
mineral). Alcohol. Spii'itusvinirecti- 
ficatus. Spiritus vini rectijicatissimus. 
A highly rectified spirit of wine, freed 
from all those aqueous particles which 
arc not essential to it, by duly per- 
forming rectification, miscible with 
water in all proportions. It is not 
known to freeze in any degree of 
coldness. It is the direct menstruum 
or solvent of resins. It dissolves, 
also, the natural balsams. 

A'lkosor. Camphire. 

A'lki plumbi. Supposed to be 
acetate of lead. 

Alky.mia. Powder of basilisk. 

A'llabor. Lead. 

Allan ixm'des MEMITOA'na. (Allan- 
toiitcs; from a\\ac> a hog's pudding, 
and tiioc,, likeness ; because in some 
brutal animals, it is long and thick). 

A membrane of the foetou, peculiar 

to brutes, which contains the urine 
discharged from the bladder. 

ALLELUl'A. (He!). Praise the LordJ. 



The acetosa, or wood-sorrel ; so 
named from its many virtues. See 
Oralis. 

All-good. English mercury. The 
vulgar name for the Chenopodium 
homes Henricus of Linnaeus ; a plant 
which may be boiled for spinach, and 
in no degree inferior to it. See 
Chenopodium. 

All-heal. See Heraclium and 
Stachys. 

Allia'ria. (From allium, garlick ; 
from its smell resembling garlick). 
Jack-of-the-hedge. Sauce-alone, or 
stinking hedge -mustard. See Ery- 
simicm, 

A'llicar. Vinegar. 

Alli'coa. Petroleum. 

Alligatu'ra. A ligature, or 
bandage. 

Allio'ticum. (From aWiow, to 
alter, or vary). An alterative me- 
dicine, consisting of various antiscor- 
butics. Galen. 

A'llium. (From olere, to smell, 
because it stinks ; or from a\fo>, to 
avoid, as being unpleasant to most 
people). Garlick. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Hexandria; Order, J\/o- 
nogynia. Garlick. The pharmaco- 
pceial name of garlick. Four species 
of this genus are used medicinally. 
See Allium Sativum. 

A'llium ce'pa. The onion. Ctpa. 
Allium. Externally, onions are em- 
ployed in suppurating poultices, and 
suppression of urine in children is 
said to be relieved by applying them, 
roasted, to the pubes. 

A'llium po'rrum. The leek or 
porret. Porrum. Allium porrum of 
Linnaeus. The expressed juice pos- 
sesses diuretic qualities, and is given 
in the cure of dropsical diseases, and 
calculous complaints. 

A'llium sati'vum. Garlick. Al- 
lium. A species of garlick, which, 
according to Linnaeus, grows spon- 
taneously in Sicily; but, as it is 
much employed for culinary and 
medicinal purposes, it has been long 
very generally cultivated in gardens. 
Even* part of the plant, but more 
especially the root, has a pungent 
acrimonious taste, and a peculiarly 



ALM 



29 



ALO 



offensive strong smell ; which is so 
extremely penetrating and diffusive, 
that, on the root being taken into 
the stomach, the alliaceous scent im- 
pregnates the whole system, and is 
discoverable in the various excretions , 
as in the urine, perspiration, milk, &c. 

A'llium victoria' i.e. Victor talis 
longa, The root, which when dried 
loses its alliaceous smell and taste, 
is said to be efficacious in allaying 
the abdominal spasms of gravid fe- 
males. 

Allo'choos. (From aWoc, an- 
other, and ^fw, to pour). Hippo- 
crates uses this word to express de- 
lirium. 

Ai.loeo'sis. (From aWog, an- 
other). Alteration in the state of a 
disease. 

Alloeo'tica. (From aWog, an- 
other). Alteratives. Medicines which 
change the appearance of the disease. 

Allogno'sis. (From aWog, an- 
other, and yii'oxTKiOy to know). De- 
lirium ; perversion of the judgment ; 
incapability of distinguishing persons. 

Ai.lo'piiasis. (From aXXot*, an- 
other, and</;rto>, to Speak). According 
to Hippocrates, a delirium, where 
the patient is not able to distinguish 
one thing from another. 

Allotriopha'cia. (From aXXJI- 
pioc, foreign, and tyayw, to eat). A 
synonym of pica. Sec Pica, In Yo- 
gel's Nosology it signifies the greedily 
eating unusual things for food. 

Allov. Chemists and artificers 
commonly understand by this word, 
any portion of base metal, or metal- 
lic mixture, which is added to lower 
the more valuable metals, particu- 
larly gold and silver ; likewise all 
compounds of metals united by fusion 
into one seemingly homogeneous 
mass, unless mercury be present, 
when they arc termed amalgams. 

Allspice. See Myrtus Pimento, 

A'lma. Water ; and the first 
motion of a foetus to free itself from 
its confinement. 

Almabri. A stone-like amber. 

A'lmagra. Bolum cuprum. — 1 . Red 
earth, or ochre, used by the ancients 
as an astringent. — 2. Rulandus says 
it is the same as Lotio. — 3. In the 



Theatrum Chymicum, it is a name 
for the white sulphur of the alchy- 
mists. 

Almara'nda. Almnkis. Litharge. 

Alma'nda catha'rtica. A plant 
growing on the shores of Cayenne 
and Surinam, used by the inhabitants 
as a remedy for the colic ; supposed 
to be cathartic. 

Alm a'rcab. (Arab.) Litharge of 
silver. 

Almarca'rida. Litharge of silver. 

Alma'rgen. Ahnarago. Coral. 

Almarkasi'ta. Mercury. 

Aoia'rtak. Powder of litharge. 

Almata'tica. Copper, 

Al:\i ec x'site. Almcc/iasite. Copper. 

Ai.meailf/tu. A word used by 
Aviecnna, to express a preternatural 
heat less than that of fever, and 
which may continue after a fever. 

Alme'ne. Sal lucidum, or sal 
gemmae. 

Almi'sa. Musk. 

Almiza'dir« Verdigris, ormuriat 
of ammonia. 

Almiza'dar. Muriat of ammonia. 

Almond, bitter. See Amygdalus, 

Almond, common. See Amygdalus. 

Almond, sweet. See .Imygdalus. 

Almonds of the BARS. \ popular 
name for the tonsils, which have 
been so called from their resemblance 
to an almond in shape. See Tonsils. 

Almonds op THE THROAT. A vul- 
gar name for the tonsils. 

Alnabati. In Avieenna and Se- 
rapion, this word means the sHiqua- 
dulcis, a gentle laxative. 

A'lnec. Stannum, or tin. 

A'lneric. Sulphur vivum. 

A'lnus. (Alno, Ital.) The alder- 
tree. 

The pharmacopceial name of two 
plants, sometimes used in medicine, 
though rarely employed in the pre- 
sent practice. 1. Alnus rotundifolia ; 
glutinosa ; viridis; the common alder- 
tree. See Bctula. — 2. Alnus nigra, vel 
frangula; the black, or berry-bearing 
alder. See Rhamnus Frangula. 

A'loe. (From ahlah, a Hebrew 
word, signifying growing near the 
sea). The Aloe. A genus of plants 
of the Linnaean system : Class, Hex- 
andria; Order, Monogvnia, 
D3 



ALO 



30 



ALT 



A' ? C JItna. /"</ Guinensis, 
See 

A l OB rr. r fo n A r a . J \I Socotorina . 
Zocotorina. See A<o$$. 

Wain '. CIsl , <■»-. f. Ftl Hfttttr*. 

The i i juice of the aloe 

A well-known stimulating 

purgative, a property which it pos- 

- ? ^i\vn internally, or when 

ernally applied. Aloes are dis- 
tinguished into three species, socoto- 
rutat, /,\jntt\\ and cabailittv : of which 
the two first are directed for officinal 
use in our pharmacopoeias . the last 
is employed chiefly by farriers. 
* # * Aloes is administered eiihersim - 
is the :' . powder, which is 

too nauseous ; or else in composition : 
— 1. With pnrg s, tfl k ■ si un- 

:iv, c ltb • or rhubarb. — 

2. With aromaties. as canelia ginger, 
or essentia! oils, — 3. With bitters, 

rentian. — I. With. .agogues, 

as iron, myrrh, wine, &c. 

Aloeda'kia. From aXsafr the 
•toe). Co Lrging medicines, 

so called from having alo. the 

chief ingredient. 

Alo: red 

emi pf sloes fend aro- 

' c>. 

\ i bo*. See ./.' i 

A'LOF.S SPiC\ l\£ EXTRVcTOI. An 

o^ ;i :;a: preparation of alo 

A'loes \t. lga'ris exi ■ tfl 1 1 •:. 
See Aloe. 

Alof/v! Medicares wherein 

aloes i> the dnef or fundamental 

,-redient. 

Alogotro'fhia. v From a\oyoc, 
uaie, ;i:ivl roeOu*, to nou- 
rish . I .1 noorisnment, as iu 
the rickets. 

A'lohA::. Arab*) Ahhoc. Mercury. 

A i OSSL/Gfu ftf. See / 

Alo'\!3\. .:' . Plum- 

bum, or lead. 

<>'peces. From c\v^t»j£. 
fox . The pso3EMiiii<cle> ar 
by Fallopius and Yesalius, beca 
they are particularly strong in the fox. 

Alopi. V ; | . From t A»t»7ri/£, a fo 
because the fox is subject to a dis- 
temper that resembles it : or. ;i- 
some say, because the fox's uriue 
will occasion baldness). Athrix dc- 



s. Phalacrotis. Baldness, or the 
falling: orf of the hair ; when on the 
forehead, calvitie?, cnh'itium. 

Alo'sx. From oXiffmr, to take ; 
because it is a ravenous fish). The 
Shad. See Cli rt 

Ai.osu'. AtvsoJ.c. Ouicksilver. 

Aloswfih. From a\<;, salt, 
and ortW. a flower . A/vsunthum. 
Flowers of salt. 

ALFHABF.'lTM CUv'.MlCL M. Chy- 

jnical alphabet. One was left by 
Raymond Lully, but to which pur- 
pose is dinieult to say. 

Ai niANic. AtpLtfue. An Arabian 
word signifying tender] for barley- 
S ; ar, or sugar-candy. 

v li'iiiiA. (Alph it* , the plural of 
aXftiW, the meal of barley in gene- 
ral . Barley-meal either toasted Of 
fried. Hipp. 

Airm'riDON. Aiphitid::;n. When 
a bone is broken into small fragments 
like Alphitai or bra a. 

Ai.piio'nsin. The name of an old 
instrument for extracting balls, in- 
vented by a Neapolitan physician 
called Alphonso Ferrier. 

A'lpHUS. [AXfOg, from A . .. 
to change ; because it changes the 
colour of the skin . Lrpra macm 
alba. A species of leprosy, called by 
the ancients vitiligo y ami which they 
divided into a!phus % mc'as^ and fence. 
Produced by a peculiar miasma en- 
demial to Arabia. See Lepra. 

A'lpim BA'LSARlt «, Balm of Gi- 
lcad. 

A lrachas. Lead. 

A i r a n c \. An Arabic word used 
by ARnicasis, to signify a partial or 
a total imperfora; the n 

Alsa'macu. An Arabic name for 
the great hole in Che OS petrosnm. 

A i sine. From . a grove ; 

<o called becanse it grows in great 

mdance in wood- hadyplao 

The name of a _ - of plants in the 
Linn-van - i : Class, Paitaudria ; 

Order, Ttigynik. Chickweed. 

Ain.nf. mkoia. Mnrsus gaUir.cr 
centunculits. Chickweed, which, it 
boiled tender, may be eaten like 
spinach, and forms also au excellent 
emollient poultice. 

A'ltafok. Camphor. 



ALL- 



SI 



ALY 



& fA - rant^.a, Bene- 
fit t omenta : fro: a afcrrwre, to change ) . 
arc so called, whic". 
a fit re-establish the 

.- functions of the animal e 
. 
-nV:t. 
Al • -.. Fro-: I bed ; 

so called from its supposed qualities 
in healing . Marsh-mallow. — The 
name of a ereir:= of plan*. 
Linnaean system-. Class, Mono 

■■;. Pa >, jndria. 1 
macopceial name of the marsh -mal- 
. 

ICfKAU 

ten;.. marsh -mailow. 

</j?<r: — ibrutomewtoti*. 

Tb I are generally 

select* He. The mu 

■ r whiehl 

comma 
Her. cent qua 1 . 

. loarsene- catarrbs, 

; and dHner 1 heat 

of urine. It rata passages in 

nephriv t mplai i which last 

rase a decoction t best pre- 

paration. 

■ 
\i An 

for a son ' - , such as ■ • - 

red m cachectic and leuco-plii 

to care, 
Hi 

this wor d arc of a 

temper. 

A lt 1 1 n T . Tli e L asrrpitium of the 
ancient . A a. 

I D. Arab. Aloe-. 
All;, I. How spheres of 

. *ss, or earthenware; used in 
for the sublimation of 
ral substanc 
\l< ". - . Ussaen. 

.:. \r\,. Astos, 

. <ueb, t Sulpha* alumina? 

• /. Steper- snip fun 

■ mJMaretpatmttaf. Argillavitrwlata. 

A strongly astrir 
ic salt formed by the combination 
the earth called rd amine, or pure 
cla ■ little 

potash, or ammonia. 



*** T ' hen deprived of it- Lcr 
placing it in an earthen pen c 

i till it ceases to bubble, 
it is termed burnt alum, ahanen 
. and is sometimes em- 
ployed by surgeons to destroy fune/ 
flesh, anc rincipal i _ 

most styptic powders. in se- 

ll astringent lotions, gargles, in- 
jections, and coHyria. 

• v. A name 
potash. I .:■:'..- -pecies and j 
paragons, see Alum*: 

A nina. Earth 

alum. Pure 

All 'mp n- 

mated with particles of 
Manna. 
Alvea'rjlm. a 

beei i That part of th tus 

auu . ternus isso called, which 

contains the cerumen of the ear. 

ctolus, a 
dimin «, a ea 

socket : I he teet 

npa cc 
tfce conamoo duct, or communication 
of the amp oil a? of theroeinbranact 
ser:. r canals in the inter 

ear, bv name. 

A irt of 

duct conT*yini T the chyle to 
subclarian t 

A - ; ;elly, 

and ducerr, to draft- . Pm 
dicines. 

'From tdmn, and 
Jbtert, to flow \ diarrhoea. 

; 

A . - . . / . I . f. and some- 
times, m. ab alhimdoy qua I'rrdzs al- 
. Tbe beflj, Hiwrntj la I 
entrails. 

A'lv From aXno, to 

anx The anxiety attendant on 

- . 
Ali'jia. 'From a,: I ~7, 

pain . A gentle pnrj i of I 
hu moors without pai 

A l v'n AS. . ; lypum . A ?peci c 5 of 
spurge, so called because it purr- 
and without pain. 
A' ?m oXrw, to be 

restless . Res tl esse* 

A; m. From «. neg". and 

~>7a, the bite of a mad dec : so 



AMA 



32 



AMB 



tailed because it was foolishly thought 
to be a specific in this accident). 
Mad- wort. See Marrubium. 

Aly'ssum gale'ni. See Marru- 
bium verticillatum. 

Aly'ssum pli'mi. See Galium 
album, 

Aly'ssum verticilla'tum. The 
marrubium verticillatum. 

Alze'mafor. Cinnabar. 

A'lzum. Aldum. Aldrum. The 
name of the tree which produces gum 
bdellium, according to some ancient 
authors. 

A'ma. (apci, together). A word 
used in composition. 

Amadou. A variety of the bo- 
letus ignarius, found on old ash and 
other trees. Spunk or German tin- 
der, made by impregnating it with a 
solution of nitre, &c. 

Ama'lgam. (From ajia, and 
yapeiv, to marry). A substance 
produced by mixing mercury with a 
metal, by which means the two be- 
come incorporated. 

Amame'lis. (From a\ia, and/x^Xga, 
an apple). The bastard medlar of 
Hippocrates. 

Amani'tie. (From a, priv. and 
p.avia, madness ; so called, because 
they are eatable and not poisonous, 
like some others) . A tribe of fungous 
productions, called mushrooms, truf- 
fles, morells, champignons, &c. 

Ama'ra. (Amara, sc. medicamenta ; 
from amarus, bitter). Bitters. 

*#* The principal bitters used me- 
dicinally are : the pare bitters, gen- 
tiana lutea; humulus lupulus ; and 
quassia amara: styptic bitters, cin- 
thfma officinalis; croton cascarilla; 
quassia simarouba: and aromatic 
bitters, artemisia absinthium ; anthe- 
mis nobilis; hyssopus, &c. 

Ama'ra dul'cjs. See Solatium 
Dulcamara, 

Ama'racus. (From a, neg. and 
fiapaivio, to decay; because it keeps 
its virtues a longtime). Marjoram. 

A'marantii e'sculent. SccAma- 
ranthus Oleraceus. 

Amara^ntiius. (From a, neg. and 
fiapaivcj, to decay). The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnocan 
system. 



Amara'nthus olera'ceus. Escu- 
lent Amaranth. The leaves of this, 
and several other species, are eaten 
in India the same as cabbage is here. 

Amato'ria febris. (From amare s 
to love). See Chlorosis. 

Amato'ria venefi'cia. (From 
amare, to love, andveneficium, witch- 
craft). Philters. Love powders. 

Amato'rii. (Amatorii, sc. mus- 
culi). A term given to the muscles 
of the eye, by which that organ is 
moved in ogling. 

Amatzqui'ti. (Indian.) See Ar- 
butus Unedo. 

Amaurosis. (Afiavpojcig : from 
afiavpeu), to darken or obscure). 
Gutta serena. Amblyopia. Fr. L ' 'A- 
maurose. Germ. Schwurzer Staar, 
A genus of disease in the Class Lo- 
cales, and Order Dysesthesia? of 
Cullen. It arises generally from 
compression of the optic nerves, 
amaurosis compressionis ; from debi- 
lity, amaurosis atonica; from spasm, 
amaurosis spasmodica ; or from poi- 
sons, amaurosis venenata. A disease 
of the eye, attended with a diminu- 
tion or total loss of sight, without 
any visible injury to the organ, and 
arising from a paralytic affection of 
the retina and optic nerve. See 
Beer's Lehnc von den Augen kranka- 
ten, b. ii. p. 420, etscq. ; Hey, in Med, 
Obs. and Inquiries, vol. v. &c. &C. 

Amber-seed. (See Hibiscus abel- 
moschns. 

A'mbe. (Afitij, the edge of a 
rock; from afiQaivu), to ascend). 
An old chirurgical machine for re- 
ducing dislocations of the shoulder. 

A'mbela. (Arab.) The cornered 
hazle-nut, the bark of which is pur- 
gative. 

Amber. Succinum. A beautiful 
bituminous substance, of a yellow or 
brown colour, either transparent or 
opaque, which takes a good polish, 
and, after a slight rubbing, becomes 
so electric, as to attract straws and 
small bodies ; it was called ij\i ktqov 
(dvctrum) by the ancients, and hence 
the word electricity. An oil is ob- 
tained from it, which, as well as its 
other preparations, is occasionally 
used in medicine against spasmodic 



A. MB 



33 



AMI 



diseases. See Oleum Succiui, and 
Succinic Acid. 

Ambergris. (Ambragriseu). A 
concrete, bituminous substance, of 
a soft and tenacious consistence, 
marked with black and yellow spots, 
and of an agreeable and strong smell 
when heated or rubbed. 

* # * The medical qualities of am- 
bergris are stomachic, cordial, and 
antispasmodic. Seldom used in this 
country. 

Amblo'sis. (AfitXiocrig: from a\i- 
€\ooj, to cause abortion). A mis- 
carriage. 

Amblo'tica. (Amblotica, sc. me- 
dicamenta, Ofi&koTOM ; fromaju6\ow, 
to cause abortion) . Medicines sup- 
posed to cause abortion. 

Amblyopia. (From o*€Xmjc. s in- 
complete, dull, and wvi/, the eye). 
Hippocrates means by this word, 
dimness of sight to which old people 
are subject. Paul us Actuarius, and 
the best modern writers, seem to 
think that amblyopia means the 
same thing as the incomplete amau- 
rosis, or the weakness of sight at- 
tending this disorder. Modern If 'ti- 
ters ; Wtr drop's Essays, Sc/unuehcr, 
Rickter 9 Scarpa, Fravers, Sfc. §c. 
Sec Gutta serena, and Amauro 

Amblyos'mis. Amblytes. The 
same. 

A'mbo. (Indian.) The mango. 
' A'.MBON. (From ap^anno, to as- 
cend). The margin or tip of the 
sockets in which the heads of the 
large bones are lodged. Cclsus, 

A'mbone. See Ambe. 

A'.mbra. Amber. Also an aro- 
matic gum. 

A'mbra cinera'cea. (From ci- 
neraceus, of the colour of ashes). 
Ambergris and grey amber. 

A'mbra gris'ea. Ambergris. 

A'mbram. Amber. 

Ambre'tte. See Hibiscus abel- 
moschus. 

Ambulati'va. (From ambulate, 
to walk). A species of herpes; from 
its walking or creeping, as it were, 
about the body. 

A'mbii.o. (From a^aWoj, to 
cast forth). Flatus Furiosus. A 
periodical flatulent disease, caused, 



according to Michaelis, by vapours 
shooting through various parts of 
the body. 

Ambu'stio. (From amburare, to 
burn). Ambustum. A burn or 
scald. 

Ame'lla. The same as achmella. 

Amenorrhea. (From a, priv. 
f.u]v, a month, and pew, to flow). 
A partial or total obstruction of the 
menses in women, from other causes 
than pregnancy and old age. Dr. 
Cullen places this genus in the Class 
Locales, and Order Episclieses. 

Ame'ntia. (From a, priv. and 
mens, the mind). Imbecility of in- 
tellect, by which the relations of 
things are either not perceived, or 
not recollected. A disease in the 
Class Neuroses, and Order Vesanioc 
of Cullen. When it originates at 
birth, it is called amentia congenita, 
natural stupidity ; when from the 
infirmities of age, amentia senilis, 
dotage, or cliildishness ; and when 
from some accidental cause, amentia 
acf/ui.sita. 

American balsam. See Myroxy- 
Ion Peniiftrum. 

America'num TiBERo'si m. The 
potatoe. An American tuberose root. 
See Solanui/i. 

Amkiuv'sta tha'rmaca. (From 
a, ncg. and peOe, wine). Medicines 
which were said cither to prevent or 
remove the effects of wine. Galen. 

Amethy'stus. (From a, neg. 
and f.itQv<j)i(i), to be inebriated). The 
amethyst. A precious stone, so called 
because, in former times, according 
to Plutarch, it was thought to pre- 
vent drunkenness. Jiuland. in Lex, 
Chym. 

Amianthus. Mountain flax. 

AMi'dLLM. A little short cloak. 
It is the same as the amnios-, but 
anciently meant a covering for the 
pubes of boys, when they exercised 
in the gymnasium. Rhodius. 

Amidine. A substance produced, 
according to M. De Saussure, when 
the paste of starch is abandoned to 
itself, with or without being in con- 
tact with air. 

A'midum. See Amylum. 

Aminje'um, A wine produced in 



AMM 



34 



AMM 



Aminaea, formerly a province of 
Italy ; called also Salernum, Also 
a strong wine vinegar. 

A'mmi. (Afifit : from apfiog, sand, 
from its likeness to little gravel- 
stones). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnsean system. The 
pharmacopceial name of the herb 
bishop's weed, of which there are 
two sorts ; the ammi verum, and 
vulgare. 

A'mmi ma'jus. The systematic 
name for the ammi vulgare of the 
shops. The seeds of this plant, Ammi 
maj-its of Linnaeus, are less powerful 
than those of the Sison ammi, but 
were exhibited with the same views. 

A'mmi ve'rum. See Sison ammi. 

A'mmi vulga're. SeeAmmimajus. 

A'mmi on. Ammium. Cinnabar. 

Ammocho'sia. (From «ju/xoc, sand, 
and x S0J 9 to pour). A remedy for 
drying the body, by sprinkling it 
with hot sand. Oribasius. 

Ammo'nia aceta'ta. See Liquor 
acetatis ammonite. 

Ammo'nia muria'ta. See Sal am- 
moniac. 

Ammo'nia prep^era'ta. See Sub- 
carbonas ammonia. 

Ammo'nia. Ammonia gas. The 
substance so called, is an aeriform 
or gaseous body. Its chief use in 
surgery is as an external discutient 
application. 

Water of ammonia is very rarely 
given internally, although it may be 
used in doses of ten or twenty drops, 
largely diluted, as a powerful sti- 
mulant in asphyxia and similar dis^- 
eases. Externally, it is applied to 
the skin as a rubefacient, and in the 
form of gas to the nostrils, and to the 
eyes as a stimulant : in cases of tor- 
por, paralysis, rheumatism, syncope, 
hysteria, and chronic ophthalmia. 

The other preparations of ammonia 
in use are, 

1 . The subcarbonatc of ammonia. 
See Ammonia? subcarbonas, and Am- 
monia* subcarbonatis liquor. 

2. The acetate of ammonia. See 
Ammonia? acetatis liquor. 

3. The muriate of ammonia. See 
Sal ammoniac. 

4t Ferritin ammoniatum. 



5. Several tinctures and spirits, 
holding ammonia in solution. 

Ammoni'acum. (Afifioviaicov: so 
called from Ammonia, whence it was 
brought) . Gum- ammoniac. A con- 
crete gummy resinous juice, com- 
posed of little lumps, or tears, of a 



strong 



and somewhat ungrateful 



smell, and nauseous taste, followed 
by a bitterness. It is imported from 
Turkey, and from the East Indies ; 
is principally employed as an expec- 
torant, and frequently prescribed in 
asthma and chronic catarrh, &c. 

Ammoni'je acetatis liquor. So- 
lution of acetate of ammonia ; for- 
merly called Aqua ammonia? acetai. 

*** This preparation was formerly 
known in the shops under the name 
of spirit of Mindererus. When as- 
sisted by a warm regimen, it proves 
an excellent and powerful sudorific ; 
and, as it operates without quickening 
the circulation, or increasing the heat 
of the body, it is admissible in febrile 
and inflammatory diseases, in which 
the use of stimulating sudorifics are 
attended with danger. Its action 
may likewise be determined to~ the 
kidneys, by walking about in the 
cool air. The common dose is half 
an ounce, either by itself, or along 
with other medicines, adapted to the 
same intention. 

Ammonia? carbonas. See Ammonia? 
subcarbonas. 

Ammonia? liquor. See Ammonia. 

Ammonia? murias. See Sal am- 
tnoniac. 

Ammo'nije subcarbo'nas. Ammo- 
nia? carbonas. Subcarbonatc of am- 
monia. This preparation was for- 
merly called auunonia pr&parata, 
and sal volatilis salis ammoniaci, and 
sal volatilis. 

*^* This salt possesses nervine 
and stimulating powers, and is highly 
beneficial in the dose of from two to 
eight grains, in nervous affections, 
debilities, flatulency, and acidity 
from dyspepsia. 

Ammo'nia: subcarbona'tis liquor. 
Liquor chnmonia? carbouatis. Solu- 
tion of subcarbonatc of ammonia. 
The aqua ammonia: of the Pliariu. 
Lond. 17*7. 



AMP 



35 



AMP 



* # * This preparation possesses 
the properties of ammonia in its 
action on the human body. See 
Ammonice subcarbonas. 

Ammo'nion. (From a^x^iog, sand). 
A collvrium of great virtue in many 
diseases of the eye, which was said 
to remove sand or gravel from the 
eyes. Aetius. 

Ammo'mlm. Berzelius has given 
this name to a supposed metal which, 
with oxygen, he conceives to form 
the alkali called ammonia. See 
Ammonia. 

Amne'sia. (From a, priv. and 
fiv7](jLQ y memory). Amnestia. For- 
getfulness ; mostly a symptomatic 
affection. 

Amne'stia. See Amnesia. 

A'mnios. (From apvog, a lamb, 
or lamb's skin). The soft internal 
membrane which surrounds the foe- 
tus. 

Ammo'tic a'cid. A peculiar acid 
in the liquor of the amnios of the 
cow, to which Vauquelin and Bo- 
niva, who discovered it, have given 
this name. 

Amo'muM. (From an Arabian 
word, signifying a pigeon, whose 
foot it was thought to resemble . 
The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linna:an system : I lass, Afonan- 
dria; Order, Monogynies 

Amo'mlm verlm. True stone 
parsley. The seeds have been given 
as a carminative. 

Amo'mlm card amo'mlm. The 
former systematic name for the car- 
damomum minus. See Eltttaria car- 
damomum. 

Amo'mlm gra'm m paradisi. The 
systematic name of the plant which 
affords the grains of paradise. They 
are angular reddish brown seeds, 
smaller than pepper, and resembling 
very- much the seeds of the carda- 
momum minus. They are extremely 
hot, and similar in virtue to pepper. 

Amo'mlm zingiber. The former 
systematic name of the plant which 
affords ginger. See Zingiber oj/icinale. 

Amo'rge. See Amurca. 

Ampelosa'gria. (From ainrtXoc, 
a vine, and aypioc, wild;. See 
Bryonia. 



Amphemeri'nos. (From a/ui<pt, 
about, and t)fiepa, a day). Amphe- 
merina. A quotidian fever. A species 
of ague. 

Amphiarthro'sis. (Aj.i(t)iapQpoj<jig: 
from ctfKpi, both, and apOpuxng, an 
articulation ; so called from its par- 
taking both of diarthrosis and svnar- 
throsis). A mixed species of con- 
nexion of bones, which admits of an 
obscure motion, as is observed in the 
metacarpal and metatarsal bones, 
and the vertebras. 

Amphibious. (From a/i^i, ambo, 
and /3ioe, vita). Animals are thus 
called, that live on land and in the 
water. 

Ampniblestro'ides. (From ujx- 
<piG\t]rpov f a net, and ei?og, a re- 
semblance). The retina, or net-like 
coat of the eye. 

AMiiiiiiRA if chia. (From a/*6t, 
about, and/3pavxtrt> the jaws) . The 
fauces, or parts about the tonsils. 
Hippocrates and Foesius. 

Amphical'stis. (From a/i^t, 
about, and hclvgiq, ripe corn, puden- 
dum mulitbrc). A sort of wild bar- 
by. Eustachius says it was also to 
express the private parts of a wo- 
man. 

Amphideon. (From «ft£t, on both 
sides, and cauo, to divide). Amphi- 
dainn. Antpkidium. The os tincce> 
or mouth of the womb, which opens 
both ways, was so called by the an- 
cients. 

AMPmniARTiiRo'sis. The same as 
amphiarthrosis. 

AmpiiIMeri's \. (From cifxrpi, about, 
and i)}.itpa, a day). An intermitting 
fever of the quotidian kind. 

Ampiiime'trion. (From a/x(pi, about, 
and finrpajthe womb). A ' mphimetrium. 
The parts about the womb. Hipp. 

A'mphiplex. (From afx^i, about, 
and rrXtHTU), to connect). The part 
situated between the scrotum and 
anus, and which is connected with 
the thighs. Rufus Epheshis. 

Amphipnel'ma. (From aju0t, about, 
and irvtvjia, breath). Difficulty of 
breathing. Dyspnoea. Hippocrates. 

Amphi'polos. (From a/i<pi, about, 
and 7ro\eii>, to attend). Amphipolus. 
One who attends the bed of a sick 



AMY 



36 



AMY 



person, and administers to liim. Hip- 
pocrates, 

Amphismi'la. (From a/z$i, on both 
sides, and <7/n\?/, an incision-knife). 
A dissecting knife, with an edge on 
both sides. Galen. 

Ampu'lla. (AfxtoXKa : from ava- 
€aXka, to swell out). A bottle. 

Chym. All bellied vessels are so 
called, as bolt-heads, receivers, cu- 
curbits, &c. — Anat. By Scarpa, to 
the dilated portions of the membra- 
naceous semicircular canals, just 
within the vestibulum of the ear. 

Ampulle'scens. (From ampulla, 
a bottle) . The most tumid part of 
Pecquet's duct is called alveus am- 
pullescens. 

Amputa'tion. (From amputate, 
to cut off). Ectome. A surgical 
operation, which consists in the re- 
moval of a limb, or other part of 
the body ; as a leg, a finger, the 
penis, &c. 

Amule'tum. (From afipa, a bond ; 
because it was tied round the per- 
son's neck; or rather from afivvu), 
to defend). An amulet, or charm, 
worn against diseases, or evil spi- 
rits, &c. 

Amu'rca. (From apspyu), to press 
out). Atnorge. A small herb, whose 
expressed juice is used in dying. 
Also the sediment of the olive, after 
the oil has been pressed from it ; 
recommended by Hippocrates and 
Galen as an application to ulcers. 

Amu'tica. (From ctpvrru), to 
scratch). Medicines that, by vel- 
licating or scratching, as it were, 
the bronchia^ stimulate it to the dis- 
charge of whatever is to be thrown 
off the lungs. 

A'myche. (From ap,v<T<ro), to 
scratch) . A superficial laceration or 
exulceration of the skin ; a slight 
wound. Hipp. — Scarification. Galen. 

Amy'ctica. (From apvtrau), to 
vellicate) . Medicines which stimulate 
and vellicate the skin. Calius Au- 
rctianus, 

Amy'gdala. The almond. Sec 
Amygdalus. 

Amy'gdala dulcis. See Amyg- 
dalus. 
Am y'gdal a am a'ra. SccAmygdalus. 



Amy'gdala. The tonsils, so called 
from a supposed resemblance to al^ 
monds. 

Amy'gdalus. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Icosandria; Order, Monogynia. 
The almond-tree. 

Amy'gdalus commu'nis. The phar- 
macopceial name of the common 
almond. Amygdalus commwiis of 
Linnaeus. 

The almond is a native of Bar- 
bary. Their medicinal qualities de- 
pend upon the oil which they contain- 
in the farinaceous matter, and which 
they afford on expression, nearly in 
the proportion of half their weight. 
It is very similar to olive oil, perhaps 
rather purer, and is used for the 
same purposes. Demulcent in ca- 
tarrhal affections, stranguries, &c. 

Amy'gdalus pe'rsica. The sys- 
tematic name of the common peach- 
tree. The fruit is known to be 
grateful and wholesome, seldom dis- 
agreeing with the stomach, unless 
this organ is not in a healthy state, 
or the fruit has been eaten to excess, 
when effects similar to those of the 
other dulco-acid summer fruits may 
be produced. However, as the leaves 
and flowers of the persica manifest, 
in some degree, the quality of those 
of the Laurocerasus, they ought to 
be used with caution. 

A'myxa. (From amylum, starch). 
Any sort of chemical faecula, or 
highly-pulverized residuum. 

Amy'leon. Amy lion. Starch. 

A'mylum. (AjjivXov: from«,priv. 
and p.v\rjy a mill ; because it was 
formerly made from wheat, without 
the assistance of a mill) . Starch. The 
faecula of wheat, or starch of wheat. 
The white substance which subsides 
from the water that is mixed with 
wh eaten flour. 

%* Milk and starch, with the 
addition of suet, finely shred, and 
incorporated by boiling, was the 
soup employed by Sir John Pringlc, 
in dysenteries, where the mucous 
membrane of the intestines had been 
abraded. Externally, surgeons apply 
it as an absorbent in erysipelas. 

Amy'ris. (From a, intensive, and 



ANA 



37 



ANA 



fivpov, ointment, or balm ; so called 
from its use, or smell). The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system, of which two species are 
used in medicine. 

Amy'ris elemifera. The syste- 
matic name of the plant from which 
it is supposed the resin called gum- 
elemi is obtained. It is only used in 
ointments and plasters, and is a 
powerful digestive. 

Amy'ris opoba'lsamum. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant from which 
the balsam of Mecca is obtained. 
Balsam, or balm of Gilead. A re- 
sinous juice, obtained by making 
incisions into the bark of the Amyris 
Gileadensis of Linnaeus. 

A'myum. (From a, priv. and fivg, 
muscle). A limb so emaciated that 
the muscles scarcely appear. 

Ana. a, or aa. In medical pre- 
scriptions it means " of each." See^. 

Ana'basis. (From ava€atvw, to 
ascend). An ascension, augmenta- 
tion, or increase of a disease or pa- 
roxysm. Galif/t. It also signifies 
equisetum. 

Anaba'tica. (From ava&aivu, to 
ascend) . An epithet formerly applied 
to the synochus, or continual fever, 
when it increases in malignity. 

Anabe'xis. (From avaGijrlu), to 
cough up). An expectoration of mat- 
ter by coughing. 

Anable'psis. (From ava and 
' /3X.£7rw, to see again). The recovery 
of sight after it has been lost. 

Anablysis. (Fromai/aand/3\i/£o;, 
to gush out again). Ebullition or 
effervescence. 

Ana'bole. (From avataWoj, to 
cast up). The discharge of any thing 
by vomit ; also dilatation, or exten- 
sion. Galen. 

Anabroche'sis. (From ava and 
Ppo\tb), to resorb). The reabsorp- 
tion of matter. 

Anabrociii'smos. (From avatpo- 
Yjw, to reabsorb), Anabrochismus. 
The taking up and removing the hair 
on the eyelids, when they become 
troublesome. Galen, JEgineta, &c. 

Anabro'sis. (From avatpovw, to 
devour). A corrosion of the solid parts, 
by sharp and biting humours. Galen. 



Anaca'rdium occidenta'le. (From 
ava, without, and xapdia, a heart). 
The cashew-nut. 

Anaca'rdium orienta'le. Ana- 
cardium, or Malacca bean. See 
Avicenna. 

Anacatha'rsis. (From ava, and 
xaQaipopai, to purge up). An ex- 
pectoration of pus. A purgation by 
spitting, in which sense it stands 
contradistinguished from catharsis, 
or evacuation downwards. Hippo- 
crates and Galen. — Medicines which 
operate upwards, as vomiting, &c. 
Blancard. 

Anacatha'rtica. (From ava*a- 
daipofxaiy to purge upwards). Tho- 
racia. Medicines which promote 
expectoration, or emetics which act 
upwards. 

Ana'chron. Mineral alkali. 

Ana'clasis. (From ava*\a<o, to 
bend back). A reflection or recur- 
vature of any of the members. Hipp. 

Ana'clisis. TFrom avaxKivu), to 
recline). A couch, or sick-bed. Id. 

Anacozlia'smus. (From ava, and 
HoiXia, the bowels). A gentle purge, 
which was sometimes used to relieve 
the lungs. 

Anaco'che. (From avanioxtoj , 
to retard). Delay in the adminis- 
tration of medicines ; also slowness 
in the progress of a disease. Hipp. 

Anacolle'ma. (From ava, and 
xoWaw, to glue together). A colly- 
rium made of agglutinant substances, 
and stuck on the forehead. Galen. 

Anaconcholi-'smos. (From ava- 
KoyxoXi^w, to sound as a shell). 
A gargle so called, because the noiSc 
made in the throat is like the sound 
of a shell. Galen. 

Anacte'sis. (From avaxrao\iai y 
to recover). Restoration of strength ; 
recovery from sickness. Hipp. 

Anacupiii'sma. (From avaxuQtZu), 
to lift up). A kind of exercise men- 
tioned by Hippocrates, which con- 
sists in lifting the body up and 
down, like our weigh jolt. 

Anacyce'sis. (From avaxvxacj, 
to mix). The commixture of sub- 
stances, or medicines, by pouring 
one upon another. 

Anacy'cleon. (From avawnXow, 
E 



ANA 



38 



ANA 



to wander about). Anacycleus. A 
mountebank, or wandering quack. 

Anacyri'osis. (From ava, and 
xvpog, authority). That gravity and 
authority which physicians should 
preserve among sick people and their 
attendants. Hippocrates. 

Anadiplo'sis. (From avadnrXoco, 
to reduplicate). A reduplication or 
frequent return of a paroxysm or 
disease. Galen. 

Ana'dosis. (From avto, upwards, 
and edtopi, to give). An emetic, or 
the distribution of aliment all over 
the body ; or digestion. 

Ana'drome. (From avto, upwards, 
and SpEjALo, to run). A pain run- 
ning from the lower extremities to 
the upper parts of the body. Hipp. 

Anodes. (From a, priv. and 
}ii()ojg f shame). Shameless. Hippo- 
crates uses this word metaphorically 
for, without restraint, copious ; and 
applies it to water rushing into the 
aspera arteria. 

ANiESTHESlA. (AvcaoOntna : from 
a, priv. and aicrOavofiat, to feel). 
Loss of the sense of touch. A genus 
of disease in the Class Locales, and 
Order Dysesthesia*, of Cullen. 

Anaga'lus. (From avayeXaco, to 
laugh ; because, by curing the spleen, 
it disposes persons to be cheerful). 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Limiaean system. The pharmaco- 
poeial name of the Anagallis arvensis 
of Linnaeus, a small and delicately 
formed plant, which does not appear 
to possess any particular properties. 

Anaga'llis arve'nsis. The sys- 
tematic name for the anagallis of 
the shops. See Anagallis. 

Anagargali'ctlm. (From ava, 
and yapyanstov, the throat). A gar- 
gle or wash for the throat. 

Anagargari'stum. The same. 

Anagly'piie. (From avayXvipto, 
to engrave). A part of the fourth 
ventricle of the brain was formerly 
thus called, from its resemblance to 
a pen, or style. 

Ana(.no'sis. From avayiviorrHio, 
to know). The persuasion, or cer- 
tainty, by which medical men judge 
of a disease from its symptoms. 
Hippocrates, 



An a'g raphe. (From avaypafyio,, 
to write). A prescription or recipe. 

Anale'psia. (From ava, and 
Xaptavto, to take again). A species 
of epilepsy, which proceeds from a 
disorder of the stomach, and with 
which the patient is apt to be seized 
very often and suddenly. 

Anale'ntia. A fictitious term 
used by Paracelsus for epilepsy. 

Anale'psis. (From avaXaptavto, 
to restore). A recovery of strength 
after sickness. Galen. 

Anale'ptica. (From avaXaptavto, 
to recruit or recover). Analeptics. 
Restorative medicines ; medicines, 
or food, which recover the strength 
which has been lost by sickness. 

Analo'sis. (From a voXictkco, to con- 
sume) . A consumption, or wasting. 

Ana'lysis. (AvaXv trig : from ava- 
Xvco, to resolve). The resolution by 
chymistry, of any matter into its 
primary and constituent parts. The 
opposite of synthesis. 

Anamne'sis. (From avapifivncmcj, 
to remember). Remembrance, or 
recollection of what has been done. 
Galen. 

Anamne'stica. (Derived from the 
same) . Remedies for bad memory. 

Ana'nas. Called by the Brazili- 
ans yayama. The egg-shaped pine- 
apple. See Bromelia Ananas. 

Ana'nce. (From avayxa^co, to 
compel) . Necessity. It is applied to 
any desperate operation. Hipp. 

Anaphalanti'asis. (From ava- 
cpaXavrog, bald). A thinness of hair 
upon the eye-brows. Gorrceus. 

Ana'phora. (From avatptpto, to 
bring up) . It is applied to a person 
who spits blood. Gorr&us. 

Anapiiory'xis. (From avacpopvtrtrio, 
to grind down) . The reducing of any 
thing to dust, or a very fine powder. 

Anaphrodi'sia. (From «, priv. 
and Aobpodicria, the feast of Venus). 
Impotence. A genus of disease in 
the Class Locales, and Order Dyso- 
rexi(B, of Cullen. 

Anapiiro'meli. (From a, neg. 
atppog, froth, and piXi, honey). Cla- 
rified honey. 

Anapla'sis. (From avaizXafftno, 
to restore again) . A restoration of 



ANA 



39 



ANA 



flesh where it has been lost ; also the 
reuniting a fractured bone. Hipp. 

Anaplero'sis. (Yromava7r\rjpoco, 
to fill again). The restitution, or 
tilling up of wasted parts. Galen. 

Anaplero'tica. (From the same) . 
.Medicines renewing flesh : incarna- 
tives, or such medicines as fill up a 
wound so as to restore it to its ori- 
ginal shape. Galen. 

Anapleu'sis. (From ava7r\svco, 
to float upon). The rotting of a 
bone, so that it drops off, and lies 
upon the flesh ; exfoliation, or sepa- 
ration of a bone. Hippocrates, Mgi- 
neta, and others. 

Anapneu'sis. (From avanvtto, to 
restore). Respiration. 

Ana'pnoe. The same. 

ANAFro'sis. (From avcnrnfloj, to 
fall back) . A relapse. 
7 Ana'ptysis. The same as Ana- 
catharsis. 

Anarrhegm'mia. (From ava, 
and ())}yvvpi, to break again). Anar- 
rheais. A fracture ; the fresh open- 
ing of a wound. 

Anarrhoea. (From ava, up- 
wards, and peu), to flow). A flux 
of humours from below upwards. 
Schneider de Catarrho. 

Anarriio'pia. (From ava, up- 
wards, and (jt7TLo, to creep;. The 
same. Hippocrates. 

A'nas dome'stica. (From veto, to 
swim). The tame duck ; difficult of 
digestion, requiring warm and sti- 
mulating condiments along with it. 

Anasa'rca. (From ava, through, 
and tjap'i, flesh). A species of dropsy 
from a serous humour, spread be- 
tween the skin and flesh, or rather a 
general accumulation of lymph in 
the cellular system. Dr. Cullen 
ranks this genus of disease in the 
Class Cachexia?, and the Order In- 
tumescentice, of which he enumerates 
several species. 

Anaspa'sis. (From ava, and (nrato, 
to draw together). A contraction 
of the stomach. Hipp. 

Ana'ssytos. (From ava, upwards, 
and (T&voucu, to agitate). Anassytus. 
Driven forcibly upwards. Hippocrates 
applies this epithet to air rushing 
violently upwards, as in hysteric fits. 



Anasta'ltica. (From ava^eWeo, 
to contract) . Styptic or refrigerating 
medicines. 

Ana'stasis. (From ava^qpt, to 
cause to rise). A recovery from 
sickness ; a restoration of health. 
Migration of humours, when ex- 
pelled from one place and obliged to 
remove to another. Hipp* 

Anastomo'sis, (From ava, 
through, and <ropa, a mouth). Com- 
munication of vessels with one an- 
other. 

Anastomotic a. (From ava, 
through, and <7opa, the mouth). 
Medicines which open the pores and 
mouths of the vessels, as cathartics, 
diuretics, deobstruents, and sudori- 
fics. 

Ana'tes. (From nates, the but- 
tocks). A disease of the anusr 
Festus, &c. 

Ana'tomv. (Avaropia, or ava- 
rofirj : from ava, and rsfj-vco, to cut 
up). Ancrotouii/. The dissection of 
the human body, to expose the 
situation, structure, and function of 
every part. 

Asviomv, comparative. Zoo- 
tomy. The dissection of brute-, 
fishes, polypi, plants, &c. to illus- 
trate or compare them witli the 
structure and functions of the human 
body. 

Asatre'sis. (From ava, and 
rilnaoj, to perforate). A perforation 
like that which is made upon the 
skull by trepanning. Galen. 

Anatri'be. (From avalpi€to, to 
rub) . Friction all over the body. 

Anatri'psis. The same. Mosehiou 
de ]\[<>rb. Mulicb. and Gale it. 

Ana'tris. Antaris. Mercury. /?«« 
land. 

Ana'tron. (Arab. A lake in 
Egypt, where it was produced). 
Soda, or fixed mineral alkali. 

Ana'trope. (From avarptiro), to 
convert). Analrophe. Anatropha. A 
relaxation, or subversion of the sto- 
mach, with loss of appetite and nau- 
sea. Vomiting. Indigestion. Galen. 

Ana'trum. Soda. 

Anal'dia. (From a, priv. and 
aver), the speech). Dumbness ; pri- 
vation of voice ; catalepsia. Hipp. 
E2 



ANC 



40 



ANC 



Ana'xyris. (From ava^vpiq , the 
sole) . The herb sorrel ; so called 
because its leaf is shaped like the 
sole of the shoe. 

A'ncha. (Arab, to press upon, as 
being the support of the body). 
The thigh. Aviceima, Forestius, &c. 

A'nchilops. (From ayxh near, 
and toxp, the eye) . A disease in the 
inward corner of the eye, called also 
iEgilops. Incipient fistula lachry- 
malis. 

Anciiora'lis processus. (Ancho- 
ralis; from ayniov, the elbow). See 
Coracoid process. 

Anchovy pear. This fruit, the 
produce of the Grias cauliflora of 
Linnaeus, is eaten in Jamaica as a 
pleasant and refrigerant fruit. 

Anchu'sa. (From ayx*w, to 
strangle ; from its supposed con- 
stringent qualities ; or, as others 
say, because it strangles serpents) . 
Alkanet. — The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pentandria ; Order, Monogynia. — 
The name in some pharmacopoeias 
for the alkanet root and bugloss. 

Anchusa officinalis. The offi- 
cinal bugloss. Anchusa folds lanceo- 
latis strigosis, sjricis secundis imbri- 
<atis, calycibus quinque partitis of 
Linnaeus : it was formerly esteemed 
as a cordial in melancholic and hy- 
pochondriacal diseases. It is seldom 
used in modern practice, and then 
only as an aperient and refrigerant. 

Anchusa tinctoria. The sys- 
tematic name for the anchusa or 
alkanna of the pharmacopoeias. 

A'n chyle. See Ancyle. 

Anchylomerisma. (From ctyxv- 
Xofiai, to bend). A concretion, or 
growing together of the soft parts. 
Sagar. 

Anchylo'sis. (From ayguXo/iat, 
to bend). A stiff joint. An intimate 
union of two bones which were na- 
turally connected by a moveable 
kind of joint. 

* # * Anchylosis. It is divided into 
the true and spurious , according as the 
motion is entirely or but partly lost. 
This state may arise from various 
causes, as tumefaction of the ends of 
the bones, caries, fracture, disloca- 



tion, &c. ; also dropsy of the joint, 
fleshy excrescences, aneurisms, and 
other tumours. It may also be owing 
to the morbid contraction of the flexor 
muscles, induced by the limb being 
long kept in a particular position, 
as a relief to pain, after burns, me- 
chanical injuries, &c. The rickets, 
white swellings, gout, rheumatism, 
palsy, from lead particularly, and 
some other disorders, often lay the 
foundation of anchylosis : and the 
joints are very apt to become stiff in 
advanced life. 

A'nci. Those who have a dis- 
torted elbow. 

Ancirome'le. See Ancylomcle. 

A'ncinar. Borax. 

A'ncon. (From ay%a^opai y to 
embrace ; ano r« ayKeiaOai tTtp(p 
ossgj to o<ztov : because the bones 
meeting, and there uniting, are fold- 
ed one into another) . The elbow. 

Anconf/us. (Anconeus , sc. muscu- 
lus; from ay mo v, the elbow). An- 
coneus minor of Winslow. Anconeus 
vel cubitalis Riolani of Douglas. A 
small triangular muscle, situated on 
the back part of the elbow. 

Ancone'us exte'rnus. See Tri- 
cej)s extensor cubiti. 

Ancone'us inte'rnus. Sec Tri- 
ceps extensor cubiti. 

Ancone'us ma'jor. See Triceps 
extensor cubiti. 

Ancone'us mi'nor. See Anconeus. 

Anconoid process. Processus an- 
conoideus. (From ayxuv, the elbow). 
A process of the cubit. See Ulna. 

A'ncter. (AyxT//p, a bond, or 
button). A fibula, or button, by 
which the lips of wounds are held 
together. Gorrams. 

Ancteria'smus. (From ayKlijp, a 
button). The. operation of closing 
the lips of wounds together by loops, 
or buttons. Galen. 

Ancu'bitus. A disease of the eyes 
with a sensation of sand. Joh. An- 
glic Ros. - hig. 
A'ncyle. (From ayxiAoc, crooked). 
A species of contraction, called a stiff 
joint. Galen. 

Ancylobi.e'piiaron. (From ay- 
KvXrjj a hook, and (5\e<papov, an 
eyelid). A disease of the eye, by 



AND 



41 



ANE 



which the eyelids are closed together. 
* J c tins. 

Ancyloglo'sslm. (FromayxuX?/, 
a hook, and yXwcrcra, the tongue;. 
Ana/lion of yEgineta. A contraction 
of the framum of the tongue. Tongue- 
tied. 

Ancylomf/le. (From ctyHvXog, 
crooked, and firjXrj, a probe). A 
crooked probe, or a probe with a 
hook. Galen, &c. 

Ancyi.o'sis. See Anchylosis. 

Ancylo'tomus. (From ayAvXrj, a 
hook, and re/jLvoj t to cut). A crooked 
chimrgical knife, or bistoury. A 
knife for loosening the tongue. No 
longer in use. JEgineta, &c. 

A'ncyka. ( Ay Kvpa, an anchor). 
A chirurgical hook. Epicharmus 
uses this word for the inenibrum 
virile. Gorrams. 

Ancyroi'des. (From aynvpa, an 
anchor, and aeoc, a likeness). A 
process of the scapula was so called, 
from its likeness to the beak of an 
anchor. It is the coracoid process. 
See Scapula. 

Ancv rome'le. Sec Aneylomelc. 

Andi'ka. A tree of Brazil, the 
fruit of which is bitter and astrin- 
gent, and used as a vermifuge. 

Anoka \ \ io'.mia. Andranatouic. 
(From avtjOf a man, and rtpvcj, to 
cut . The dissection of the human 
body, particularly of the male. M. 
Aur. SevcrhtuSy Zootome Dcmocrit. 

Andrafodocafe'lus. (From av- 
iponocov, a slave, and Kan-qKog, a 
dealer). A crimp. The person 
whose office it was to anoint and 
slightly to wipe the body, to cleanse 
the skin from foulness. Galen. 

A'ndria. (From avrjp, a man). 
An hermaphrodite. Bonnet. 

Androcoite'sis. (From avrjp, a 
man, and koitoo, to cohabit with). 
The venereal act ; or the infamous 
act of sodomy. Moschion y &c. 

Andro'gynus. (From avrjp, a 
man, and yvvrj, a woman). An ef- 
feminate person. Hipp. An herma- 
phrodite. 

Andro'mon. Andronium. A kind 
of plaster used by jEgineta for car- 
buncles, invented by Andron. 

A.NDR0F0GON SCH^.NAN THUS; Jun- 



cus odoratus. Famum camclomm. 
Juncus aromaticus. The systematic 
name of the Camel -hay, or Sweet 
rush. 

Andro'tomia. Androtomc. Human 
dissection, particularly of the male. 

Ane'bium, (From ava€aivio, to 
ascend). The herb alkanet, so called 
from its quick growth. 

Aneile'sis. (Fromava\€o>, to roll 
up). Aneilema. An involution of 
the guts, such as is caused by flatu- 
lence and gripes. Hippocrates. 

Ane'mia. (From avi\ioc, wind). 
Flatulence. 

ANE'MONE. 'From aviyioc, wind; 
so named, because it docs not open 
its flowers till blown upon by the 
wind; . The wind flower. — The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Polyandria; Order, 
Polygyiiia. 

ANEMONE iiefa'tica. The sys- 
tematic name for the hepatic a uobilis 
of the pharmacopoeias. Herba tri- 
nitatis. Ilepatica, or herb trinity. 

Anemone meadow. See Anemom 
prat en a is. 

ANE'MONE NEMORO'SA* The sys- 
tematic name of the ranunculus atbtu 
of the pharmacopoeias. The bruii i 
leaves and flowers are said to cure 
tinea capitis applied to the part. 

Ane'mom; I'Kate'nsis. The sys- 
tematic name for the pulsatillu ni- 
gricans of the pharmacopoeias. This 
plant, anemone pedunculoinv to y 

petal is apicc reflexis ,foliis bipinnatit, 
of Linnneus, lias been received into 
the Edinburgh pharmacopoeia upon 
the authority of Baron Stoerck, who 
recommended it as an effectual re- 
medy for most of the chronic dis- 
eases affecting' the eye, particularly 
amaurosis, cataract, and opacity of 
the cornea, proceeding from various 
causes. He likewise found it of 
great service in venereal nodes, noc- 
turnal pains, ulcers, caries, indurated 
glands, suppressed menses, serpi- 
ginous eruptions, melancholy, <\nu 
palsy. 

Anence'phalus. (From «, priv. 
and tyHt<pa\og y the brain). A mon- 
ster without brains. Foolish, Gah - 
de Mppocrate, 
E3 



ANG 



42 



ANG 



A'neos. A loss of voice and reason. 

Anepithy'mia. (From a, priv. 
and £7rt0vjuta, desire). Loss of ap- 
petite. 

A'neric. Anerit. Sulphur vivum. 

A'nesis. (From avirjpi, to relax). 
A remission, or relaxation, of a dis- 
ease, or symptom. Aetius, &c. 

Ane'sum. See Anisum. 

Ane'thum. (AvijOov. from avev, 
afar, and Sew, to run ; so called be- 
cause its roots run out a great way) . 
Fennel, dill, anet. — 1. The name of 
a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Pentandria; Order, 
JDigy?iia. — 2. The pharmacopoeial 
name of the common dill, or 
anet. 

Ane'thum fcent'culum. The sys- 
tematic name for the fceniculum of 
the shops. Sweet fennel. 

Ane'thum grave'olens. The sys- 
tematic name for the anethum of the 
shops. 

Ane'tica, (From avirjfxi, to relax) . 
Paregorics ; medicines which assuage 
pain, according to Andr. Tiraquell. 

Aneuri'sma. {-matis, neut. Avev- 
pvvfia, from avEvpww, to dilate). 
An aneurism. A pulsating tumour 
containing blood, and communicating 
with the interior of an artery. There 
is one exception to this definition, 
namely, where aneurism, as it some- 
times happens, takes place in the 
heart. A genus of disease ranked by 
Cullen in the Class Locales, and Order 
Tumor es. There are three species 
of aneurism: — 1. The true aneurism, 
aneurisma verum, which is known by 
the presence of a pulsating tumour, 
&c. The false or spurious aneurism, 
k aneurisma spnrium. The varicose 
aneurism, first described by Dr. W. 
Hunter. A neurit ma varicosum. (See 
m cond edition of Scarpa's work by 
Wishart, with a multitude of others). 

Aneuri'sma spu'rium. See Ancu- 

ri una. 

Aneuri'sma 
A ueurisma. 

Aneuri'sma ve'rum. 

na. 

Ane'xis. (From avex***, to project). 
A swelling, or protuberance. 
Angeiolo'gia. (From ayytiov, a 



varico'sum. See 
Sec Ancu- 



vessel, and Xoyoc, a discourse). A 
dissertation, or reasoning, upon the 
vessels of the body. 

Angeio'tomy. (From ayyuov, a 
vessel, and refivu), to cut). The 
dissection of the blood-vessels of an 
animal body ; also the opening of a 
vein, or an artery. 

Angeioti'smus. (From ayyuov, 
a vessel, and re/ivo), to cut). A 
skilful dissector of the vessels. 

Ange'lica. (So called from its 
supposed angelic virtues). Angelica* 
—1. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean svstem : Class, Pen- 
tandria; Order, Digynia. — 2. The 
pharmacopoeial name of the garden- 
angelica. 

Ange'lica archange'lica. The 
systematic name for the angelica of 
the shops. Angelica foliorum impart 
lobato of Linnaeus. A plant, a native 
of Lapland, but cultivated in our 
gardens. 

Angelica, garden. See Angelica. 

Ange'lica sati'va. See Angelica 
sylvestris. 

Ange'lica sylve'stris. Angelica 
saliva. Wild angelica. Angelica 
foliis epq?ialibus ovato-lanceolatis ser- 
ratis, of Linnaeus. Possesses similar 
properties to the garden species, but 
in a much inferior degree. Only 
used when the latter cannot be ob- 
tained. The seeds, powdered and 
put in the hair, kill lice. 

Angelica, wild. See Angelica syl- 
vestris. 

Angeli'ns: co'rtex. The tree 
from which this bark is procured is 
a native of Grenada. Anthelmintic 
for children. 

Angeloca'cos. Myrobalans, or 
purging Indian plums. 

A'ngi. (From angor, anguish ; 
because of their pain). Buboes in 
the groin. Fallopius de Morbo Gallico. 

Angiglo'ssus. (From ayKvXrj, a 
book, and yXioao-a, the tongue). A 
person who stammers. 

Angi'na. (From «yx w > *° strangle ; 
because it is often attended with a 
sense of strangulation). A sore 
throat. See Cynanche. 

Anci'n a maligna. See Cyn anche 
maligna* 



ANI 



43 



ANI 



Angi'na parotide'a. SeeCynanche 
parotidea. 

Angi'na pe'ctoris. (Syncope an- 
ginosa of Dr. Parry). Acute con- 
strictory pain at the lower end of the 
sternum, inclining rather to the left 
side, and extending up into the left 
arm, accompanied with great anxiety. 
Violent palpitations of the heart, 
laborious breathings, and a sense of 
suffocation, are the characteristic 
symptoms of this disease. — It is found 
to attack men. much more frequently 
than women, particularly those who 
have short necks, who are inclinable 
to corpulency, and who, at the same 
time, lead an inactive and sedentary 
life. 

Angi'na tonsillaris. See Cy- 
nanche tonsillaris. 

Angi'na trache'alis. See Cy- 
nanche trachealis. 

Angiolo'gia. (From ayyeiov, a 
vessel, and Xoyoc, a discourse). The 
doctrine of the vessels of the human 
body. 

A'nglicus su'dor. (From Anglia, 
England, and sudor, sweat). The 
sweating sickness. Sennertus. 

Ango'lam. A very tall tree of Ma- 
labar, possessing vermifuge powers. 
Ango'ne. (From ayy/«>, to strangle). 
A nervous sort of quinsy, or hysteric 
suffocation, where the fauces are con- 
tracted and stopped up without in- 
flammation. 

A'ngor. Intense bodily pain. Galen. 

A'ngos. (Ayroc, a vessel). A 
vessel ; a collection of humours. 

Angustu'r.e cortex. Angustura 
bark. See Caspar ia. 

Amiela'tio. (From anhelo, to 
breathe with difficulty). Anhelitus. 
Shortness of breathing. 

Anice'ton. (From a, priv. and 
viKn, victory). A name of a plaster 
invented by Crito, and so called be- 
cause it was thought an infallible or 
invincible remedy for achores, or 
scald-head. It was composed of 
litharge, alum, and turpentine, and 
is decscribed by Galen. 

A'nima. The thinking principle. 

A'nima a'loes. Refined aloes. 

A'nima articulo'rum. Hermo- 
dactylus. 



A'nima he'patis. Sal martis. 

A'nima pulmo'num. The soul of 
the lungs. A name given to saffron, 
on account of its use in asthmas. 

A'nima rhaba'rbari. The best 
rhubarb. 

A'nima sati/rni. A preparation 
of lead. 

A'nima ve'neris. A preparation 
of copper. 

Animal. An organized body en- 
dowed with life and voluntary motion. 

Animal actions. Actiones ant- 
males. Those actions, or functions, 
are so termed, which are performed 
through the means of the mind. To 
this class belong the external and 
interna] senses, the voluntary action 
of muscles, voice, speech, watching, 
and sleep. 

Animal heat. Heat is essentially 
necessary to life. That of a man in 
health is about 98 of Fahrenheit. It 
appears to depend upon the decom- 
position of the air in the lungs. See 
Respiration. 

Animal oil. Oleum animale. An 
empyreumatic oil, obtained from the 
bones of animals. 

A'nime gu'mmi. A resin, the pro- 
duce of the Hymeneea courbaril of 
Linnaeus. 

%* Seldom ordered in the practice 
of the present day, and is only to be 
met with in the collections of the 
curious. 

A'ntmi deli'qltum. (From a?iimus 9 
the mind, and dclinquere, to leave). 
Fainting. See Syncope. 

A'nimus. This word is to be dis- 
tinguished from anima; the former 
expresses the faculty of reasoning, 
and the latter the being in which that 
faculty resides. 

Anin'ga. A root which grows in 
the Antilles islands, and is used by 
sugar-bakers for refining their sugar. 

Amsca'lptor. (From anus, the 
breech, and scalpere, to scratch). The 
latissimus dorsi is so called, be- 
cause it is the muscle chiefly instru- 
mental in performing this office. 
Bartholin. 

Aniso'tachys. (From aviffog, un- 
equal, and raxvg, quick). A quick 
and unequal pulse. Gorrmts* 



ANO 



44 



ANT 



Ani'sum. (From «, neg. and cvcg, 
-equal). Anise. See Pimpinella. 

Ani'sum sine'nse. )SeeJllicim?i 

Ani'sum stellatum. > Anisatum. 

Ani'sum vulgare. See Pimpinella. 

Annue'ntes. (From annuere, to 
nod). Some muscles of the head 
were formerly so called, because they 
perform the office of nodding", or 
bending the head downwards. Cow- 
per, &c. 

Annular. (Annularis) . Like a 
ring ; thus, annular bone, &c. 

Annular bone. Circuhcs osseus. 
A ring-like bone placed before the 
cavity of the tympanum in the foetus. 

Annular cartilage. See Cartilago 
cricoidea. 

Annlla'ris di'gitus. The ring- 
finger. The one between the little 
and middle fingers. 

Annula'ris processus. See Pons 
varolii. 

A'nnulus abdo'minis. The ab- 
dominal ring. An oblong tendinous 
opening in each groin, through which 
the spermatic chord in men, and the 
round ligament of the uterus in wo- 
men, pass. 

A'no. (Ave*, upwards ; in opposi- 
tion to aaroj, downwards). Upwards. 

Anocatha'rtica. (From avu, 
upwards, and naOaipo), to purge). 
Emetics : medicines which purge up- 
wards. 

Anochei'lon. (From aw, upwards, 
and xeiXog, the lip). The upper lip. 

Ano'dia. (From a, neg. and ocog, 
the way) . Inaccuracy and irregularity 
in the description and treatment of a 
disease. Hipp. 

Ano'dyna. See Anodynes. 

Anodynes. (Anodyna, sc. medica- 
menta. From a, priv. and wdvvyj, 
pain). Medicines are thus termed, 
which ease pain and procure sleep. 

Ano'dynum minera'le. Sal pru- 
nella. 

Ano'dynum martia'le. Ferrum 
ammoniatum precipitated from water 
by potash. 

Anomalous. A term often ap- 
plied to diseases whose symptoms do 
not appear with that regularity which 
is generally observed in others. A 
disease k> also said to be anomalous, 



when the symptoms are so varied as 
not to bring it under the description 
of any known affection. 

Ano'mphalos. (From a, priv. and 
opcpaXog, the navel). Anomphalus. 
Without a navel. 

Ano'nymus. (From a, priv. and 
ovopa, name) . Nameless. Formerly 
applied to the cricoid muscle. 

Ano'rchides. (From a, priv. and 
opy/c, the testicle). Children who 
come into the world without testicles. 

Anore'xia. (From a, priv. and 
ope%ig, appetite). A want of appe- 
tite, without loathing of food. Cul- 
len places this genus of disease in the 
Class Locales, and Order Dysorexia;. 

Ano'smia. (From a, neg. and o£w, 
to smell). A loss of the sense of 
smelling. This genus of disease is 
arranged by Cullen in the Class Lo- 
cales, and Order Dys&thesice. 

*** When it arises from a disease 
of the Schneiderian membrane, it is 
termed a?wsmia organ ica; and when 
from no manifest cause, ajiosmia 
atonica. 

A'nser dome'sticus. The tame 
goose. 

Anseri'na. (From anser, a goose ; 
so called, because geese eat it.) See 
Potentilla. 

Antacids. (Antacida, sc. medieu- 
menta. From avri, against, and aci- 
dus. acid). Remedies which obviate 
acidity in the stomach. Their action 
is purely chymical, as they merely 
combine with the acid present, and 
neutralize it. They are only pallia- 
tives, the generation of acidity being 
to be prevented by restoring the 
tone of the stomach and its vessels. 
Dyspepsia and diarrhoea are the dis- 
eases in which they are employed. 

Antagonist muscles. Counter- 
acting muscles, or those muscles 
which have opposite functions. 

Anta'lgica. (From avri, against, 
and a\yog, pain). Anodynes. Reme- 
dies which relieve pain. 

Anta'lkalines. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and alkali, an alkali). Me- 
dicines which possess the power of 
neutralizing alkalis. All the acids 
are of this class. 

Antaphrodisi'aca. (From avrt, 



ANT 



45 



ANT 



against, and A<ppo£irt] 9 Venus) . Anti- 
venereals, or medicines which ex- 
tinguish amorous desires. JVedel. 
Amen. Med. 

Antaphrodi'tica. (The same). 
Anti-venereal. 

Antapo'dosis. (From avrcnropi- 
Ciofiiy to reciprocate). A vicissitude, 
or return of the paroxysm of fevers. 
Hippocrates. Called by Galen epidosis. 

Antaris. Mercury. 

Antarthri tica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and apQpirig, the gout). Me- 
dicines which relieve or repel the 
gout. 

Antasthma'tica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and a<r9pa, an asthma). Re- 
medies against asthma. 

Antatro'phica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and arpocpia, a consumption). 
Medicines which relieve consump- 
tion. 

Anteciie'sis. (From avrsxopai f 
to resist]. A violent stoppage in the 
bowels, which resists all efforts to 
remove it. Hippocrates. 

Antela'bilm. (From ante, before, 
and labium, a lip) . The extremity of 

t UV AILS. 

Ante'mbasis. (From avriy mutu- 
ally, and tpGaiviOy to enter). A coa- 
lescence, or union of bone. Galen. 

Anteme'tica. (From avri, against, 
and tfieu}, to vomit). Anti-emetics. 
Medicines which stop or prevent vo- 
miting. 

Amenea'smus. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and Teiveapog, implacable). 
That species of madness in which 
the patient endeavours to destroy 
himself. 

Antephia'ltica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and ttpiaXrijg, the night- 
mare). Medicines which prevent the 
night-mare. 

Antepile'ptica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and nrikq-tyic,, the epilepsy). 
Remedies against the epilepsy, and 
other convulsive disorders. 

Ante'rior auris. One of the 
common muscles of the ear, situated 
before the external ear. 

Anterior intercostal nerve. 
Splanchnic nerve. A branch of the 
great intercostal that is given off in 
the thorax, 



Ante'rior ma'llei. See Laxalot 
tympani. 

Anthe'lix. See Antihelix. 

Anthe'lmia. (From avriy against, 
and t\/uvc, a worm). The herb In- 
dian pink, or worm-grass. See Spi- 
gelia Marilandica. 

Anthelmintics. fAnthclmintica, 
sc. me die anient a ; from avriy against, 
and eXpivc y a worm). Medicines 
which procure the evacuation of 
worms from the stomach and intes- 
tines. 

%* The principal medicines be- 
longing to this class, are : calomel, 
gamboge, Geoffraea inermis, tanace- 
tum, polypodium filix mas, spigelia 
Marilandica, artemisia santonica, 
olea Europaea, stannum pulverisa- 
tum, ferri limaturae, and dolichos 
pruriens : which see under their re- 
spective heads. 

A'nthemis. (Anthemisy midis; 
fern. From avBeoj, Jlorco; because 
it bears an abundance of flowers). 
Chamomile. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Si/ngenesia; Order, Polyga- 
mia suprr/Ua. — 2. The name in the 
London Pharmacopoeia for chamo- 
mile. See Anthemis nobilis. 

A'nthemis co'tula. (Cotula, a 
dim. of cos, a whetsone ; so called 
from its leaves resembling a whet- 
stone). The systematic name for 
the plant called Cotula fwtida in the 
pharmacopoeias. Chamcemelum foe- 
tidum, Mayweed. Stinking chamo- 
mile. The Anthemis cotula of Lin- 
naeus. 

A'nthemis no'bilis. Lin. The 
systematic name for the cham&mc- 
linn of the shops. Chamannelum no- 
bile. Kuanthemon of Galen. Anthemis 
of the last London Pharmacopoeia, 
&c. Common chamomile. 

%* The flowers have been found 
useful in hysterical affecctions, fla- 
tulent or spasmodic colics, and dy- 
sentery ; but, from their laxative 
quality, Dr. Cullen tells us they 
proved hurtful in diarrhoeas. A simple 
infusion is frequently taken to ex- 
cite vomiting, or for promoting the 
operation of emetics. Externally, 
they are used in the decoctum pro fo+ 



ANT 



46 



ANT 



mento, and are an ingredient in the 
decoctum malvce co?npositum. 

A nthemis pyre'thrum. The plant 
from which we obtain the pyrethrum 
of the pharmacopoeias. Spanish cha- 
momile. Pellitory of Spain. Anthe- 
7nis caulibus simplicibus unijloris de- 
cumbentibus, foliis pinnato-multijidis , 
of Linnaeus. 

* # * Its qualities are stimulant ; 
but it is never used, except as a 
masticatory, for relieving tooth- 
aches, rheumatic affections of the 
face, and paralysis of the tongue, 
in which it affords relief, by stimulat- 
ing the excretory ducts of the salival 
glands. 

Anthera. (From av9og, a flower). 
— 1. A compound medicine used by 
the ancients ; so called from its florid 
colour. Galen. JEgineta. — 2. The 
male part of the fructification of 
plants. 

Anthophy'lu. (From avOog, a 
flower, and QvXkov, a leaf; so 
called from the fragrance of the 
flowers and the beauty of the leaves) . 
Cloves are so termed when they have 
been suffered to grow to maturity. 
G. Bauhin Pin. 

A'nthora. fQuasi antithora, av- 
riQopa: from avri, against, and 
Sropa, monkshood ; so called be- 
cause it is said to counteract the 
effects of the thora or monkshood). 
A species of wolfsbane. See Aco- 
nitum, 

A'nthos flo'res. The flowers of 
the rosmarinus are so termed in some 
of the old pharmacopoeias. 

Anthra'cia. See Anthrax. 

A'nthrax. (From avQpaZ, a burn- 
ing coal). Anthratia. Anthrocosia. 
Anthrocoma. Carbuncidus. An hard 
and circumscribed inflammatory tu- 
bercle like a boil, which sometimes 
forms on the cheek, neck, or back, 
and in a few days becomes highly 
gangrenous. It then discharges an 
extremely foetid sanies from under 
the black core, which, like a burning 
coal, continues destroying the sur- 
rounding parts. It is supposed to 
arise from a peculiar miasma, is most 
common in warm climate*, and often 
attends the plague. See Carbtmclc. 



Anthraco'sis o'culi. A red, livid, 
burning, sloughy, very painful tu- 
mour, occurring on the eyelids. 
JEgineta. 

Anthropogra'phia. (From av- 
Qpioiroc., a man, and ypcKpcj, to 
write). Description of the human 
structure. 

Anthropolo'gia. (From avQpw- 
7roc, a man, andXoyoc, a discourse). 
The description of man. 

Anthypno'tica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and vttvoq, sleep). Medicines 
which prevent sleep or drowsiness. 

Anthypochondri'aca. (From av- 
ri, against, and viroxovcpia, the hy- 
pochondria). Medicines adapted to 
cure low-spiritedness, or disorders of 
the hypochondria. 

Anthyste'rica. (From avri, 
against, and v^tpa, the womb). 
Uterines, or medicines which relieve 
the hysteric passion. Blancard. 

A'nti. (Avriy against). There are 
many names compounded with this 
word, as ant i- asthmatics , anti-hyste- 
rics, anti-dysenteries , &c. which sig- 
nify medicines against the asthma, 
hysterics, dysentery, &c. 

Anti'ades. (From avriaoj, to 
meet). The tonsils are so called, 
because they answer one another. 
The mumps. Nic. Piso. 

Antia'gra. (From avnaq, a ton- 
sil, and ay pa, a prey). Antiagri. A 
tumour of the tonsils. Ulpian, Ro- 
land, &c. 

Antiarthri'tica. See Antarthri- 
tica. 

Anticaciie'ctica. (From avri, 
against, and ytax^ici, a chachexy). 
Medicines against a cachexy, or bad 
habit of body. 

Antica'rdium. (From avri, a- 
gainst, or opposite, and xaaiia, the 
heart). The hollow at the bottom of 
the breast, commonlv called scrobi- 
cuius cordis, or pit of the stomach. 

Anticatarriia'i.ia. (From avri, 
against, and narappog, a catarrh). 
Medicines which relieve a catarrh. 

Anticauso'tica. (From avri, 
against, and narcroc, a burning fever) . 
Remedies against burning fevers. We 
read, in Corp. I'harm. of Junken, of 
a syntpus anti-causoticus. 



ANT 



47 



ANT 



A'nticheir. (From avrt, against, 
and %up, the hand). The thumb. 
Galen. 

Anticne'mion. (From avri, a- 
gainst, or opposite, and Kvrjfirj, the 
calf of the leg). That part of the 
tibia which is bare of flesh, and op- 
posite the calf of the leg. The shin- 
bone. Galen. 

Antico'lica. (From avri, against, 
and xo>aik?7, the colic). Remedies 
against the colic. 

Antidia'stole. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and tVcreWw, to distinguish). 
An exact and accurate distinction of 
one disease, or symptom, from an- 
other. 

Antidi'nica. (From avri, against, 
and Sivog, circumgyration) . Medi- 
cines against a vertigo, or giddiness. 
Blancard. 

Antidota'rium. (From avriloroq^ 
an antidote) . Used by former writers, 
for what we now call a dispensatory ; 
a place where antidotes are prescribed 
and prepared. There arc antidotal ks 
extant of several authors, as those of 
Nicholaus, J/c.vuc, Mlffi -p&usy &C. 

Anti'dor n. (From avri, against, 
and ii^io/ii, to give). A preservative 
against poison or sickness. A remedy. 
Galen* 

Antidysente'rica. (From avri, 
against, and cu(Ttvrtpia y a flux). Me- 
dicines against a dysentery, or flux. 

Antlfbjbb/lja. (From am, a- 
gainst, and /r/;/7.v, a fever). A fe- 
brifuge, a remedy against fever. 

Antihe'ctica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and i/.rr/.0Q, a hectic fever). 
Remedies against a hectic fever. 

Antihe'cmcim Pote'rii. Anti- 
monium di upimrct i cum J ovi ale . A me- 
dicine invented by Poterius in hectic 
fevers, but now disregarded. 

Antiiie'lix. (From avri, against, 
and f\i£, the helix). The inner circle 
of the auricle; so called, from its 
opposition to the outer circuit, called 
the helix. 

Antniel.min'i ica. See Anthelmin- 
tics. 

Antihyster'ica. (From avri, a- 
gainst, and i^tiuxa, hysterics). Me- 
dicines which prevent or relieve hys- 
terics. 



Antile'psis. (From avriXajitchia, 
to take hold of). The securing of band- 
ages or ligatures from slipping. Hipp. 

Antilo'bium. (From avri, oppo- 
site, and \o£og, the bottom of the 
ear). The tragus, or that part of the 
ear which is opposite the lobe. 

Antjloi'mica. (From avri, against, 
and XoifjLog, the plague). Remedies 
or preventives against the plague. 

Anti'lopus. The antelope. An 
African beast resembling a deer, 
whose hoofs and horns were for- 
merly given in hysteric and epileptic 
cases. 

Antily'ssus. (From avri, against, 
and \voaa, the bite of a mad dog). 
A medicine or remedy against the 
bite of a mad dog. 

Antimonial powder. See Anti- 
moniaUs puhtis. 

Antimoma'i.e. (From antimonium) . 
An antimonial, or composition in 
which antimony is a chief ingredient. 
A preparation of antimony. 

Antimonia'lis pu'lvis. Antimo- 
nial powder. In high esteem as a 
febrifuge, sudorific, and antispas- 
modic. 

Antimo'nii tartarizati liquor. 
Solution of tartarized antimony. Vi- 
num antimonii tartarizati of the 
Pharm. Lond. 1787. Half an ounce 
of this solution contains one grain 
of the salt ; and may be given in all 
cases where the tartar emetic is in- 
dicated. 

Antimo'nii sui.piiure'tlm pr£- 
CII'ITA'tum. Sulphur a/ttimonii pra?- 
cipitatinn. Precipitated sulphuret of 
antimony. This preparation of an- 
timony appears to have rendered 
that called Kermes mineral unne- 
cessary. 

%* As an alterative and sudorific, 
it is in high estimation, and given in 
diseases of the skin and glands ; and 
joined with calomel, it is one of the 
most powerful and penetrating alte- 
ratives we are in possession of. 

An timo'ni um . See Antimony. 

Antlmo'nium calcinatum. The 
volatile oxyd of antimony. 

Antimo'nilm diaphore'ticum. An 
old name for the volatile oxyd of 
antimony. > 



ANT 



48 



ANT 



Anti m 6' N i u m tarta r i za'tu m . Tar- 
tarized antimony. Tartar emetic. 

%* This is the most useful of all 
the antimonial preparations. Its ac- 
tion is not dependent on the state of 
the stomach; and being soluble in 
water, its dose is easily managed, 
while it also operates more spee- 
dily. 

Antimo'nium vitrifactum. Glass 
of antimony. An oxyd of antimony, 
with a little sulphuret. 

Antimony. (Antimonium, i. n. 
Avrifioviov. The origin of this word 
is very obscure. The most received 
etymology is, from avn, against, and 
ftovoc, a monk ; because Basil Va- 
lentine, by an injudicious adminis- 
tration of it, poisoned his brother 
monks). Antimonium Stibium. A 
metal found native, but very rarely : 
it has, in that state, a metallic lustre, 
and is found in masses of different 
shapes ; its colour is white, between 
those of tin and silver. It generally 
contains a small portion of arsenic. 
It is likewise met with in the state 
of an oxyd, antimonial ochre. The 
most abundant ore of it, is that in 
which it is combined with sulphur, 
the grey ore of antimony, or sul- 
phuret of antimony. The colour of 
this ore is blueish, or steel-grey, 
of a metallic lustre, and often ex- 
tremely beautifully variegated. Its 
texture is either compact, foliated, 
or striated. The striated is found 
both crystallized, massive, and dis- 
seminated : there are many varieties 
of this ore. 

* # * The preparations of antimony 
formerly in use were very many : 
those now directed to be kept, are, 
1. Sulphuretum antimonii. — 2. Oxy- 
dum antimonii. — 3. Sulphuretum an- 
timonii prsecipitatum. — 4. Antimoni- 
um tartarizatum. — 5. Pulvis antimo- 
nialis. — 6. Liquor antimonii tartari- 
zati. 

Anti'moris. (From avn, against, 
and fiopoQy death, or disease). A 
medicine to prolong life. 

Antinephri'tjca. (From avn, 
against, and vetyping, a disease of 
the kidneys). Remedies against dis- 
orders of the kidneys. Blancard. 



Antiodonta'lgicus. An insect 
described by Germi, in a small work 
published at Florence, 1794 ; so 
called from its property of allaying 
the tooth-ache. 

Antifaraly'tica. (From avn, 
against, and vrapakwig, the palsy). 
Medicines against the palsy. 

Antipathei'a. (From avn, against, 
and-ara^oc, an affection) . Antipathy. 
An aversion to particular objects. 

Antiperistaltic. (From avn, 
against, and GrtpiTsWo), to contract) . 
Whatever obstructs the peristaltic 
motion of the intestines. 

Antiperi'statis. (From avn, 
against, and TreptTTjfii, to press). A 
compression on all sides. Theophras- 
tus de igne. 

Antipha'rmaca. (From avn, 
against, and (papfxaxov, a poison). 
The same as alexipharmaca. Reme- 
dies or preservatives against poison. 
Dioscorides. 

Antiphlogi'stica. (From avn, 
against, and <p\iyw, to burn). Anti- 
phlogistics. A term applied to those 
medicines, plans of diet, and other 
circumstances, which tend to oppose 
inflammation, or which, in other 
words, weaken the system, by dimi- 
nishing the activity of the vital 
power. 

Antiphthi'sica. From avn, a- 
gainst, and <pQimq, consumption). 
Remedies against a consumption. 

Anti'phthora. (From avn, a- 
gainst, and <p9opa, corruption). A 
species of wolfsbane which resists 
corruption. 

Antiphy'sica. (From avn, a- 
gainst, and (pvtrab), to blow). Car- 
minatives or remedies against wind. 

Antipleuri'tica. (From avn, 
against, and *ar\tvpflig, pleurisy). 
Remedies against a pleurisy. 

Antipoda'grica. (From avn, 
against, and wodaypa, the gout). 
Medicines which relieve or remove 
the gout. 

Antipra'xia. (From avn, against, 
and mpaaauiy to work). A contra- 
riety of functions and temperaments 
in divers parts. Contrariety of symp- 
toms. Celsus. 

Antipyre'tica. (From avn, a- 



ANT 



49 



ANT 



gainst, and ^vpiloq, fever). Antife- 
brile. Remedies against a fever. 

Antiquartana'ria. (From avri, 
against, and guar tana, a quartan 
fever). Remedies against quartan 



agues. 



Antiqua'rticum. The same as 
Antiquartanaria. 

Antirrhi'num. ( Av1 ipp ivov : from 
avri, against, and pic, the nose ; so 
called, because it represents the nose 
of a calf). Snap-dragon, or calfs- 
snout. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnsean system : Class, 
Didynamia; Order, Angiospermia. 

Antirrhi'num lina'ria. The sys- 
tematic name for the linaria of the 
pharmacopoeias. Osyris. Urinaria. 
Common toad-flax. 

Antirrhi'num elatine. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant we call 
fluellen, or female speedwell. Ela- 
tine of the shops. 

Antisco'lica. (From avri, against, 
(TKioXf]'^, a worm). Remedies against 
worms. Anthelmintics. 

Antiscorbu'tics. Antiscorbutic a. 
(From avri, against, and scorbutus, 
the scurvy) . Medicines which cure 
the scurvy. 

Antiseptics. Antiscptica. (From 
avri, against, and at]Tru), to putrefy) . 
Those medicines which possess the 
power of preventing animal sub- 
stances from passing into a state 
of putrefaction, and of obviating 
putrefaction when already begun. 
This class of medicines comprehends 
four orders. — 1. Tonic antiseptics. — 
2. Refrigerating antiseptics. — 3. Sti- 
mulating antiseptics. — 4. Antispas- 
modic antiseptics. 

Anti'spasis. From avri, against, 
and airao), to draw.) A revulsion. 
The turning the course of the hu- 
mours, while they are actually in 
motion. Galen, 

Antispasmodics. Antispasmodica. 
fFrom avri, against, and cnraafioc, 
a spasm) . Medicines which possess 
the power of allaying, or removing, 
inordinate motions in the system, 
particularly those involuntary con- 
tractions which take place in muscles, 
naturally subject to the command of 
the will. 



* # * The principal antispasmodics, 
properly so called, are moschus, 
castoreum, oleum animale empyreu- 
maticum, petroleum, ammonia, asa- 
foetida, sagapenum, galbanum, Vale- 
riana, crocus, melaleuca leucaden- 
dron. — The narcotics, used as anti- 
spasmodics, are ether, opium, cam- 
phor. — Tonics, used as antispasmo- 
dics, are cuprum, zincum, hydrar- 
gyrus, cinchona. 

Anti'thenar. (From avri, against, 
and $e vaj>, the palm of the hand) . A 
muscle of the foot. See Adductor 
pollicis pedis, 

Antitra'gicus. Antitragus. One 
of the proper muscles of the ear. 

Antitragus, i, m. (From avri, 
and rpayog, the tragus). An emi- 
nence of the outer ear, opposite to 
the tragus. 

ANTiVENE'REA.(From avri, against, 
and venereus, venereal). Medicines 
against the lues venerea. 

Anto'nii Sa'ncti i'gnis. (So called, 
because St. Anthony was supposed to 
cure it miraculously. In the Roman 
Missal, St. Anthony is implored as 
being the preserver from all sorts of 
fire). St. Anthony "a fire. See Ery- 
sipelas. 

Antophy'li.on. (From avri, a- 
irainst, a <pv\\ov, a leaf; so called, 
because its leaves are opposite). 
The male caryophyllus. 

A'ntrum of highmorr. (From 
the name of an anatomist who gave 
the first accurate description of it). 
Antrum Highmorianum. Antrum gc- 
nop. Sinus maxilluris pituitarius. 
Antrum maxilla? superioris. Maxil- 
lary sinus. A large cavity in the 
middle of each superior maxillary 
bone, between the eye and the roof 
of the mouth, lined by the mucous 
membrane of the nose. 

A'ntrum buccino'sum. The coch- 
lea of the ear. 

A'ntrum pylo'ri. The great con- 
cavity of the stomach approaching 
the pylorus. 

A'ntrum maxilla're. See Antrum 
of Highmore. 

Ants, acid of. See Formic acid. 

Anty'lion. (From Antyllus, its 
inventor). An astringent applica- 



APE 



50 



APH 



tioiv, recommended by Paulus JEgi- 
neta. 

A'nus, e, m. (Quasi onus ; as car- 
rying the burden of the bowels) . — 

1. The fundament ; the lower extre- 
mity of the great intestine, named 
the rectum, is so called ; and its office 
is to form an outlet for the faeces. — 

2. The term anus, is also applied 
to a small opening of the third 
ventricle of the brain, which leads 
into the fourth. 

Anus, artificial. An accidental 
opening in the parietes of the abdo- 
men, to which some part of the in- 
testinal canal leads, and through 
which the faeces are either wholly or 
partially discharged. 

Any'drion. (From a, priv. and 
vdojp, water ; so called, because those 
who eat of it become thirsty). A 
species of nightshade. Blancard. 

Anypel'tiiynus. (From a, neg. 
and vTTsvQvvog, b'ameable). Hippo- 
crates, m his Precepts, uses this 
word to signify an accidental event, 
which cannot be charged on the 
physician, and for which he is not 
accountable. 

Ao'rta. (From atjp, air, and r?j- 
pjw, to keep; so called, because the 
ancients supposed that only air was 
contained in it). The great artery 
of the body, which arises from the 
left ventricle of the heart, forms a 
curvature in the chest, and descends 
into the abdomen. See Artery. 

Apalachi'nega'llis. (From«7ra- 
Xaxw, to repel ; because it is sup- 
posed to repel infection) . See Ilex 
Cassinc. 

Apari'ne. (From pivi), a file ; 
because its bark is rough, and rasps 
like a file) . Goose-grass. See Ga- 
lium Apan'ne. 

Apartiiro'sis. (From airo and 
cipOpov, a joint). Articulation. 

Ape'lpa. (From «, priv. and prl- 
lis, skin). Shortness of the prepuce. 
Galen gives this name to all whose 
prepuce, either through disease, sec- 
lion, or otherwise, will not cover the 
glands. 

An 'i ma, <r, f. (ATrtipia ; from a, 
priv. and vriTTlo), to digest). Indi- 
gestion. Sec Dyspepsia. 



Ape'riens palpebrarum re'ctus. 
See Levator palpebral superioris. 

Aperients. Aperientia, (From 
aperiere, to open). Medicines which 
gently open the bowels. 

Aperi'status. (From a, neg. and 
7T8.pizn.iMf to surround). Aperistaton. 
An epithet used by Galen, of an 
ulcer which is not dangerous, nor 
surrounded by inflammation. 

Aperi'staton. See Aperistatus. 

Ape'rtor o'culi. See Levator pal- 
pebral superioris. 

Apeuthy'smenus. (From airo and 
ev9vg, straight). A name formerly 
given to the intestinum rectum, or 
straight gut. 

A'pex. The extremity of a part ; 
as the apex of the tongue, apex of 
the nose, &c. 

Aphani'smus. (From a^avi^o), to 
remove from the sight) . The remo- 
val, or gradual decay, of a disorder. 

Aph.'e'resis. (From a<paipeio, to 
remove). This term was formerly 
much used in the schools of surgery, 
to signify that part of the art which 
consists in taking off any diseased or 
preternatural part of the body. 

Aphepse'ma. (From airo and e\pto, 
to boil) . A decoction. 

A'phfsis. (From a(f>Lrjf.u 9 to re- 
mit) . The remission or termination 
of a disorder. 

Aphiste'sis. (From aQizrjpi, to 
draw from) . An abscess. 

A'phodos. (From airo, and o£oc, 
departure) . Excrement. The dejec- 
tion of the bodv. 

w 

Apho'nia. (A(ponna; froma, priv. 
and (ptovrjy the voice) . A suppression 
of the voice, without either syncope 
or coma. A genus of disease in the 
Class Locales, and Order Dyseincsia', 
of Cullen. 

*** When aphonia takes place from 
a tumour of the fauces, or about the 
glottis, it is termed aphonia guttura- 
lis ; when from a disease of the tra- 
chea, aphonia trachcalis ; and when 
from a paralysis, or want of nervous 
energy, aphonia atonica. 

A'phorism. (Iphori.s)nus; from 
a<popi'C(t), to distinguish). A maxim, 
or principle, comprehended in a 
short sentence. 



API 



51 



APO 



Aphrodi'sia. (From AQpoiiTrj, 
Venu.). An immoderate desire of 
venery. 

Aphrodisiacs. (Aphrodisiac a, sc. 
medicamenta, a<ppociaiaKa ; from 
rt^pocicta, venery). Medicines which 
excite a desire for venery. 

Aphrodisia'sticon. (From afypoe, 
froth). A troch, so called by Galen, 
because it was given in dysenteries, 
where the stools were frothy. 

Apiirodi'sius mo'rbus. (From 
A^poctr?/, Venus). The venereal 
disease. 



A'PHTHA. 

A'pIITIl.E. 
to inflame), 
sore mouth. 



See Aphtha?. 
( A<p9ai : from cnrlu), 
The thrush. Frog, or 
Aphtha lavtuciiiic/i of 
Sauvages. Ulcer a serpentia oris, or 
spcading ulcers in the mouth, of Cel- 
sus. Pustula oris. Alcola. Vc.sii trier 
gingivctrtcin, Armas. Aphtha injan- 
turn. It is ranked by Cullen in the 
(lass Pyrexia?, Order Exanthemata. 
A disease to which children are very 
subject* 

Wis melu'fica. The systematic 
name of the honey-bee. See lice. 

A'piUMi Apt urn, i, n. (From 
//Trior, Uoricc cnrioc t mild ; or from 
<v/"v, bees ; because they are fond 
of it). — l.The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pentandrim; Order, Digynia. — 2.Thc 
pharmacopceial name of the herb 
small-age. 

AVhm gra\f/olens. The syste- 
matic name for the a pi ton of the 
pharmacopoeias. Apium, foliolis cau- 
Unis, cuncifurmibus, umbellis, sessili- 
l>»s, of Linnaeus. The root, seeds, 
and fresh plant, are aperient and car- 
minative. 

A'pium petkoseli'm m. The sys- 
tematic name for the petroscliuum of 
the pharmacopoeias. Petroselbnim 
rulgare. Apium hortensc. Common 
parsley. Apium foliis caulinis liitea- 
ribis, i?ivolucellis minutis, of Lin- 
nams. 

*** The roots are said to be ape- 
rient and diuretic, and have been 
employed in nephritic pains and ob- 
structions of urine. The seeds pos- 
sess aromatic and carminative pow- 
ers, but are seldom prescribed. 



Apneu'stia. (From a, and in-vsto, 
to breathe). A defect or difficulty of 
respiration, such as happens in a 
cold, &c. Foesius. 

Apnce'a. The same. Galen. 

Apocapni'smus. (From airo, and 
kcittvoq, smoke). A fumigation. 

Apocatha'rsis. (From citto, and 
xaOaipio, to purge). An evacuation 
of humours ; a discharge downward ; 
but sometimes applied, with little 
discrimination, to vomiting. 

Apocaulize'sis. (From cittcxciv- 
Xi'Coj, to break transversely.) A trans- 
verse fracture. Hipp. 

Apoceno'sis. (From citto, 
kevoco, to evacuate). A superabun- 
dant flux of blood, or other fluid, 
; without pyrexia. The name of an 
Order in the Class Locales of Cullen. 

Apo'cope. (From citto, and niTrlio, 
to cut from). Abscission, or the re- 
moval of a part by cutting it off. 

Apo'crisis. (From citto and xiino, 
to secrete from). A secretion of 
superabundant humours. Hipp. 

Apoc r u'STl s l m . Ajtocrwsticon. 
(From cnroKQstOy to repel). An 
astringent or repellent medicine. C 

Apockl'sticon. SccApocrustiuiuu. 

Aro( \ i.'ms. (From cctto, and -/.no, 
to bring forth). Parturition, or the 
bringing forth of a child. Gal. 

Apodacuy'ika. (From citto, and 
foiKpv, a tear). Medicines which, by 
exciting tears, remove superfluous 
humours from the eyes, as onions, 
&C. Pliny. 

Apogeu'sia. See Ageuslia. 

Apogpi'sis. See Ageuslia. 

Apogino.mf/sis. (From cnrcyivo ■ 
U€tt' 9 to be absent). The remission or 
absence of a disease. Hipp. 

Apoglauco'sis. (From citto, and 
y\a?>>toc, sky-coloured ; so called, 
because of its blueish appearance). 
Glaucoma. A cataract of the eye. 
Dioscorides. 

Apo'gonpm. (From citto, and yi- 
vofiai, to beget) . A living foetus in 
the womb. Hipp. 

Apole'psis. (From citto, and \ap- 
tavot, to take from). An intercep- 
tion, suppression, or retention of 
urine, or other natural evacuation. 
Hipp. 
F2 



APO 



52 



APO 



Apolino'sis. (From ano, and Xi- 
vovy flax) . The method of curing a 
fistula, according to jEgineta, by 
the application of raw flax. 

Apo'lysis. (From onro, and Xvio, 
to release) . The solution or termi- 
nation of a disease. The removal of 
a bandage. Erotianus. 

Apoma'gma. (From ano, and 
ftariuty to cleanse from). Any thing 
used to cleanse and wipe away filth 
from sores, as sponge, &c. Hipp. 

Apomathe'ma. (From airo, neg. 
and fiavQavio, to learn) . Hippocrates, 
by this term, expresses a forgetful- 
ness of all that has been learnt. 

Apo'meu* (From cltto> from, and 
/icXi, honey) , An oxymel, or decoc- 
tion, made with honey. 

Aponeurosis. (From airo, and 
vivqov, a nerve ; from an erroneous 
supposition of the ancients, that it 
was formed by the expansion of a 
nerve) . A tendinous expansion. See 
Muscle, 

Apo'nia. (From a, priv. and aro- 
voc, pain) . Freedom from pain. 

Apomtro'sis. (From enro, and 
virpov, nitre). The sprinkling an 
ulcer over with nitre. 

Apopalle'sis. (From «7ro7raXXw, 
to throw off hastily) . An abortion, 
or premature expulsion of a foetus. 
Hipp, 

Apopeda'sis. (From airo, and mi\- 
ficuo, to jump from). A luxation. 

Apophjlegma'sia. (From a7ro,and 
ifkcyfia, phlegm). A discharge of 
phlegm, or mucus. 

Apophjlegma'tica. (From airo, 
and (pXtypa, phlegm). Apophlegma- 
tizantia. Apophlegmatizonta. Medi- 
cines which excite the secretion of 
mucus from the mouth and nose. 
ticatories. Errhines. 

APOPHRA'XIS. (From enro, and 
ifnrj.(T0u) 9 to interrupt.) A suppres- 
sion of the menstrual discharge. 

Apophtha'rma. (From airo, and 
c:Guou, to corrupt). A medicine to 
procure abortion. 

Apo'phthora. (From mro^Oeipu), 
to be abortive). An abortion. 

ApOPHY'ADES, The ramifications 
of the veins and arteries. Hipp. 

Aio'iiiVAs. (From enrotyvw, to 



proceed from). Any thing which 
grows or adheres to another, as a 
wart to the finger. 

Apophysis. (From cnro<pvu), to 
proceed from) . A process, projec- 
tion, or protuberance, of a bone be- 
yond a plane surface ; as the nasal 
apophysis of the frontal bone, &c. 

Apophthe'gma. (From airo<pQiy~ 
yopai, to speak eloquently) . A short 
maxim, or axiom ; a rule. 

Apople'cta. A name formerly ap- 
plied to the internal jugular vein ; 
so called, because in apoplexies it 
appears full and turgid. Bartholin. 

Apople'ctica. (From a7ro7rX^4'ta, 
an apoplexy) . Medicines against an 
apoplexy. 

Apople'xia. (From airo, and -nr\//<r- 
crio, to strike or knock down ; be- 
cause persons, when seized with this 
disease, fall down suddenly) . Apo- 
plexy. A sudden abolition, in some 
degree, of the powers of sense and 
motion, the patient lying in a sleep- 
like state ; the action of the heart 
remaining, as well as the respira- 
tion, often with a stertorous noise. 
Cullen places it in the Class Neuro- 
ses, and Order Comata. 

Apopni'xis. (From aTroirviyto, to 
suffocate) . A suffocation. Moschion. 

Apopsophe'sis. (From airo, and 
i//o0£o>, to emit wind). The emission 
of wind by the anus or uterus . Hipp. 

Apopsy'ciiia. (From ano, from, 
and ipvxn, tm3 mind) . The highest 
degree of deliquium, or fainting, ac- 
cording to Galen. 

Apo'ptosis. (From a7ro7ri7rrw, to 
fall down). A prolapsus, or falling 
down of any part through relaxation. 
Erotian. 

Apore'xis. (From «7ro, and opfyw, 
to stretch out). A play with balls, 
in the gymnastic exercises. 

Apo'ria. (From a, priv. and -aropor, 
a duct). Restlessness, uneasiness, 
occasioned by the interruption of 
perspiration, or any stoppage of the 
natural secretions. 

APORRHl'PSIS. (From ct7roppi7TTio, 
to cast off). Hippocrates uses this 
word, to signify that kind of insanity 
where the patient tears off his clothes, 
and casts them from him. 



APO 



53 



APO 



Aposceparm'smus. (From airo, 
from, and cxcTrapytfto, to strike as 
with a hatchet). Deasciatio. A 
species of fracture, when part of a 
bone is chipped off. Gorrceus. 

Aposcha'sis. Aposchasmus. (From 
cnro, and cr^a((u, to scarify). A 
scarification. Venesection. Hipp. 

Aposi'tia. Apositios. (From cnro, 
from, and <riroc> food). A loathing 
of food. Galen. 

Apospa'sma. (From cnro<T7rau>, to 
fear off) . A violent, irregular frac- 
ture of a tendon, ligament, &c. 
Galen. 

Aposphaceli' sis. (From cnro* and 
V(f>axe\og, a mortification). Hippo- 
crates uses this word to denote a 
mortification of the flesh in wounds, 
or fractures, caused by too tight a 
bandage. 

Apo'stasis. (From cnro, and iznpi y 
to recede from). — 1. An abscess, or 
collection of matter. — 2. The coming 
away of a fragment of bone, by frac- 
ture. — 3. When a distemper passes 
away by some outlet, Hippocrates 
calls it an apostasis by excretion. — 
4. When the morbific matter, by its 
own weight, falls and settles on any 
part, an apostasis by settlement. — 
•"). When one disease turns to another, 
an apostasis by metastasis. 

Aposta'xis. (From a7ro<r«£w, to 
•listil from). Hippocrates uses this 
word to express the defluxion or dis- 
tillation of any humour, or fluid : as 
blood from the nose. 

Aposte'ma. Aposteme, or Apos- 
tume. (From cupirnpt, to recede). 
The term given by the ancients to 
abscesses in general. Sec Abscess. 

Apostema'tiai. Those who, from 
an inward abscess, avoid pus down- 
wards, are thus called by Arctaeus. 

Aposteri'gma. (From enr or npi}oj, 
fuicio). Galen uses this word to 
denote a rest for a diseased part, a 
cushion. 

Apostolo'rum ungue'ntum. (From 
aTroroXoc, an apostle). Dodccaphar- 
macum. The apostles' ointment ; so 
called because it has twelve ingre- 
dients in it, exclusive of the oil and 
vinegar. 

Apo'strophe. (From cnro, and 



rps(p(t) } to turn from). ThusPaulus 
iEgineta expresses an aversion for 
food. 

Aposyringe'sis. (From airo and 
<Tvpiy%, a fistula). The degeneracy 
of a sore into a fistula. Hipp. 

Aposy'rma. (From airo and gvqlo, 
to rub off) . An abrasion or desqua- 
mation of the bones or skin. Hipp 
Apotaneu'sis. (From cnro an:> 
reivoj, to extend) . An extension, or 
elongation, of any member or sub- 
stance. 

Apotelme'sis. (From cnro, and 
reXfia, a bog). An expurgation of 
filth, or faeces. 

Apothe'ca. (ATToOnitn : from 
a\o-i9npi, to reposit). A shop, cr 
vessel, where medicines arc sold, or 
deposited. 

Apotheca'rius. (From cnro, and 
riOnpi, ponere, to put ; so called from 
his employ being to prepare, and 
keefi in readiness, the various articles 
in the Materia Medica, and to com- 
pound them for the physician's use ; 
or from airo9i]Krj, a shop) . An apo- 
thecary. In every European country, 
except Great Britain, the apothecary 
is the same as, in England, we name 
the druggist and chymist. 

Apotherapei'a. (From cnro and 
Sepcnri vio, to cure) . A perfect cure, 
according to Hippocrates. 

Apotiierapel'tica. (From rtrro- 
Sspcnrtvio, to heal) . Therapeutics, or 
that part of medicine which teaches 
the art of curing disorders. 

Apothe'rmum. (From airo and ' 
S-a)/*?7,heat). An acrimonious pickle, 
with mustard, vinegar, and oil. 
Galen. 

Apo' thesis. (From airo and 
riBrjut, to replace). The reduction 
of a dislocated bone. Hipp. 

Apothli'mma. (From cnro and 
SXi&u, to press from). The dregs 
or expressed juice of a plant. 

Apothrau'sis. (From cnro and 
Spavco, to break). Apocope. The 
taking away the splinters of a broken 
bone. 

Apo'tocus. (From airo and natio, 
to bring forth). Abortive; prema- 
ture. Hippocrates. 

Apotre'psis. (From airo and 
F3 



AQU 



54 



AQU 



rp£7ro>, to turn from). A resolution 
or reversion of a suppurating tu- 
mour. 

Apotropje'a. (From air or p en u), 
to avert) . An amulet, or charm, to 
avert diseases. Foenus. 

A'pozem. Apozema. (FrQm airo 
and ^cw, to boil). A decoction. 

Apozei/xis. (From airo and 
Zivyvvpi, to separate). The sepa- 
ration or removal of morbid parts. 
Hippocrates. 

Apo'zymos. (From airo and (vfirj, 
ferment) . Fermented. 

Appara'tus. (From apparere, to 
appear, or be ready at hand) . This 
term is applied to the instruments 
and the preparation and arrangement 
of every thing necessary in the per- 
formance of any operation surgical 
o:* chymical. 

Appara'tus, chymical. See Chy- 
mical apparatus. 

Appara'tus, pneumatic. See 
F/ieuinatic apparatus, 

Apparatus Minor. Apparatus 
Major . Apparatus Altus. Three 
ways of cutting for the stone. See 
Lithotomy. 

Appendi'cula c^'ci vermifo'rmis. 
A vermicular process, about four 
inches In length, and the size of a 
goose-quill, which hangs to the in- 
testinum caecum of the human body. 

Appendtcul.e epiplo'ic;e. Ap- 
pendices coli adiposes. The small 
appendices of the colon and rectum, 
which are filled with adipose sub- 
stance. See Omentum. 

Apvl?, thorn. See Datura. 

Apple, See Pyrus, 

Apricot. See Prunus armeniaca. 

Apyi?e'x!A, <e 9 f. (From «, priv. 
and wupffta, a fever). Apyrcxy. 
Without fever. The intermission of 
feverish heat. 

A'qua. See Water. 

A'qua a'eris fi'xi, Water im- 
pregnated with fixed air. Water 
impregnated with carbonic acid ; it 
sparkles in the glass, has a pleasant 
acidulous taste, and forms an excel- 
lent beverage. It diminishes thirst, 
lessens the morbid heat of the body, 
and acts as a powerful diuretic. It 
;8 also an excellent remedy in in- 



creasing irritability of the stomarh, 
as in advanced pregnancy, and it i» 
one of the best anti-emetics we pos- 
sess. 

A'qua alu'mims compo'sita. Com- 
pound solution of alum, formerly 
called aqua aluminosa bateana. See 
Liquor aluminis compositus. 

A'QUA AMMO'MiE ACETA'T£. See 
Ammonia? acetatis liquor, 

A'qua ammo'nle pu'rs:. See Am- 
monia. 

A'qua ane'thi. See Anethum. 

A'qua ca'lcis. See Calais liquor, 

A'qua cozle'stis. A preparation 
of cupper. 

A'qua ca'rui. See Carum, 

A'qua cinnamo'mi. See Lauvus 



cinnamomum. 



See 



A'qua cu'pri ammonia'ti. 
Cupri ammoniati liquor. 

A'qua cu'pri vitriola'ti com- 
po'sita. This preparation of the 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, is used 
externally, to stop haemorrhages of 
the nose, and other parts. It is 
made thus : — ]J, Cupri vitriolati y 
Aluminis, si?ig\%SS. Aqua? pur a 3 , $\y, 
Acidi vitriolici, 51J. Boil the salts 
in water until they are dissolved ; 
then filter the liquor, and add the 
acid.' 

A'qua distilla'ta. Distilled water. 
This is made by distilling water in 
clean vessels, until about two-third* 
have come over. 

A'qua fceni'culi. See Anethum 
foeniculum. 

A'qua fo'rtis. See Nitric acid. 

A'qua ka'li pr^para'ti. See Po- 
tassa; suhcarbonatis liquor. 

A'qua ka'li pu'ri. See Potassa? 
liquor. 

A'qua litha'rgyri aceta'tj. See 
Plumbi subacetatis liquor. 

A'qua litha'rgyri aceta'ti com- 
po'sita. See Plumbi subacetatis li- 
quor dilutus. 

A'qua me'nth^ piperi'tx. 
Mentha piperita. 

A'qua mf/nth* 

Mentha viridis. 

A'qua me'ntiije 
Mentha viridis. 

A'qua i>ime'nt£. Sec Jfyrtu.s j.i- 
me ntu. 



SATl VVT. 



MR IDIS. 



Sec 
See 
See 



AQtJ 



55 



ARA 



gold. 



A'qua PULe'gii. See Mentha pu- 
le gium. 

A'qua Re'gia. Aqua regalis. The 
acid now called the nitro-muriatic, 
was formerly called aqua regalis, be- 
cause it was. at that time, the only 
acid known to be able to dissolve 
See Nitro-muriatic acid. 

A'qua ro's;e. See Rosa centifolia. 

A'qua sty'ptica. A name formerly 
given to a combination of powerful 
astringents, viz. sulphate of copper, 
sulphate of alum, and sulphuric acid. 
It has been applied topically to check 
haemorrhage, and, largely diluted 
with water, as a wash in purulent 
ophthalmia. See Aqua cupri vitrio- 
lati compoiita. 

A'qua zi'nci vitkiola'ti cum 
c\'mpiiora. Otherwise named Aqua 
••itriolica camphor ata. When properlv 
diluted, it is an useful collyrium for 
inflammations of the eves, in which 
there is a weakness of the parts. 
Externally, it is applied by surgeons 
to scorbutic and phagedenic ulcera- 
tions. 

A'qu.e distilla't^. Distilled wa- 
ters. These arc made by introducing 
vegetables, as mint, penny-royal, &c. 
into a still with water ; and drawing 
off as much as is found to possess 
the properties of the plants. 

A'qu* minera'les. See Mineral 
waters. 

A'qu.e stillati'ti*: si'mplices. 
Simple distilled waters. 

A'ou.e stillati'tui spirituo's.'e. 
Spirituous distilled waters, now called 
only spiritus, as spiritus pulegii. 

Aoujeduct of fallopius. A canal 
in the petrous portion of the tem- 
poral bone, first accurately described 
by Fallopius. 

Aquatic ?iut. See Trapa natans. 

Aqueous humour of the eve. 
The very limpid watery fluid, which 
fills both chambers of the eye. See 
Eye. 

Aque'tta. The name of a liquid 
poison, said to kill at stated times, 
used by the Roman women, under 
the Pontificate of Alexander VII. 
It was prepared, and sold in drops, 
by Tophania, or Toffania, an infa- 
mous woman who resided at Paler- 



mo, and afterwards at Naples. From 
her, these drops obtained the name 
of Aqua Toffania , Aqua di Na- 
poli, &c. 

Aquifo'lium. (From acus, a 
needle, and folium, a leaf; so called 
on account of its prickly leaf. See 
Ilex. 

A'ouila. Chym. A name formerly 
used for sal-ammoniac, mercurius 
praecipitatus, arsenic, sulphur, and 
the philosopher's stone. 

A'quila a'lba. One of the names 
given to calomel by the ancients. 
See Submurias hydrargyri. * 

A'quila a'lba philosopho'rum. 
Aqua alba ganymedis. Sublimed sal- 
ammoniac. 

A'ouila cozle'stis. A panacea, 
or cure for all diseases ; a preparation 
of mercury. 

A'quila ve'seris. A preparation 
of the ancients, made with vertiigrise 
and sublimed sal-ammoniac. 

A'ouila, among the ancients, had 
many other epithets joined with it, 
as rubra, salutifcra, volans, &c. 

A'QUiLiE ve'nje. (From aquila, an 
eagle). Branches of the jugular 
veins, which are particularly pro- 
minent in eagles. 

A'QUiLiE lignum. Eagle-wood. 
Generally sold for the agallochum. 

Aquile'gia. (From aqua, water, 
and legcre, to gather ; so called from 
the shape of its leaves, which retain 
water). The herb columbine. — 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Poly an - 
dria; Order, Pentagynia. — 2. The 
name, in the Pharmacopoeias, for the 
columbine. See Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Aquile'gia vulga'ris. The syste- 
matic name of the columbine. 

Aquu'la. (Diminutive of aqua). 
A small quantity of very fine and 
limpid water. This term is applied 
to the pellucid water, which distends 
the capsule of the crystalline lens, 
and the lens itself. Paulus yEgineta 
uses it to denote a tumour consisting 
of a fatty substance under the skin 
of the eyelid. 

Arabic gum. See Acacice gummi. 

A'racalan. Amulets, or charms. 

A'raca mi'ui. (Ind.j A shrub 



ARB 



56 



ARC 



growing in the Brazils, whose roots 
are diuretic and antidysenteric. 

Ara'chne. (From arag. Heb. to 
weave; or from apaxvih a spider). 
The spider. 

Arachnoid membrane. Tunica 
vel Membrana Arachnoides, (From 
apaxvrji a spider, and sidog, like- 
ness ; so named from its resemblance 
to a spider's web) . A thin membrane 
of the brain, without vessels and 
nerves, situated between the dura 
and pia mater, and surrounding the 
cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla ob- 
longata, and medulla spinalis. Also 
applied by some writers to the tunic 
of the crystalline lens and vitreous 
humour of the eye. 

Arack. (Ind.) An Indian spiri- 
tuous liquor, prepared in a variety of 
ways. See Arrack. 

A'rados. (From apadeto, to be 
turbulent! . A commotion in the sto- 
mach, occasioned by the fermentation 
of its contents. Hipp. 

Arjeo'tica. (From apatoco, to ra- 
refy) . Things which rarefy the fluids 
of the body. 

Ara'lia. (From ara 9 a bank in 
the sea ; so called because it grows 
upon banks, near the sea). The 
berry-bearing angelica. Of the se- 
veral species of this tree, the roots 
of the nudicaulis, or naked-stalked, 
were brought over from North Ame- 
rica, where it grows, and sold here 
for sarsaparilla. 

Ara'nea. (From apau, to knit 
together) . The spider. 

A'rbor vi'ta. The tree of life. — 
] . The cortical substance of the ce- 
rebellum, when cut traversely, ap- 
pears ramified like a tree, from 
which circumstance it is termed arbor 
vita'. — 2. The name of a tree for- 
merly m high estimation in medicine. 
See Thuya occideutalis. 

A'rbutls. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
( lass, Deiandria; Order, Monogynia. 
The strawberry tree. 

A'RBUTUS UNE'DO. Amatzquitl. 
Vitrdo papyracca. A decoction of 
the bark of the root of this plant is 
commended in fevers. 

A'rbutus u'va u'rsi, The sys- 



tematic name for the officinal trail- 
ing arbutus. Bear's berry,, bear's 
whortle-berry, bear's whorts, or 
bear's bilberries ; called also vaccaria- 
vacci?iia. — Arbutus caulibus procum- 
bentibus, foliis integerrimis of Lin- 
naeus. 

A'rca arcano'rum. The mercurv 
of the philosophers. 

A'rca co'rdis. The pericardium. 

Arca'num, i, n. A secret. A medi- 
cine, whose preparation, or efficacy, 
is kept from the world, to enhance 
its value. With the chymists, it is a 
thing secret and incorporeal ; it can 
only be known by experience, for it 
is the virtue of everv tiling-, which 
operates a thousand times more than 
the thing itself. 

Arca'num catho'licum. Bezoar, 
plantain, and colchicum. 

Arca'num duplex. Arcanum du- 
plicaium. A name formerly given to 
the combination of potash and sul- 
phuric acid, more commonly called 
vitriolated tartar, and now sulphate 
of potash. 

Arca'num ta'rtari. The acetate 
of potash. 

Arce'rthos. Juniper. 

Arch-k'us. The universal archaeus, 
or principle of Van Helmont, was 
the active principle of the material 
world ; it also means good health. 

A'rche. (From apx^h tne begin- 
ning) . The earliest stage of a disease. 

Archf/nda. (Arab.) A powder 
made of the leaves of the ligustrum, 
to check the foetid odour of the feet. 
Detergent. 

Arcueo'stis. White briony. 

Archima'gia. (From apxili the 
chief, and ?naga, Arab, meditation) . 
Chymistry, as being the chief of 
sciences. 

Arciii'tholus. (From fp^ij, tne 
chief, and SoXoc, a chamber) . The 
sudatorium, or principal room of 
the ancient baths. 

A'rchos. (From apxoQ, an arch). 
The anus; so called from its shape. 

Archofto'ma. (From <(px°C> tne 
anus, and art 7r^(o f to fall down). A 
bearing down of the rectum, or pro- 
lapsus ani. 

Arcta'tio. (Trom u ret arc } to make 



ARD 



57 



ARG 



narrow) . Arctitudo. Narrowness. — 
1. Constipation of the intestines, 
from inflammation. — 2. Preternatural 
straitness of the pudendum muliebre. 

A'rctium. (From ctpxlog, a bear ; 
so called from its roughness). The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Syngenesia ; 
Order, Polygamic, a?qualis. The bur- 
dock. 

A'RC TI U M L A'PPA . (Lappa ; airOTH 
\a£uv, from its seizing the garments 
of passengers) . The herb clot bur, 
or burdock. The systematic name 
for the bardana. Arctium. Betonica. 
Britannic*. Ilaphis. The plant so 
called in the pharmacopoeias, is Arc- 
tium lappa. — Foliis eordatis, inermi- 
bus, petiolatis, of Linnaeus. 

*** Decoctions of them have of 
late been used, in rheumatic, gouty, 
venereal, and other disorders ; and 
are preferred by some to those of 
sarsaparilla. Two ounces of the 
roots are to be boiled in three pints 
of water, to a quart ; to this, two 
drachms of sulphate of potash have 
been usually added. Of this decoc- 
tion, a pint should be taken every 
day in scorbutic and rheumatic cases, 
and when intended as a diuretic, in a 
shorter period. 

Arctu'ra. (From arctare, to strait- 
en). An inflammation of the finger, 
or toe, from a curvature of the nail. 
Limi&us. 

Arcua'lia. (From arcus, a bow). 
Arcualis. The sutura coronalis is so 
named, from its bow-like shape ; 
and, for the same reason, the bones 
of the sinciput are called areualia 
ossia. Bartholin. 

Arcua'tio. (From arcus, a bow). 
A gibbosity of the fore-parts, with a 
curvature of the sternum of the ti 
bia, or dorsal vertebrae. Avicenna. 

A'rculjE. (A dim. of area, a 
chest). The orbits or sockets of the 
eyes. 

A'rdas. (From ap?vu), to defile). 
Filth, excrement, or refuse. Hipp. 

Ardent Spirit. See Alkohol. 

A'rdor febri'lis. Feverish heat. 

A'rdor URl'NJB. Dysuria. Scald- 
ing of the urine. Difficulty and pain 
in making water, attended with a 



sense of heat in the urethra. It is a 
symptom of gonorrhoea, and some 
other affections. 

A'rdor ventri'culi. Heartburn. 

A'rea. An empty space. That 
kind of baldness where the crown of 
the head is left naked, like the ton- 
sure of a monk. 

Are'ca i'ndica. An inferior kind 
of nutmeg. 

Are'gon. (From apnyio, to help) . 
A resolvent ointment ; so called from 
its valuable qualities. 

Arema'ros. Cinnabar. 

Are'na, ce, f. Sand, or gravel. 

Arena'mel. (From arena, sand ; 
so called because it was said to be 
procured from sandy places) . .ire- 
namen. Bole-armenic. 

Arena'tion. (From arena, sand). 
Saburration, or the sprinkling of hot 
sand upon the bodies of patients. 
Andr. Baccius de Therm. 

Are'ntes. (From arere, to dry 
up). A kind of ancient cupping- 
glasses, used without scarifying. 

Are'ola. (A dim. of area, a void 
space). A small brown circle, which 
surrounds the nipples of females. 
During and after pregnancy, it be- 
comes considerably larger. 

Aret£NOi'des. See Arytanoides. 

A'rete. (Apcrfj, virtue). Hippo- 
crates uses this word to signify cor- 
poreal or mental vigour. 

Are'ls. A pessary, invented by 
/Egineta. 

A'rfar. Arsag. Arsenic. Ru- 
land, &c. 

A'rgal. Argol. Crude tartar, in 
the state in which it is taken from 
the inside of wine-vessels, is known 
in the shops by this name. 

Argasy'llis. (From apyor, a ser- 
pent, which it is said to resemble). 
The plant which was supposed to 
produce gum ammoniac. 

A'rgema. (From apyoc;, white). 
Argemon. A small white ulcer of 
the globe of the eye. Erotianus. Ga-* 
len, &c. 

Arge'nti m'tras. Causticum lu- 
nare. Argentum nitratum. Nitrate 
of silver. 

%* Its virtues are corrosive and 
astringent. Internally it is exhibited 



ARI 



58 



ARI 



in very small quantities, in epilepsy ; 
and externally it is employed to de- 
stroy fungous excrescences, callous 
ulcers, fistulas, &c. In the latter 
disease it is employed as an injec- 
tion ; from two grains to three be- 
ing dissolved in an ounce of distilled 
water. 

Arge'ntum, ?, n. Silver. See Silver. 

Arge'ntum mtra'tum. See Ni- 
Xros argenti. 

Arge'ntum vi'vum. Quicksilver. 
It was formerly, by some, called 
argentum mobile, and argentum fu- 
sum. See Mercury. 

A'rges. (From apyoc, white). A 
serpent, with a whitish skin, deemed 
by Hippocrates exceedingly venom- 
ous. 

Argi'lla. (From apyog, white) . 
White clay ; argil ; potters' earth. 

Argi'lla vitriola'ta. Alum. 

Argvri'tis. (From apyvpog, sil- 
ver). Litharge, or spume of silver. 
A kind of earth was formerly so 
named, which is taken from silver 
mines, and is bespangled with many 
particles of silver. 

Argyro'come. (From «pyupoc, 
silver, and ko/jltj, hair). A sort of 
cudweed, or gnaphalium, was so 
named from its white silvery flos- 
cules. 

Argyroli'banos. The white oli- 
banum. 

Argvro'phora. An antidote, in 
the composition of which there is 
silver. 

Argyrotrophe'ma. (From apyoc, 
white, and rpotprifja, food). A white 
cooling food, made with milk. Milk 
<liet. Galen. 

Ariieumati'stos. (From a, neg. 
and pev/Liart(to, to be afflicted with 
rheums). Not being afflicted with 
gouty rheums. 

Aricy'mon. (From apt, and xuw, 
to be quickly impregnated). A wo- 
man who conceives quickly and 
oi'ton. 

Akistalthje'a. (From aptroc, 
and a\0aia y the althaea) . Altluea, or 
common marsh-mallow. 

Arstolo'chia. (From apid)oq y 
£nod, and Xoyja, or \o\tia, partu- 
rition - y no called because it was sup- 



posed to be of sovereign use in dis- 
orders incident to child-birth). — 1. 
The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnsean system : Class, Gynan- 
dria ; Order, Hexandria. Birth wort. 
1 — 2. The pharmacopoeial name of 
the long-rooted birthwort. See.^m- 
tolochia lo?iga. 

Aristolo'chia anguici'da. Snake- 
killing birthwort. Linn. — The juice 
of the root of this plant has the pro- 
perty of so stupifying serpents, that 
they may be handled with impunity. 
One or two drops are sufficient ; and 
if more be dropt imo the mouth, 
they become convulsed. So ungrate- 
ful is the smell of the root to those 
reptiles, that it is said they imme- 
diately turn from it. The juice is 
also esteemed as a preventive against 
the effects usually produced by the 
bite of venomous serpents. 

Aristolo'chia clemati'tis. (Cle- 
matitis, from y,\fjfia 9 a tendril ; from 
its climbing up trees, or any thing 
that it can fasten upon with its ten- 
drils). Aristolochia tenuis. The sys- 
tematic name of the Aristolochia vul- 
garis of some pharmacopoeias. It is 
esteemed as possessing antipodagric 
virtues. 

Aristolo'chia faba'cea. See Fu- 
maria bullosa. 

Aristolo'chia lo'nga. The sys- 
tematic name for the aristolochia of 
our pharmacopoeias. The root of 
this plant only is in use. The virtues 
ascribed to it bv the antients were 
very considerable ; and it was fre- 
quently employed in various diseases, 
but particularly in promoting the 
discharge of the lot Ida; hence its 
name. It is now very rarely used, 
except in gouty affections, as an aro- 
matic stimulant. 

Aristolo'chia roti'nda. The 
root of this species of birthwort is 
used indiscriminately with that of 
the aristolochia longa. See Aristo- 
lochia lo/iga. 

Aristolo'chia serpentaria. The 
systematic name for the aerpenturim 
<virginiana of the pharmacopoeias. 
Virginian snake - root. 

*** Snake-root lias an aromatic 
smell, approaching to that of vale- 



ARX 



50 



ARS 



rian, but more agreeable; and a 
warm, bitterish, pungent taste. It 
possesses tonic and antisceptic vir- 
tues, and is generally admitted as a 
powerful stimulant and diaphoretic. 
It is employed, in the present day, 
in some fevers where these effects 
are required. A tincture of snahf- 
root is directed both by the Lond. 
and Edinb. Pharmacopoeias. 

Aristolo'chia te'suis. See Aris- 
tolochia clematitis. 

Aristolo'chia triloba'ta. Linn. 
Three-lobed birth wort. The root, 
and every part of this plant, is diu- 
retic, and is employed in America 
against the bite of serpents. 

Aristolo'chia yulga'ris. See 
Aristolochia clematitis. 

Aristophanei'on. (From Aristo- 
phanes, its inventor). The name of 
an ancient emollient plaster, com- 
posed of wax, or pitch. Gorrams. 

Araiatl'ka. Harness. The am- 
nios, or internal membrane which 
surrounds the fnetu-. 

A'rme. From aoio, to adapt;. A 
junction of the lips of wounds ; al-o 
the joining of the sutures of the 
head. 

Armi'lla. (Dim. of annus, the 
arm). The round ligament which 
confines the tendons of the carpu -. 

Armora'cia. (From Arm<,ri<(t, 
the country whence it mm brought). 

See Coch/earia Armoracia. 

Armora'ci;e ra'dix. Korse-radish 

root. See Coch/earia A r morai id. 

A'rnica. (Apvutrj: from anc, a 
lamb ; because of the likeness of the 
leaf of this plant to the coat of the 
lamb). Leopard's-bane. Arnica. — 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linna?:in system : Class, Synge- 
nesia; Order, Poly garni a ^upvrjlua. 
— 2. The pharmacopceial name of 
the Mountain arnica. 

A'rnica monta'na. The systematic 
name for the arnica of the pharma- 
copoeias. The flowers of this plant 
are very generally employed on the 
Continent ; and, as a febrifuge and 
antiseptic, have been highly extolled 
by Dr. Collin, of Vienna. Much 
caution is necessary in regulating the 
dose, as it is a medicine very apt to 



produce vomiting, and much uneasi- 
ness of the stomach. See Arnica. 

A'rnica suede'nsis. See Inula 
dysenterica. 

Arxo'tto. (Spanish) . A curious 
shrub in Jamaica, the seeds of which 
are covered with a kind of wax, from 
which is made the Spanish arnotto. 

Aro'ma, mat is, n. (From apt, 
intensely, and o(o>, to smell) . Spi- 
rit us rector. Lach plant has its 
characteristic smell. This odorant 
principle is called, by the moderns, 
aroma. Water charged with aroma, 
is called the distilled water of the 
substance made use of ; thus lavender 
and peppermint waters, are water im- 
pregnated with the aroma of the 
lavender and peppermint. 

Aroma'ticls co'rtex. A name 
for canella alba. 

Aroma'tics. (Aroma tica, sc. me- 
di< amenta ; from ctniofia, an odour). 
A term applied to all medicines 
which have a grateful spicy scent, 
and an agreeable pungent taste, as 
cinnamon bark, cardamoms, &c. 

Aromatopo'la. (From cunopa, an 
odour, lad wl C i, to sell). A drug- 
gist ; a vender of drugs and spicerie^. 

Arqueriva'dk. (A French word, 
implying good for a gun- shot wound) . 
The name of a spirituous water, dis- 
tilled from a farrago of aromatic 
plants. 

Arrv'ck. A spirituous liquor dis- 
tilled from rice, and drank, in the 
rice countries, as brandy is in this 
island. Its effects on the animal eco- 
nomy are the same. 

A'rraphus. (From a, priv. and 
n«0;/, a suture;. Without suture. 
It is applied to the cranium when 
naturally without sutures. 

Arrh/e'a. (From a, neg. and peo>, 
to flow) . The suppression of any 
natural flux, as the menses, &c. 

Arrowhead. The roots of this 
plant, Sagittaria sagitti folia of Lin- 
naeus, are said to be esculent, but it 
must be in times of very great scar- 
citv. 

a/ 

Arrow-root. See Maranta. 

Arse'nmas. (From Arsenicum, ar- 
senic) . An arseniate or arsenical salt. 
A salt formed by a combination of 



ARS 



60 



ARS 



arsenic acid with different bases, as 
arseniate of ammonia, which is pro- 
duced by the union of ammonia with 
arsenic acid. The only one used in 
medicine is the superarseniate of pot- 
ash. See Arsenic acid. 

A'rsemc. (From the Arabic term 
Arsanek, or from apavrj, for apprjv, 
masculus; from its strong and deadly 
powers. Arsenic is a metal scattered, 
in great abundance, over the mineral 
kingdom. It is found in black heavy 
masses, of little brilliancy, called 
native arsenic (testaceous arsenic). 
This exists in different parts of Ger- 
many. Mineralised by sulphur, it 
forms sulphurised arsenic. This mi- 
neral is met with in Italy, about 
Mount Vesuvius. — There are two 
varieties of this ore, which differ 
from each other in colour, occasioned 
by the different proportions of their 
component parts. The one is called 
yellow sulphurised arsenic, or orpi- 
ment; the other, red sulphurised ar- 
senic, or realgar (ruby arsenic) ; both 
are met with in Hungary, and differ- 
ent parts of Germany. The colour 
of the first ore is a lemon-yellow, 
inclining sometimes to a green ; the 
colour of the latter is a ruby-red ; it 
is more transparent than the former, 
and found in compact solid masses, 
sometimes crystallized in bright nee- 
dles. Arsenic united to oxygen, con- 
stitutes the ore called native oxide of 
arsenic. This ore is scarce ; it is 
generally found of an earthy appear- 
ance, or as an efflorescence, coating 
native, or metallic arsenic ; its colour 
is a whitish-grey ; it is rarely met 
with crystallized. Arsenic exists like- 
wise alloyed with cobalt, antimony, 
tin, copper, lead, and various other 
metals. 

*** Notwithstanding the mischief 
it is capable of producing, the arse- 
nious acid is a valuable internal re- 
medy, in its appropriate dose, viz. 
about one-eighteenth part of a grain. 
See Arsenicalis liquor. Externally it 
is used as a caustic, particularly in 
cancer. 

Akskmc acid. Arsenic fully oxy- 
genated. It is always a product of 
art. It is capable of existing in the 



solid state. It appears in the form 
of a white pulverulent matter. It 
attracts humidity from the air. It 
is soluble in water. The solution 
possesses a considerable acid taste. 
It maybe evaporated to dryness, and 
even converted into glass. It is de- 
composable by all combustible bo- 
dies, and by many oxides. It is so- 
luble in some acids, but without 
change, or intimate combination. 

Arse'nical caustic. A species of 
caustic said to possess useful pro- 
perties, independent of those of de- 
stroying morbid parts to which it is 
applied. It is composed of two parts 
of levigated antimony to one of 
white arsenic. 

* # * This is the caustic so exten- 
sively employed under the name of 
arsenical caustic, by the late Mr. 
Justamond, in his treatment of can- 
cers. 

Arsenic a'lis li'quor. Arsenical 
solution. " Take of sublimed oxide 
of arsenic, in very fine powder, sub- 
carbonate of potash from tartar, of 
each 64 grains ; distilled water, a 
pint. Boil them together in a glass 
vessel, until the arsenic be entirely 
dissolved. When the solution is cold, 
add compound spirit of lavender, 
four fluid drachms. Then add as 
much distilled water as may exactly 
fill a pint measure." This prepara- 
tion is similar to the formula of Dr. 
Fowler, of Stafford, who first intro- 
duced it in imitation of a celebrated 
popular remedy for intermittents, 
sold under the name of the tasteless 
ague-drop. The compound spirit of 
lavender is only intended to give 
some colour and taste, without 
which it would be more liable to 
mistakes. Where the dose is small, 
and the effects so powerful, the most 
minute attention to its proportion 
and preparation become necessary. 
Each ounce contains four grains of 
the oxide, and each drachm half a 
grain : but it will rarely be proper 
to aro bevond one-sixteenth of a 
grain as a dose. 

Arsenical solution. See Arsenicalis 
liquor. 

Arse'nici o'xydum sublima'tum. 



ART 



61 



ART 



Arsenici oxydum pr&paratum. This i 
ib intended to render the arsenious 
acid more pure. It is directed to be 
powdered, put into a crucible, and 
sublimed, by the application of fire, 
into another crucible inverted over 
the first. 

Arsenici oxydum preparation. See 
Arsenici oxydum sublimation. 

Arsenici album. White arsenic. 
See Arsenious acid, in the article 
Arsenic. 

Arse'mous acid. White arsenic. 
Oxide of arsenic. Rat's-bane. 

* # * It possesses a weak sub-acid 
taste, which slowly manifests itself. 
Though of but a feeble acidity, it 
sensibly reddens the tincture of cab- 
bage and litmus. If placed on burn- 
ing coals, or on a red-hot iron, it is 
volatilized in the form of a white va- 
pour, which has a strong smell of 
irarlick. It is slightly soluble in water. 
With phosphoric and boracic acid>, 
it fuses into glass. It decomposes 
the nitrates and the super-oxygenated 
muriate of potash. It unites with 
many of the earths and alkalies, as 
well as metallic oxides, and forms 
saline compounds, which are termed 
arsenites. 

Artemi'sia. (A queen of that 
name, who first used it ; or from 
Apre/ac, Diana ; because it was 
formerly used in the diseases of 
women, over whom she preside! . 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Syngencsia ; 
Order, Polygamia superflua. 

Artemisia alro'tanum. The sys- 
tematic name for the abrotanum of 
the pharmacopoeias. Abrotanum mas. 
Abrathan. Common southern-wood. 

Artemisia fruticosa of Linnaeus. 
A plant possessed of a strong and (to 
most people) an agreeable smell ; a 
pungent, bitter, and somewhat nau- 
seous taste. It is supposed to stimu- 
late the whole system, but more par- 
ticularly the uterus. It is very rarely 
used, unless by way of fomentation, 
with which intention the leaves are 
directed. 

Artemi'sia absinthium. The sys- 
tematic name for the A bsirithitim vul- 
gate of the pharmacopoeias. Com- 



mon wormwood. Falsely called in 
our markets Absinthium Romamim, 
or Roman wormwood. Absinthium 
Ponticum of Dioscorides and Pliny, 
according to Murray. 

%* This species of wormwood 
may be considered the principal of 
the herbaeeous bitters. Its virtus, 
in the words of Bergius, is antipu- 
tredinosa, antacida, anthelmintica, 
resolvens, tonica, spasmodica. And, 
although it is now chiefly employed 
with a view to the two last-men- 
tioned qualities, yet we are told 
of its good effects in a variety of 
diseases ; as intermittent fevers, hy- 
pochondriasis, obstructions of the 
liver and spleen, gout, calculi, scurvy, 
dropsy, worms, &c. See JJ'oodville 's 
Medical Botany. — Cullen thinks it 
is possessed of a narcotic power, and 
that there is in every bitter, when 
largely employed, a power of de- 
stroying the sensibility and irritabi- 
lity of the nervous system. Exter- 
nallv, wormwood is used in discuti- 
ent and antiseptic fomentations. 

Artemi'sia chine'nsis. Moxa Ja- 
po n it a . Musia petra? . Moxa . Mug- 
wort of 'China. A soft lanuginous 
substance, called moxa, is prepared 
in Japan, from the young leaves of 
this species of inugwort, by beat- 
ing them when thoroughly dried, 
and rubbing them betwixt the hands, 
till only the fine fibres are left. 
Moxa is celebrated in the eastern 
countries for preventing and curing 
many disorders, by being burnt on 
the skin ; a little cone of it laid upon 
the part, previously moistened, and 
set on fire on the top, burns down 
with a temperate and glowing heat, 
and produces a dark-coloured spot, 
the ulceration of which is promoted 
by putting a little garlick ; and the 
ulcer is either healed up when the 
eschar separates, or kept running for 
a length of time, as different circum- 
stances may require. See Larrey on 
Moxa, &c. 

Artemi'sia juda'ica. The syste- 
matic name for the Santonicum of 
the pharmacopoeias, according t> 
some botanists. See Artemisia Sar- 
toniea. 
G 



ART 



62 



ART 



Artemi'sia mari'tima. The syste- 
matic name for the Absinthium ma- 
ritimum of the pharmacopoeias. Sea- 
wormwood, falsely called in our 
markets, Roman wormwood. It is 
preferred in those cases where the 
artemisia absinthium is supposed to be 
too unpleasant for the stomach. 

Artemi'sia po'ntica. The syste- 
matic name for the Absinthium pon- 
ticurn , or Roman wormwood, not 
now used medicinally. 

Artemi'sia rupe'stris. The syste- 
matic name for the genipi album of 
the pharmacopoeias. It has a grate- 
ful smell, and is used in some coun- 
tries in the cure of intermittents and 
obstructed catamenia. 

Artemi'sia santo'mca. The Tar- 
tarian southern-wood, or worm-seed. 
The seeds are esteemed to be sto- 
machic, emmenagogue, and anthel- 
mintic ; but it is especially for the 
last-mentioned powers that they are 
now administered ; and from their 
efficacy in this way, they have ob- 
tained the name of worm-seed. 

Artemi'sia vulga'ris. Mugwort. 
This plant is slightly bitter, and, 
although in high esteem in former 
clays, is now almost entirely for- 
gotten. 

Artemo'nium. (From Artemon, 
its inventor) . A collyriam, or wash 
for the eyes. 

Artf/ria. See Artery. 
Arteri'aca. (From apri)pia, an 
artery). Medicines formerly used 
against disorders of the aspera arte- 
ria, or trachea. 

Arte'ris: adipo's;e. The arteries 
which secrete the fat about the kid- 
neys are so called. They are branches 
of the capsular and diaphragmatic, 
renal, and spermatic arteries. 

Arte'ri^e VENo'siE. The four pul- 
monary veins were so called by the 
ancients. 

Arteriosus du'ctus. See Ductus 
arteriosus. 

Arterio'tomy. (From aplijpia, an 
artery, and rtpvio, to cut). The 
opening of an artery. This opera- 
tion is confined to the temporal 
artery. 

A'RTEftY. (From arjp, air, and 



Tijpeo), to keep; so called, because 
the ancients supposed that only air 
was contained in them). Arteria. 
Arteries are membranous pulsating 
canals, which gradually become less 
as they proceed from the heart. They 
are composed of three membranes ; 
a common, or external ; a muscular ; 
and an internal one, which is very 
smooth. They originate from the 
heart ; the pulmonary artery from 
the right ventricle ; and the aorta 
from the left : the other arteries are 
all branches of the aorta. Their ter- 
mination is either in the veins, or 
in capillary exhaling vessels, or they 
anastomose with one another. It is 
by their means that the blood is car- 
ried from the heart to every part of 
the body, for nutrition, preservation 
of life, generation of heat, and the 
secretion of the different fluids. The 
action of the arteries, called the 
pulse, corresponds with that of the 
heart, and is effected by the contrac- 
tion of their muscular, and great 
elasticity of their outermost coat. 

Arthani'ta. (From aplog, bread ; 
because it is the food of swine) . The 
herb sow-bread. See Cyclamen. 

Arthre'mbolus. (From apOpov, 
a joint, and efji^aWco, to impel). 
An instrument for reducing luxated 
bones. 

Arthri'tica. (From apBpiric., the 
gout) . — 1 . The herb ground-pine ; 
so called, because it was thought 
good against gouty disorders. — 2. Re- 
medies for the gout. 
Arthri'tis, -tidis, f. (From apQpov, 
a joint ; because it is commonly 
confined to the joints). The gout. 
Dr. Cullen, in his Nosology, gives 
it the name of podagra, because 
he considers the foot to be the 
seat of the idiopathic gout. It is 
arranged in the Class Pyrexia 3 , and 
Order Phlegmasia 1 , and is divided 
into four species, the regular, ato- 
nic, retrocedent, and misplaced. 

Arthroca'ce. (From apOpov, a 
joint, and xa*?j, a disease). An ulcer 
of the cavity of the bone. 

Arthro'dia. (From" apQpoo), to 
articulate). A species of <h arthrosis, 
or moveable connection of bones, in 



ART 



63 



ARY 



which the head of one bone is re- 
ceived into the superficial cavity of 
another, so as to admit of motion 
in every direction, as the head of 
the humerus with the glenoid cavity 
of the scapula. 

Arthrody'nia. (From apQpov, a 
joint, and ocvvi], pain). Chronic 
pains in the joints, without pyrexia, 
it is one of the terminations of acute 
rheumatism. See Rheumatismus. 

Arthropuo'sis. (From apQpov, a 
joint, and tsvov, pus). Arthropyosis. 
A collection of pus in a joint. It is, 
however, frequently applied to other 
affections, as lumbago psoadica, &c. 

Arthrosis. (From apdpoio, to 
articulate, or join together). Articu- 
lation. 

Artichoke. See Cinara. 

Artichoke, French. See Cinara. 

Artichoke, Jerusalem. See Ile- 
lianthus tuberosum. 

Articula'ris. A name given to a 
disease which more immediately in- 
fests the articuli, or joints. The 
morbus articularis is synonymous 
with the Greek word arthritis, and 
our gout. A branch of tlu* basilic 
vein is called articularis vena, be- 
cause it passes under the joint of the 
shoulder. 

Articulation. (From artirulns, n 
joint). The skeleton is composed of 
a great number of bones, which are 
all so admirably constructed, and 
with so much affinity to each other, 
that the extremity of every bone is 
}>erfectly adjusted to the end of the 
bone with which it is connected ; and 
this connection is termed their ar- 
ticulation. Anatomists distinguish 
three kinds of articulation : the first 
they name Biarthrosis ; the sccc-.d, 
Synarthrosis ; and the third, Am- 
phiarthrosis ; which see, under their 
respective heads. 

Arti'scus. (From aprog, bread) . 
A troch ; so called, because they are 
made like little loaves. 

Arto'creas. (From aprog, bread, 
and aptag, flesh). A nourishing food, 
made of bread and various meats 
boiled together. Galen. 

Arto'gala. (From aprog, bread, 
and ya\a } milk) , A cooling food, 



made of bread and milk. A poul- 
tice. 

Arto'meli. (From aproc, bread, 
and fxeXi, honey) . A cataplasm made 
of bread and honey. Galen. 

A'rum. (From the Hebrew word 
jar on, which signifies a dart ; so 
named, because its leaves are shaped 
like a dart ; or from apa, injury). — 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnoean system : Class, Gynan- 
dria ; Order, Polyandria. Arum, or 
wake-robin. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of the common arum, or wake- 
robin. 

A'rum dracu'nculus. The syste- 
matic name of the plant, called in 
English, dragon's-wort, and many- 
leaved arum. 

%* The roots and leaves of this 
plant are extremely acrimonious ; 
more so than the arum maculatum, 
with which it agrees in medicinal 
virtues. 

A'rum macula'tum. The syste- 
matic name for the arum of the 
pharmacopoeias. 

Aryt-^'no-epiglottidf/cs. Innes 
and Albums. Arytano-Epi^iottici of 
Window* A muscle composed of a 
Dumber of fibres running between 
the arytamoid cartilage and epi- 
glottis. 

Arytenoid cartilage. CartiUt'^i 
arytamoidea. The name of two carti- 
lages of the larynx. See Larynx. 

Arytnjenoi'des. From apvlaiva, 
a funnel, and u£og, shape). The 
name of some parts, from their be- 
ing funnel-shaped. 

Aryt.enoide'us major. See Ary- 
tamoideus transversus. 

Aryt.enoide'us mi'nor. SeeAry- 
tcenoidcus ohliquus. 

ArytjENoide'ls obli'ouus. Innes, 
Albinus, and Winslow. Arytcenoi- 
deus minor of Douglas. A muscle of 
the glottis, which arises from the 
base of one arytenoid cartilage, and 
crossing its fellow, is inserted near 
the tip of the other arytsenoid car- 
tilage. It is occasionally wanting. 

Arytsnoide'us transve'rsus, of 
Innes, Albinus, and Winslow. Arytce- 
noideus major of Douglas. An azygos, 
or single muscle of the glottis. 
G2 



A8C 



64 



A SO 



Asafoi'tida, -c&, f. (From the He- 
brew word asa, to heal). See Fe- 
rula. 

Asa'phatum. (From a, neg. and 
(TaQvg, clear). An intercutaneous 
itch, generated in the pores, like 
worms with black heads : so called 
by reason of their minuteness : they 
are hardly visible. 

Asa'phia. (From a, neg. and aa- 
Qrjg, clear) . A defect in utterance or 
pronunciation. 

Asarabacca. See Asarum, 

A'sari fo'lia. Asarabacca leaves. 
The leaves of the Asarum Europaeum. 
See Asarum. 

A'sarum. ;(From a, neg. and 
<r«ipw, to adorn ; because it was not 
admitted into the ancient coronal 
wreaths) . Asarabacca. — 1 . The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Dodecandria; Order, 
Monogynia. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of the asarabacca. 

A'sarum Europium. The syste- 
matic name of the asarabacca of the 
shops. It is a native of England, 
but not very common. The leaves 
of this plant are extremely acrid, 
and are occasionally used, when 
powdered, as a sternutatory. For 
this purpose the leaves, as being less 
acrid than the roots, are preferred ; 
and in moderate doses, not exceed- 
ing a few grains, snuffed up the nose, 
for several evenings, produce a 
pretty large watery discharge, which 
continues for several days together, 
by which the head-ache, tooth- ache, 
ophthalmia, and some paralytic and 
soporific complaints have been effec- 
tually relieved. 

Ascaloni'tis. A species of onion. 

Asca'rides. The plural of ascaris. 
See Ascaris. 

A'scaris, -idis, n. (From a(TKeoj,to 
move about : so called from its con- 
tinued troublesome motion). There 
are several kinds of worms distin- 
guished by tliis term ; but those which 
claim a place here, as belonging only 
to the human body, are — 1. Ascaris 
vermicular is , the thread or maw- 
worm, which is very small and slen- 
der, not exceeding half an inch in 
length : they inhabit the rectum. — 



2. Ascaris lumbricoides, the long and 
round worm, which is a foot in length, 
and about the breadth of a goose - 
quill. 

Asce'ndens obli'ouus. See Ob- 
liquus internus abdominis. 

A'scia. An axe or chisel. A 
simple bandage ; so called from its 
shape in position. Galen. 

Asci'tes, -a, m. (From ctcntog, 
a sack, or bottle ; so called from 
its bottle-like protuberancy) . Dropsy 
of the belly. A tense, but scarcely 
elastic, swelling of the abdomen, 
from accumulation of water. Cullen 
ranks this genus of disease in the 
Class Cachexia?, and Order Jntu- 
mescentia? . 

Ascle'pias. (From Asclepias, its 
discoverer ; or from JEsculapius, the 
god of medicine). The herb swallow- 
wort. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, Pen- 
tandria; Order, Digynia. 

Ascle'pias vinc^to'xicum. The 
systematic name for the vincetoxicum 
of the pharmacopoeias. It is given 
in some countries in the cure of 
glandular obstructions. 

Ascle'pios. (From Asclepias, its* 
inventor.) A dried smegma and col- 
lyrium described by Galen. 

Asco'ma. (From a<rxoc, a bottle) . 
The eminence of the pubes at the 
years of maturity ; so called from its 
shape. 

A'sef. A pustule like a millet- 
seed. 

A'segon. Asegen. Asogen. Dra- 
gon's-blood. 

Ash. See Fraxinus. 

Asia'ticum ba'lsamim. Balm of 
Gilead. 

A'sinus. The ass. Its milk is 
much esteemed in medicine. See 
Asses' Milk. 

Asini'nuim lac. Asses' milk. 

Asi'ti. (From a, neg. and (Ttroc, 
food). Asitia. Those are so called 
who take no food, for want of ap- 
petite. 

A'sjogam. (Ind.) A tree growing 
in Malabar and the East Indies, whose 
juice is used against the colic. 

Aso'des. (From avio, to nau- 
seate). A nausea or loathing, or 



ASP 



65 



ASS 



a Fever with much sense of heat and 
nausea. Aretceus. 

Aspadia'lis. A suppression of 
urine from an imperforated urethra. 

Aspa'lathum. The aromatic aloe. 

Aspa'lathi lignum. See Lignum. 
Aloes. 

Aspa'ragus. (From Acnrapayog, a 
young shoot, before it unfolds its 
leaves) . — 1 . The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Hexandria; Order, Monogynia. Aspa- 
ragus. — 2. The pharmacopoeial name 
of the common sparage, or sparrow- 
grass. 

Aspa'ragus officinalis. The sys- 
tematic name of the asparagus, the 
root of which has been esteemed as 
a diuretic. Mostly employed as a 
food, but contains very little nou- 
rishment. 

Aspa'sia. (From a, for apa, to- 
gether, and ffTTrtw, to draw). A con- 
strictive medicine for the pudendum 
muliebre. Caplvuc. 

A'spera arte'ria. So called from 
the inequality of its cartilages) . Sec 
Trachea. 

Aspe'rula. (A diminutive of asprr, 
the seeds being rough). The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Tetrandia; Order, 
Mmtogynia. Woodroof. 

Aspe'rula odora'ta. The syste- 
matic name for the officinal matri- 
<//'ra. It imparts its flavour to vi- 
nous liquors ; and is commended as 
a cordial and deobstruent remedy. 

Aspaalti'tis. A kind of trefoil: 
the last vertebra of the loins. 

Aspho'delus. (From a<77rtc, a 
serpent, and dtiXoc, fearful ; be- 
cause it destroys the venom of ser- 
pents ; or from (nrodog, ashes, be- 
cause it was formerly sown upon 
the graves of the dead) . Asphodel. — 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class Hexan- 
dria; Order, Monogynia. — 2. The 
pharmacopoeial name of the daffodil, 
or branched asphodel. 

Aspho'delus ramo'sus. The sys- 
tematic name for the officinal aspho- 
delus. The plant was formerly sup- 
posed to be efficacious in the cure of 
sordid ulcers. It is now laid aside. 



Asphy'xia. (From a, priv. and 
<r0v£i£, a pulse). The state of the 
body during life, in which the pul- 
sation of the heart and arteries can- 
not be perceived. Several species of 
asphyxia are enumerated by different 
authors. See Syncope. 

Aspidi'scus. (From acTTrtc, a buck- 
ler). The sphincter muscle of the 
anus was formerly so called, from its 
shape. Coelius Aurelianus. 

Asple'nium. (From a, priv. and 
€r7rXrjv 9 the spleen ; because it was 
supposed to remove disorders of the 
spleen). The herb spleen- wort. The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Cryptoga- 
mia; Order, Filices. 

Asple'nium ru'ta mura'ria. The 
systematic name for the ruta muraria 
of the pharmacopoeias. It is sup- 
posed by some to possess specific 
virtues in the cure of ulcers of the 
lungs, and is exhibited in the form 
of decoction. 

Asple'mlm scolopf/ndrium. The 
systematic name for the scolopen- 
drium of the pharmacopoeias. Phil- 
lit is. Lingua cervina. Harts-tongue. 
This indigenous plant has a slightly 
astringent and mucilaginous sweetish 
taste. When fresh, and rubbed, it 
imparts a disagreeable smell. Harts- 
tongue, which is one of the five ca- 
pillary herbs, waa formerly much 
used to strengthen the viscera, re- 
strain haemorrhages and alvine fluxes, 
and to open obstructions of the liver 
and spleen, and for general purposes 
of demulcents and pectorals. 

Asple'nium tricho'manes. The 
systematic name for the trichomonas 
of the pharmacopoeias. Common 
maiden-hair, or spleen-wort. The 
leaves have a mucilaginous, sweet- 
ish, subastringent taste, without any 
particular flavour : they are esteemed 
useful in disorders of the breast, 
being supposed to promote the ex- 
pectoration of tough phlegm, and 
to open obstructions of the vis- 
cera. P. E. 

A'ssaba. A shrub found on the 
coast of Guinea, whose leaves are 
supposed to disperse buboes. 

A'ssac. (Arab.} Gumammoniacuro. 

G3 



AST 



66 



AST 



Assafg/hda. See Ferula, 

A'ssala. The nutmeg. 

A'ssanus. A weight consisting of 
two drachms. „ 

Assaraba'cca. See Asarum. 

Assa'rium. A Roman measure of 
twelve ounces. 

Ass arth Ro's IS . Articulation. 

A'sse. A loathing of food, from 
a conflux of humours. Hipp. 

Asses' milk. This is preferred to 
cows' and other kinds of milk, in 
phthisical cases, and where the sto- 
mach is weak ; as containing less 
oleaginous particles, and being more 
easily converted into chyle. 

AfiSJlHJLA'nON. (Assimulatio , from 
ad, and tifnili*, to make like to) . 
The conversion of the food into 
nutriment. 

Assiste'ntes. (From ad, andsistcre, 
to stand near) . A name of the pro- 
state glands, so called because they 
lie near the bladder. 

Asso'des. (From aaaopai, to 
nauseate, or from assare, to burn). 
Asodes. A continual fever, attended 
with a loathing of food. Sauvages 
calls it Tritseophya assodes ; it is 
arranged by Cullen under the tertian 
remittents. 

A'ssos. A name given formerly 
to alumen. 

A'stacus mar'inus. The lobster. 
See Cancer. 

A'stacus fluvia'tilis. The offi- 
cinal crevis, or cray-nsh. See Cancer. 

A'stapis . (From <za<pic, uva passa) . 
A raisin. 

ASTA-RZOF. The name of an oint- 
ment of litharge, house -leek, &c. 
Paracelsus. 

A:, iciia'cijilos. A malignant ulcer, 
by some called araneus. 

Astera'ntium. (From a<n]n, a 
star J. Astericum. The herb pel- 
litory ; so called from its star-like 
rform. 

As n if/ma. (From a, prir. and 
cQtvoq, strength). Extreme debility. 

* t * The asthenic diseases form 
one great branch of the Brunonian 
Arrangement. 

Astiiesoi.ogv. (From a, priv. 
and trOtvoc, strength, and Xoyoe, * 
treatise) . The doctrine of diseases 



arising from debility. The disciples 
of the Brunonian school, as they 
denominate themselves, maintain 
peculiar opinions on this subject. 

A / STHMA. (Asthma, matis, neut. 
from affOf-iaZio, to breathe with diffi- 
culty) . Difficult respiration, return- 
ing at intervals, with a sense of 
stricture across the breast, and in 
the lungs ; a wheezing, hard cough, 
at first, but more free towards the 
close of each paroxysm, with a dis- 
charge of mucus, followed by a re- 
mission. It is ranked by Cullen in the 
Class Neuroses, and Order Spatmi. 

A'stites. (From ad, and stare, to 
stand near) . A name given by the 
ancients to the prostate glands, be- 
cause they are situated near the 
bladder. 

Astra'galuS. (ArpayaXoe, a 
cockle, or die ; because it is shaped 
like the die used in ancient games) . — 
1. The name of a bone of the tarsus, 
upon which the tibia moves. Ancle- 
bone : also called the sling-bone, or 
first bone of the foot. — 2. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Diadelphia; Order, 
Decandria. Milk-vetch. 

Astra'galus excapus. Stemless 
milk-vetch. The root of this plant 
is said to cure confirmed syphilis, 
especially when in the form of nodes 
and nocturnal pains. 

Astra'galus trag aca'xth.a. The 
former systematic name for the plant 
which affords the gum tragacanth. 
See Astragalus vcrus. 

Astra'galus ve'rus. Goat's thorn. 
Milk -vetch. Spina hirci. Astraga- 
lus aculeatus. \Yc are indebted to a 
French traveller of the name of 
Olivier, for the discovery that the 
gum tragacanth of commerce, is the 
produce of a species of astragalus not 
before known. He describes it under 
the name of astragalus vcrus, being 
different both from A. tragacantha of 
Linnaeus, and from the A. gummi- 
fera of Lahillardierc. It grows in 
the North of Persia. The demulcent 
qualities of this gum are to be con- 
sidered as similar to those of gum 
arabic. 

Amua'ntia vulca'ris. (From 



ATE 



67 



ATH 



c strum, a star ; so called from the 
star-like shape of its flowers) . As- 
trantia nigra. The herb sanicle 
masterwort. A rustic purge. 

A'strape. (From a-ocnrlu) , to cor- 
uscate) . Lightning. Galen reckons 
it among the remote causes of epi- 
lepsy. 

Astri'cta. (From astringo, to 
bind;. When applied to the belly, 
it signifies costiveness ; thus, alvus 
astricta. 

Astri'ngents. (From astringere, 
to constringe . Remedies which, 
when applied to the body, render the 
solids denser and miner, bv con- 
tracting their fibres, independently 
of their living, or muscuhir power. 
They are employed in surgery chiefly 
88 exterual applications, either for 
restoring diminished tonic power, or 
cheeking various discharges. 

*#* The chief articles of this class 
are the acids, alum, lime-water, 
chalk, certain preparations of cop- 
per, zinc, iron, and lead; with galls 
and several other vegetable substances 
which owe their astringency princi- 
pally to the tannin they contain. 

Astrono'mia. (From azoov, a 
Star, and vojjtoc, a law) . Astronomy, 
or the knowledge of the heavenly 
bodies. Hippocrates ranks this and 
astrology among the necessary studies 
of a physician. 

A'slau. Indian myrobalans, or 
purging nut. 
AfOGAR. yErugoaeris, orverdigrise. 

A>ijoli. Fuligo, or soot; an 
antispasmodic. 

A'tac. Nitre. 

Ata'xia. (From «, neg. and 
tcujcoj, to order) . Want of regularity 
in the symptoms of a disease, or of 
the functions of an animal body. 

Ata'xir. (Arab.) A tenesmus : a 
disease of the eyes. 

At\'xmir. (Arab.) Removal of 
preternatural hairs growing under 
•the natural ones on the eye-lids. 

A'tebras. A chymical subliming 
vessel. 

Atf/cnia. (From a, neg. and 



Athamanta, -ee, f. (So named 
from Athamas, in Thessalv\ The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Pentandria; 
Order, Digynia. Two species are 
used in medicine. 

Athama'nta creteSsis. The 
systematic name for the dancus ere- 
ticus of the pharmacopoeias. Myrrhus 
annua. Candy-carrot. The seeds 
of this plant are brought from the 
isle of Candy t they have an aromatic 
smell, and a slightly biting taste ;. 
and are occasionally employed as 
carminatives and diuretics in diseases 
of the priittse viae and urinary pas- 



sages. 



Tixtw. to briiiff forth 



\ « tereal 



impotency: inability to procreate 
•childr . 



Athama'nta oreoset.i'm m. The 
systematic name for the officinal 
oreoseluutm. Black mountain-parsley. 
The root and seed of this plant, a 
well as the whole herb, were formerly 
used medicinally. It is seldom how- 
ever used in the practice of the pre- 
sent day. 

Athana'si.a. (From a, priv. and 
Sai'arocy death ; 96 'died because 
its Mowers do not wither easily). 
The immortal plant. A name given 
to tansy; be< aus when stuffed tip the 
nose of a dead corpse, it is said to 
prevent putrefaction. 

Aiha'nok. (AralO A chymical 
digesting furnace. 

A'thara. (From a&np, corn). A 
panada, or pap for children, made of 
bruised com. 

Athena. A plaster in much re- 
pute among the ancients. 

Atiij.n a wVrh m. A thick glass 
cover formerly used for chymical 
purposes. 

Atiiemo'n:s catapo'til'm. The 
name of a pill in Census's writings. 

Athem'iton. Athenippum. Dias- 
mijrncs. The name of a collyrium. 

Atiiero'.ma. ( \9i]niofia, pulse, 
pap) . An encysted tumour, so called 
from its containing a soft substance 
of the consistence of pap. 

Atiio'nor. (Arab.) A chymical 
furnace. 

Atiiy'mia. (From a, neg. and 
3->7/oc, courage ). Pusillanimity. De- 
spondence synonymous with melan- 
cholia. 



ATR 



68 



ATR 



Avr'NCAR. (Arab.) Borax. 
A'tlas. (From rXau, to sustain, 
because it sustains the head ; or from 
the fable of Atlas, who was sup- 
posed to support the world upon his 
shoulder). The name of the first 
cervical vertebra. 
A'tmosphere, (From alpog, vapour, 
and <r<paipa, a globe). The elastic 
invisible fluid which surrounds the 
earth to an unknown height, and 
encloses it on all sides. 

Ato'chia. (From a, neg. and 
Toaog t offspring ; from tlktio, to 
bring forth j . Inability to bring forth 
children. Difficult le*bour. 

Atonic. Relaxed, having a di- 
minution of strength. 

A'tony. (From a, neg. and tiu^oj, 
to extend). A .defect of muscular 
power, weakness, and debility. 

Atrabilia'iu/e ca'psul;e. See 
Renal glands. 

Atraei'lis. Black bile or melan- 
choly. 

Atrache'lus. (From a, priv.. and 
rpax^oc f the neck) . Short-necked. 
Atrage'ne. The Clematis vitalba 
of Linnaeus : which see. 

Atrame'n ruivi suto/ri um . A name 
of green vitriol. 

Atra'sia. (From a, neg. and 
TiTpaw, to perforate). Atresia* lm- 
perforation. A disease where the 
anus or genitals have not their usual 
orifice. 

Atreta'rum. (From a, neg. and 
rirpaw, to perforate) . A suppression 
of urine from the menses being re- 
tained in the vagina. 

A'trices. (From a, priv. and 
.Srpi£, hair). Small tubercles about 
the anus upon which hairs will not 
grow. Vaselius, 

A'trici. Small sinuses in the 
rectum, which do not reach so far 
up as to perforate into its cavity. 

A'triplex, f. (Said to be named 
from its dark colour, whence it was 
called atru in . ulus) . The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnsean sys- 
tem : Class, Polysomia t Order, Mo- 
uecia. Orach. 

A'triplex foe'tida. See Cheno- 
jjodiam 1 ulvaria. 

A'triplex horte'nsis, The sys- 



tematic name for the atriplex saliva. 
of the pharmacopoeias. The herb 
and seed of this plant have been 
exhibited medicinally as antiscor- 
butics, but the practice of the present 
day appears to have totally rejected 
them. 

A'triplex sati'va. See Atriplex 
kortensis. 

A'tropa. (From Arj007rcc, the 
goddess of Destiny ; so called from 
its fatal effects) . The deadly night- 
shade. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pentandria; Order, Monogynia. 

A'tropa bellado'nna. The sys- 
tematic name for the belladonna of 
the pharmacopoeias. Solatium nielo- 
nocerasus. SoUmum lethale. Deadly 
night-shade, or dwale. The leaves 
were first used internally, to discuss 
schirrous and cancerous tumours ; 
and from the good effects attending 
their use, physicians were induced 
to employ them internally, for the 
same disorders ; and there are a 
considerable number of well-authen- 
ticated facts, which prove them a 
very serviceable and important re- 
medy. The dose, at first, should be 
small, and gradually and cautiously 
increased. Five grains are consi- 
dered a powerful dose, and apt to 
produce dimness of sight, ver- 
tigo, &c. 

A'tropa mandragora. The sys- 
tematic name for the plant which 
affords the radix tnandragorai of the 
pharmacopoeias. Mandrake. 

Atro'phia. (From a, neg. and 
rpetyoj, to nourish). Atrophia. Ma- 
rasmus. Atrophy. Nervous con- 
sumption. This disease is marked* 
by a gradual wasting of the body, 
unaccompanied either by a difficulty 
of breathing, cough, or any evident 
fever, but usually attended with a 
loss of appetite and impaired diges- 
tion. It is arranged bvCullen in the 
Class Cachexia, and Order Mat cores. 
There arc four species. 

A'trophy. Sec Atrophia. 

Atro'pine. An alkali discovered 
by Brandes in the atropa belladonna , 
or deadly nightshade and retaining 
its narcotic properties. Its colour is 



ATT 



€9 



AUR 



white, and crystallizes, and forms 
salts with the acids. Hitherto, it has 
not been used medicinally. 

Atte'nl ants. From attenuare, to 
to make thin). Diluents. Those 
substances are so termed, which 
possess a power of imparting to the 
blood a more thin and fluid con- 
sistence than it had previous to 
their exhibition; such are, water, 
whey, &c. 

Atto'llens Ai/rem. (Attollens ; 
from ottollere, to lift up) . Attollens 
icidce of Albinus and Douglas; 
Super lor auris of Winslow ; and At- 
tollens aurindam of Cowper. A com- 
mon muscle of the ear. 

Atto'llens o'clli. One of the 
rectimuscles which lies upon the up- 
per part of the globe, and pulls up 
the eye. 

AttoSttcs mo'rbus. (From atto- 
■itre, to surprise ; so called, because 
the person falls down suddenly) . 
Attonitus stupor. The apoplexy and 
epilepsy. 

Aj ih a'ction. (From attrahcre, to 
attract). Affinity. The terms at- 
traction, or affinity, and repulsion, 
in the language of modern philoso- 
phers, are employed merely as the 
rxpression of the general facts, that 
the masses or particles of matter 
have a tendency to approach and 
unite to, or to recede from one an- 
other, under certain circumstain 
— All bodies have a tendency or 
power to attract each other, more or 
less, and it is this power which is 
called attraction. — Attraction is mu- 
tual ; it extends to indefinite dis- 
tances. All bodies whatever, as well 
as their component elementary par- 
ticles, are endued with it. It is not 
annihilated, at how great a distance 
soever we suppose them to be placed 
from each other ; neither does it 
disappear, though they be arranged 
ever so near each other. — The nature 
of this reciprocal attraction, or at 
least the cause which produces it, is 
altogether unknown to us. Whether 
it be inherent in all matter, or whe- 
ther it be the consequence of some 
other agent, are cpiestions beyond 
the reach of human understanding ; 



but its existence is nevertheless cer- 
tain. 

Attraction of aggregation. 
Corpuscular attraction, or the law 
of cohesion or aggregation, is a 
power by means of which, similar 
particles of bodies attract each other, 
and become united into one mass, 
without changing the chymical pro- 
perties they possessed before their 
union. These bodies may be solid, 
fluid, or aeriform. 

Ala'nte. (From avaiw*, to dry). 
A dry disease, proceeding from a 
fermentation in the stomach, de- 
scribed by Hippocrates de Morbis. 

Aim'pse. The same. 

Au'chen. (From avxtv, t0 be 
proud). The neck, which, in the 
posture of pride, is made stiff and 
erect. 

Auditory nerve. See Nerve and 
Portio mollis, 

Auditori/ passage. See Ear and 
Meatus auditorius internus. 

AUGl/sTUM. An epithet given to 
several compound medicines. 

Aiu'scos. (From ovXoc, a pipe). 
A catheter, or clyster-pipe. 

Ai 'LOS. The same 1 . 

Au'ra. (From aw, to breathe)* 
Any subtile vapour, or exhalation. 

Au'ra epilf/ptica. A sensation 
felt by epileptic patients, as if a 
blast of cold air ascended from the 
lower parts towards the heart and 
head. 

Ai/ra se'mints. The extremely 
subtile and vivifying portion of the 
semen virile, that ascends through 
the Fallopian tubes, to impregnate 
the ovum in the ovarium. 

Ai/ra vita'lis. So Helmont calls 
the vital heat. 

A i m \'m ia curassave'ntia. Curas- 
soa, or Curassao apples, or oranges. 
Infused in wine, or brandy, they af- 
ford a good bitter for the stomach. 
They are used to promote the dis- 
charge in issues, whence their name 
of issu-e peas, and to give the flavour 
of hops to beer. 

Aura'ntii BA'cciE. Seville oranges. 
See Citrus aurantium. 

Aura'ntii co'rtex. See Citrus 
autantiwm. 



AUR 







AVI 



Aura'ntium. (So called, ab aureo 
I otore, from its golden colour, or 
from Araniium, a town of Achaia). 
See Citrus aurantium. 

Auri'cula. (Dim. of auris, the 
ear) . The external ear, upon which 
are several eminences and depres- 
sions, as the heliu'y antihelLv, tragus , 
untitragusy concha? auricula?, scapha, 
and lobulus. See Ear, 

Auri'cula jud.e. Jew's ear. See 
Peziza auricula. 

Auri'cula mu'ris. See Hieraciun. 

Auri'cule co'rdis. The auricles 
of the heart. See Heart. 

Auricula'ris. (From auris, the 
ear ; so called, because people gene- 
rally put it into the ear, when the 
hearing is obstructed). The little 
linger. 

Auri'ga. (A waggoner. Lat.) A 
bandage for the sides is so called, 
because it is made like the traces of 
a wa2"2fon-horse. Galen. 

Auri'go. (Ab aureo colore; from 
its yellow colour). The jaundice. 
See Icterus. 

Auripi'gmentum. (From aurum, 
sold, and pigmentum, paint ; so called 
from its colour, and its use to paint- 
ers). Yellow orpiment. See Arsenic. 

Au'ris. (From aura, air, as being 
the medium of hearing) . The ear, 
or organ of hearing. See Ear. 
\l'ris lex A'TOR.See A ttollensaurem. 

Aurisca'lpium. (From auris, the 
ear, and scalpere, to scrape) . An in- 
strument for cleansing the ear. 

Au'rium so'rdes. The wax of 
the ears. 

Au'rium tinni'tus. 
noise in the ears, 

Auru'go. The jaundice. 

Au'rum, i, n. Gold. 

Au'rum horizonta'le. Oil of 
cinnamon and sugar. 

Al'rlm lepro'sum. Antimony. 

Au'rum musi'vum. A preparation 
of tin, sulphur, sal-ammoniac, and 
quicksilver. 

Au'rum pota'bile. Gold dissolved 
and mixed with oil of rosemary, to 

e drank. 

Au'rus Brazilie'nsis. An obso- 
lete name of the Calamus aroma- 
is. 



A ringing 



Auscultation. (From Auscultare. 
Lat.) Auscultatiu, f. The act of 
hearkening or listening. See Stethe- 
scope. 

Autke'meron. (From avrog, the 
same, and r,pspa, a day). A medi- 
cine which gives relief, or is to be 
administered the same day. 

Autolitho'tomus. One who cuts 
himself for the stone. 

At tocrate'i a . The healing power 
of nature. Hippocrates. 

Auto'psia. (From avroc, himself, 
and o wlofi at, to see). Ocular evi- 
dence. 

Auto'pyros. (From avroc, itself, 
and cerepoc, wheat) . Bread made 
with the meal of wheat, from which 
the bran has not been removed . Galen . 

Auxilia'rii mu'sclli. The py- 
ramidal muscles of the abdomen. 

Ava'nsis. Avante. Indigestion. 

AvellaSa, -^, f. (From^/6e/<V/,or 
Avella, a town in Campania, where 
they grew) . The hazel-nut or filberd. 

Avella'na catha'rtica. Barba- 
does nuts. Purgative. 

Avella'na Mexicana. Cocoa and 
chocolate nut. 

Avella'na purga'trix. Garden 
spurge. 

Aye'na. (From avcre, to covet ; 
because cattle are so fond of it). 
The oat. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnoean system : 
Class, Triandria; Order, Digynia. 
— 2. The pharmacopceial name of 
the oat. 

Ave'na sati'va. The systematic 
name for the avena of the pharma- 
copoeias. It is the seed which is 
commonly used, and called the oat. 
There are two kinds of oats ; the 
black and the white. They have 
similar virtues, but the black are 
chiefly sown for horses. They are 
Jess farinaceous, and less nourishing, 
than rice, or wheat ; yet afford a 
sufficient nourishment, of easy di- 
gestion, to such as feed constantly 
on them. 

Avf/ns; se'mina. See Avena sati'va. 

Avenacu. A Molucca tree, of a 
caustic quality. 

Ave%t f common. See Gtum. 

Avice'nma. The name of a jrcuus 

m 



BAC 



1 



BAC 



of plaat3 in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Didynamia; Order, Angios- 
permia. 

Avice'nnia tomento'sa. The sys- 
tematic name for the plant which 
affords the Malacca bean, or Ana- 
cardium orientate of the pharmaco- 
poeias. It is now deservedly laid 
aside in this country. 

Ayigato pear. See Laurus persea. 

Axi'lla. (Axilla, atzil, Heb. Sea- 
liger deduces it from agere, to act ; 
in this manner, ago, axa, axula, ax- 
illa). The cavity under the upper 
part of the arm, called the arm-pit. 

Axillary arteries. Arterice ax- 
lUares. Continuations of the sub- 
clavian, and give off, each of them, 
in the axilla, four mammary arteries, 
viz. subscapular, and the posterior 
and anterior circumflex arteries, 
which ramify about the joint. 

Axillary sexs e. Articular nerve. 
A branch of the brachial plexus, 
and sometimes of the radial nerve. 

Axillary VBfNS. Voue a.rillnrcs. 
The axillary veins receive the blood 
from the veins of the arm, and eva- 
cuate it into the subclavian vein. 

A'xis. (From agere, to act). See 
Dent at us. 

Axu'ngia. (From axis, an axle- 
tree, and unguere, to anoint.) Hog's 
lard. 

Axu'ngia PRXPA'BATA. Purified 
hog's lard. 

Axu'ngia de mu'mmia. Marrow. 

A'zac. (Arab.) Gum ammoniac. 

Aza'gor. Verdigrise. 



Aza'mar. Native cinnabar. Ver- 
million. 

A'zed. A fine kind of camphire. 

A'zor. (From a, priv. and £«u>, 
to live ; because it is unfit for respi- 
ration). See Nitrogen. 

A'zor, gaseous oxide of. See 
Nitrogen, gaseous oxide of. 

A'zoth. An imaginary universal 
remedv. 

A'zub. Alum. 

Azu'rium. Quicksilver, sulphur, 
and sal-ammoniac. 

A'zvges. (From a, priv. and £u- 
yor, a yoke). The os sphenoides was 
so called, because it has no fellow. 

A'zygos. (From a, priv. and £u- 
yoc, a yoke ; because it has no fel- 
low). Several single muscles, veins, 
bones, &c. are so called. 

A'zygos morga'gm. A muscle of 
the mouth. 

A'zygos proce'ssus. A proce 
of the os sphenoidvv^. 

A'zygos i'yil.e. Palato-staphi- 
linui of Douglas. Staphilinus, or 
Kpistaphilinus of Winslow. A mu>- 
cle of the uvula. Its use is to raise 
the uvula upwards and forwards, and 
to shorten it. 

A'zygos vein. Venaacygos. Vena 
sine pari. This vein is situated in 
the right cavity of the thorax, upon 
the dorsal vertebrae. It receives the 
blood from the vertebral, intercostal, 
bronchial, pericardiac, and diaphrag- 
matic veins, and evacuates it into 
the vena cava superior. 



B. 



Babuzic a'rhs. (From (3a€a^oj, to 
speak inarticulately). The incubus, 
or night- mare ; from the inarticulate 
and confused noise the person, under 
its influence, is apt to make. 

Ba'cca MONsrELiE'ssis. See Inula 
duscnterica. 

Bacca'lia. (a bacchanon copid, 



because it abounds in berries) . The 
bay, or laurel-tree. 

Ba'ccje bermude'nses. See Sa- 
pindus saponaria. 

Ba'cca ji m'peri. Juniper ber- 
ries. See Juniperus. 

Ba'cca lal'ri. Laurel berries. 
See Laurus, 



BAL 



72 



BAL 



Ba'cc;e norla'ndicje. See Rubies- 
Arcticus. 

Ba'cc.e piscATo'RiiE. See Menis- 
permum cocculus. 

Ba'ccharis. (From bacchus, wine ; 
from its fragrance resembling that 
liquor) . See Inula dysenterica. 

Bacher's pills. Pilulce tonicce 
Bucheri. A celebrated medicine in 
France, employed for the cure of 
dropsies. Their principal ingredient 
is the extract of black hellebore. 

Ba'cchia. (From bacckus, wine ; 
because it generally proceeds from 
hard drinking and intemperance). 
Gutta rosacea. A name given by 
Linnaeus to a pimpled or brandy 
face. 

Ba'cculi. Is used, by some writers, 
for a particular kind of lozenges, 
shaped into little short rolls. An 
instrument in surgery. Hildanus. 

Bacoba. The Banana. 

Badia'ga. A species of sponge 
usually sold in Russia, the powder 
of which is said to take away the 
livid marks of blows and bruises 
within a few hours. Bauscbaum. 

Badian se'men. The seed of a 
tree which grows in China, and 
smells like aniseed. The Chinese 
(and Dutch, in imitation of them) 
sometimes use the badiane to give 
their tea an aromatic taste. See 
Illiciiem anisatum. 

Badi'za a'qua. See Bath tvaters. 

Badranum se'men. Indian ani- 
seed. 

Badu'cca. (Indian). A species 
of capparis. 

Ba'dzcher. An antidote. 

B;e'os. (Baiog). In Hippocrates 
it means few ; but in P. /Egincta it 
is an epithet for a poultice. 

Bagnigge wells. A saline mi- 
neral spring in London, similar in 
properties to the Epsom water. 

Ba'gnio. (From bagnare, to bathe, 
Ital.) A bathing or sweating-house. 

Ba'hei coy'olli. Ray takes it to 
be the Areca, or Faufel. 

Ba'iiel sciiu'lli. An Indian tree. 
See Genista. 

Ba'iac. White lead. 

Ba'la'. The plantain-tree. 

Bals'na macroce'puala. The 



systematic name of a species of 
whale. 

Balani'num o'leum. Oil of the 
ben-nut. 

Balanoca'stanlm. (From (3a\a- 
voQy a nut, and Ka^avov, a chesnut ; 
so called from its tuberous root). 
The Bunium bulbocastanum, or earth- 
nut : which see. 

Ba'lanos. Balanus. (From /3aX- 
\w, to cast ; because it sheds its 
fruit upon the ground). — 1. An acorn. 
— 2. Hippocrates, in his Treatise de 
Affectionibus, expresses the oak by 
it. — 3. Theophrastus uses it some- 
times for any glandiferous tree. — 4. 
From the similitude of form, it is 
also used to express suppositories 
and pessaries. — 5. A name of the 
glans penis. 

Balau'stium. ' (From /3aXioc, va- 
rious, and avio, to dry; so called 
from the variety of its colours, and 
its becoming soon dry ; or from 
/3\ct<?avoj, to germinate). Balaustia. 
A large rose-like flower, of a red 
colour, the produce of the plant 
from which the granatum is obtained. 
See Punica gra?iatum. 

Balbu'ties. (From /3a€a£w, to 
stammer ; or from balbel, Heb. to 
stammer). A defect of speech ; pro- 
perly, that sort of stammering where 
the patient sometimes hesitates, and 
immediately after speaks precipi- 
tatelv. The Psellismus Balbutiens of 
Cullen. 

Bali'sta. (From ]3aXXw, to cast). 
The astragulus, a bone of the foot, 
was formerly called os balistoe, be- 
cause the ancients used to cast it 
from their slings. 

Balloo'n. (Ballon, or baton, Fr.) 
— Chym. A large glass receiver, in 
the form of a hollow globe, vari- 
ously made. 

Ballo'te. (From /3aXXw, to send 
forth, and ovg, wroc, the ear ; be- 
cause it sends forth flowers like ears) . 
Ballota. Stinking horehound. A 
nettle-like plant. The Ballote nigra 
of Lin. 

Balm. See Melissa. 

Balm of Gilead. See Dracocephalt/m. 

Balm of Mecca. See Amyris opo- 
balsatnum. 



BAL 



73 



BAL 



Balm, Turkey. See Dracocepha- 
lum. 

Balmoncy. See j^thusa meum. 

Ba'lneum, -i, n. (From j3a\a- 
viiov, a bath). A bath. There are 
several kinds of baths. A convenient 
receptacle of water, for people to 
wash or plunge in, either for health 
or pleasure, is called a bath. These 
are distinguished into hot and cold ; 
and are either natural or artificial. 
The natural hot baths are formed of 
the water of hot springs, of which 
there are many in different parts of 
the world ; especially in those coun- 
tries where there are, or have evi- 
dently been, volcanoes. The artifi- 
cial hot baths consist either of water, 
or of some other fluid, made hot by 
art. The cold bath consists of water, 
either fresh or salt, in its natural 
degree of heat ; or it may be made 
colder by art, as by a mixture of 
nitre, sal-ammoniac, &c. The chief 
hot baths in our country are those of 
Bath and Bristol, and those of Bux- 
ton and Matlock ; which latter, how- 
ever, are rather warm, or tepid, than 
hot. The use of these baths, under 
particular considerations, is found to 
be beneficial in diseases of the head, 
as palsies, &c. ; in cuticular diseases, 
as leprosies, &c. ; obstructions and 
constipations of the bowels, the 
scurvy, and stone ; and in many dis- 
eases of women and children. 

Ba'lneum anima'le. An animal 
bath. Wrapping any part of an ani- 
mal, just killed, round the body, or 
a limb, is thus called. 

Ba'lneum aRe'n*:. Sand bath. 
Used forchymical purposes. It con- 
sists simply of an open iron, or baked 
clay sand -pot, the bottom of which 
is mostly convex, and exposed to 
the furnace. Finely sifted sea-sand 
is put into this, and the vessel con- 
taining the substance to be heated, 
<S:c. in the sand bath, immersed to 
the middle. 

Ba'lneum ca'llidum. The hot 
bath. Every degree above 100° is a 
hot bath. 

Ba'lneum fri'gidum. The cold 
bath. A temperature not exceed- 
ing sixty-five degrees. 



*** The diseases and morbid 
symptoms, for which, under one 
form or other, the cold bath is used, 
are very numerous. Doctors Currie 
and Saunders on cold affusion may be 
consulted, &c. (See Affusion, cold) . 
When water exceeds the tempera- 
ture of 65°, and until it arrive at 85°, 
it may be termed cool : a bath of 
this temperature is seldom employed 
unless preparatory to the cold bath. 

Ba'lneum mari'je. The warm 
water bath. A bath from 95 to 98 
degrees of Fahrenheit, constitutes 
what is called the warm bath. 

* # * On entering a bath at the 
above temperature, an agreeable 
sensation of warmth is felt ; and this 
is the more striking, in proportion 
as the body has been previously 
cooled. If, however, the water be 
not kept up to the highest point of 
temperature, the sense of increased 
heat soon diminishes, leaving only a 
pleasant feel of a moderate and na- 
tural temperature. The frequency 
of the pulse is always decreased, and 
this very remarkably in those cases 
where, before immersion, it was pre- 
ternaturally increased : this diminu- 
tion continues during the use of the 
warm bath, though the water be 
kept up to its original temperature ; 
inasmuch that the natural pulse has, 
after an immersion of an hour and a 
half, been reduced by nearly twenty 
pulsations in a minute ; the respira- 
tion is rendered slower, and the ani- 
mal heat in most cases diminished : 
the absolute weight of the body, 
after the warm bath, is found to be 
increased, notwithstanding the per- 
spiration which usually takes place : 
and the patient feels a peculiar lan4 
guor and desire to repose, though 
the spirits are exhilarated, and any 
previous irritability allayed. See 
Dr. Macard's Observations of the 
Warm Bath. Falconer on the Bath 
Waters, &c. &c. 

Ba'lneum medica'tum. A medi- 
cated bath. Baths saturated with va- 
rious mineral, vegetable, and some- 
times with animal substances. Thus 
we have sulphur, iron, aromatic and 
milk baths , as well as those medicated 

H 



BAL 



74 



BAL 



or prepared with alum and quick- 
lime, sal ammoniac, by boiling them 
together, or separately, in pure rain 
water. 

%* These baths have long been 
reputed useful in paralysis and other 
diseases, the consequence of nervous 
and muscular debility. 

Ba'lneum te'pidum. A tepid bath. 
The range of temperature, from the 
lowest degree of the hot bath, to the 
highest of the cold bath. From 90° 
to 100° is called a tepid bath. 

*^* Useful in chronic inflamma- 
tions of internal parts, by determi- 
nating the blood to the skin ; as in 
acute rheumatism, in hysterica and 
hypochondriasis, in many cutaneous 
diseases, &c. 

Ba'lneum vapo'ris. Balneum la- 
conicum. The vapour bath. 

%* The vapour bath used in this 
country is simple in construction, 
effective in its application, and cal- 
culated, from its simplicity and effi- 
cacy, to bring into general use an 
agreeable and salutary practice, as 
well as a powerful remedy in many 
obstinate complaints.— Chym. When 
any substance is heated by the steam, 
or vapour of boiling water. See An 
I nrprovement in the Mode of Admi- 
nistering the Vapour Bath, by the 
I fan. Basil Cochrane; also, Trans, of 
the Soc. for the Encourag. of Arts, 
k\c. p. 1 8 1 , for a vapour, fumigating, 
or shower bath, constructed by Dr. 
('inning of Denbigh. 

Ba'lneum pluvia'le. Shower bath. 
A species of cold bath. A modern in- 
vention, in which the water falls 
through numerous apertures on the 
body. Its use applies, in every case, 
to the same purposes as the cold bath. 
Ba'lneum si'ccum. Balneum cine - 
reum. — Chym. A dry bath, either 
with ashes, sand, or iron filings. 
• Ba'lneum so'lis. Solar bath. A 
kind of bathing used by the ancients, 
by insolation, where the body was 
exposed to the sun for some time, in 
order to draw forth the superfluous 
moisture from the inward parts. 

lU'l-NTIM si lpiiu'reum. A sul- 
pBUfOBf bath. See Balneum mvli- 
n m. 



Ba'lsam. (Balsamum. From ha at 
samen, Hebrew). Balsam was for- 
merly applied to any strong-scented, 
natural, inflammable, vegetable re- 
sin of about the fluidity of treacle, 
not miscible with water, without ad- 
dition, and supposed to be possessed 
of many medical virtues. Latterly, 
however, the term has been restricted 
to those resins which contain the Ben- 
zoic acid. Of these only four are 
commonly known, viz. the gum ben- 
zoin, balsam of Tolu, that of Peru, 
and storax. 

Balsam apple, male. The fruit of 
the Momordica elaterium of Linnaeus. 
See Momordica elaterium. 

Balsam, artificial. Compound 
medicines made of a balsamic con- 
sistence and fragrance. They are 
usually coloured with cinnabar and 
saffron. 

Balsam, Canary. See Dracocepha- 
lum. 

Balsam of Canada. See Pmus 
Balsamea. 

Balsam of Copaiba. See Copaifera 
officinalis. 

Balsam, natural. Resins which 
have not yet assumed their concrete 
form, but still continue in a fluid 
state, are so called, as common tur- 
pentine, balsamum copaiva, peruvi- 
anum, tolutanum, &c. 

Balsam, Peruvian, See Myroxy- 
lon Peruifcrum. 

Balsam of sulphur. See Balsa- 
mum sulphur is. 

Balsam of Tolu. See Toluifera 
balsamum. 

Balsam, Turkey. Sec ' Dracocepha- 
lum. 

Balsam a' no, -onis, f. Balsama- 
tion. The process of embalming dead 
bodies. 

Balsa'mea. (From balsamum, 
balsam). The balm of Gilead fir ; 
so called from its odour. See Pin><* 
balsamea. 

BALSAMELiE'oN. (From balsamum, 
balsam, and eyaiov, oil). Balm of 
Gilead, or true balsamum Judai- 
cum. 

Ra'lsami o'leum. Balm of Gilead. 
Balsa'mica. f From GaXvapov, bal- 
sam). Balsamics. A term generally 



BAL 



75 



BAL 



Balsami'ta major 
Balsam i'ta mas 






applied to substances of a smooth and 
oily consistence, possessing emollient, 
sweet, and generally aromatic quali- 
ties. Medicines which are hot and 
acrid, and also the natural balsams, 
stimulating gums, &c. by which the 
vital heat is increased. Hoffman. — 
Dr. Cullen mentions them under the 
joint title of balsamica et resinosa, 
considering that turpentine is the 
basis of all balsams. 

Balsami'fera Brazilie'nsis. The 
Brazil balsam of copaiba tree. 

Balsami'fera Indica'na. The 
Peruvian balsam tree. 

Balsami'ta Fcemi'nea. Sec Achil- 
lea ageratum. 

Balsami'ta lu'tea". The polygo- 
num persicaria of Linn. ; which see. 

Balsami'ta mi'nor. Sweet maudlin. 

See Tanace- 
tum balsa- 
mi! a. 

Ba'lsamlm. (From haul mwmn, 
Heb. the prince of oils). A balsam. 
See lialsam. 

Ba'i.s\mlm jEf.YFTi'ACUM. See 

A my r is opobalsam am . 

Ba'lsamum Ameuu ■ a'nlm. See 
Myroaylon PcruiJVrum . 

Ba'lsamlm ano'dynlm. Anodyne 
balsam. Made from taeamahaeea, 
distilled with turpentine, soap lini- 
ment, and tincture of opium. 

Ba'lsamlm alimnlm. SccAmyris 
opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamum .uhmo'mi. Balsam of 
antimony. A remedy formerly ap- 
plied to cancer. 

Ba'lsamlm arce'i. A prepara- 
tion composed of gum-elemi and 
suet. 

Ba'lsamlm Asia'ticum. Asiatic 
balsam. See Amyris opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamlm Bra/.ilie'nse. Brazi- 
lian balsam. See Pi tins balsa nun. 

Ba'lsamlm Canade'nse. Canadian 
balsam. See Pinus balsamea. 

Ba'lsamum cepha'liclm. Cepha- 
lic balsam. A distillation of oil, nut- 
meg, cloves, amber, <xc. 

Ba'lsamlm c ommendato'ris. Com- 
mander's balsam. A composition of 
storax, benzoe, myrrh, aloes, &c. 

Ba'lsamlm Cop'a'ib*. Balsam of 
Copaiba. See Cojtaifera officinalis. 



Ba'lsamlm embryo'num. A pre- 
paration of aniseed. 

Ba'lsamlm genlt'num antiqlo'- 
rum. Genuine balsam of the an- 
cients. See Amy r is opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamum Gileade'nse. Balm of 
Gilead. See Amy r is opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamum guaia'cinlm. Balsam 
of Peru and spirits of wine. 

Ba'lsamum Guido'ms. The same 
as balsamum anodynura. 

Ba'lsamum Hunga'ricum. Hun- 
gary balsam. A balsam prepared 
from a coniferous tree on the Car- 
pathian mountains. 

Ba'lsamlm Juda'iclm. SceAmy- 
ris opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamlm Locate'lli. (Loca- 
tdli; so called from its inventor 
Lucatellus). Balsamum Lucalelli, 
Made of oil, turpentine, wax, and 
red saunders ; formerly exhibited in 
coughs of long standing. 

Ba'lsamlm mas. Male balsam. 
The herb costmary. See Tanacetum 
flffft— ii'fff. 

Ba'ls\mi m e Me'cca. Mecca bal- 
sam. See .lmyris opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamlm Mexk a'nlm. Mexi- 
can balsam. See Myroxyloa Ptrui- 
Jlrum. 

Ba'i>\m'. m no'\lm. A new bal- 
sam, as its name implies, from a red 
fruit in the West Indies. 

Ba'lsaml m ooori'ikrlm. A pre- 
paration of oil, wax, and any essen- 
tial oil. 

Ba'lsamlm Pe'rsiclm. A balsa- 
mum composed of storax, benzoe, 
myrrh, and aloes. 

B \'l>aml m Perl via'num. See J/y- 
ro.vylou Pcruiferum. 

Ba'lsamlm rackasira. This bal- 
sam, which is inodorous when cold, 
but of a smell approaching to that of 
Tolu balsam when heated, is brought 
from India in gourd-shells. It is 
slightly bitter to the taste, and ad- 
heres to the teeth, on chewing. It 
is supposed to be one of the facti- 
tious balsams, and is scarcely ever 
prescribed in this country. 

Ba'lsamlm sa'mecii. A factitious 
balsam, composed of tartar, dulci- 
fied by spirits of wine. 

Ba'lsamum safona'celm. A name 
H2 



BAL 



76 



BAN 



given to the preparation called opo- 
deldoc. 

Ba'lsamum satu'rni. Made by 
dissolving the acetate of lead in oil 
of turpentine, and digesting the mix- 
ture till it acquires a red colour. It 
is found to be a good remedy for 
cleansing foul ulcers ; but is not 
acknowledged in our dispensatories. 

Ba'lsamum sty'racis Benzoi'ni. 
A name of gum-benzoin. SeeStyrax 
benzoin . 

Ba'lsamum su'ccini. Oil of amber. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris. Balsam of 
sulphur. A solution of sulphur in oil. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris anisa'tum. 
Terebinthinated balsam of sulphur, 
and oil of aniseed. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris Barba- 
de'nse. Sulphur boiled with Bar- 
badoes tar. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris cra'ssum. 
Thick balsam of sulphur. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris terebin- 
thina'tum. This is made by digest- 
ing the sulphur with oil of turpen- 
tine : it is now confined to veterinary 
medicine. 

Ba'lsamum su'lphuris si'mplex. 
Sulphur boiled with oil. 

Ba'lsamum Syri'acum. The balm 
of Gilead. See Amyris opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamum Toluta'num. See To- 
luifera balsamum. 

Ba'lsamum trauma'ticum. Vul- 
nerary balsam. A form of medicine 
intended to supply the place of the 
tincture commonly called Friar's 
balsam, so famous for curing old 
ulcers. In the London Pharmaco- 
poeia it is called Tinctura Benzoini 
composita. 

Ba'lsamum universa'le. A name 
given to the unguentum saturninum 
of old pharmacopoeias. 

Ba'lsamum ve'rum. See Amyris 
opobalsamum. 

Ba'lsamum vi'ride. Linseed-oil, 
turpentine, and verdigrise, mixed 
together. 

Ba'lsamum vi't* Hoffma'nni. 
Bcamnr de vie. Balsam of life. An 
artificial balsam ; so named from its 
inventor, and composed of a great 
variety of the warmest and most 
grateful essential oils, sach as nut- 



megs, cloves, lavender, &c. with 
balsam of Peru, dissolved in highly 
rectified spirit of wine : it is now, 
however, greatly abridged in the 
number of ingredients, and not much 
used. 

Balzoi'num. The gum-benjamin. 

Bamba'lio. (From fiaptaivu), to 
speak inarticulately). A person who 
stammers or lisps. 

Bambo'o. (Ind.) The young 
shoots of the arundo bambos of Lin- 
naeus, prepared by the natives of 
both Indies with vinegar, garlick, 
pepper, &c. into a very excellent 
pickle, which promotes the appetite, 
and assists digestion. 

Ba'mia moscha'ta. See Hibiscus. 

Bamier. The name of a plant 
common in Egypt, the husk of which 
is used as a condiment. 

Ban a'rbor. The coffee-tree. 

Bana'na. (Ind.) Fiats Indica. 
Musa fructu cucumerino breviori. The 
banana, or plantain-tree. The most 
remarkable species of this genus of 
plants are — 1. The paradisaica, or 
plantain. — 2. The musa sapientum, 
or banana-tree. — The first is culti- 
vated in all the West India islands, 
where the fruit serves the Indians 
for bread ; and some of the white 
people also prefer it to most other 
things, especially to yams and cas- 
sada bread. This tree is cultivated, 
on a very extensive scale in Ja- 
maica ; without the fruit of which , 
Dr. Wright says, the island would 
scarcely be habitable, as no species 
of provision would supply their place. 
The leaves, being smooth and soft, 
are employed as dressings after blis- 
ters. The water from the soft trunk 
is astringent, and employed by some 
to check diarrhoeas. 

Bananei'ra. See Banana. 

Ba'ncia. The Elaphoboscum, or 
wild parsnep. 

Bandage. Deligatio, -onis, f. Fa- 
scia, (p, f. An apparatus consisting 
of one or several pieces of linen, or 
flannel, and intended for covering or 
surrounding parts of the body for sur- 
gical purposes. Bandages are either 
simple or compound. The cine f of the 
simple are the circular, the spiral > 



BAR 



77 



BAR 



the uniting, the retaining, the expel- 
lent, and the creeping. The com- 
pound bandages used in surgery, are 
the T bandage, the suspensory one, 
the capistrum, the eighteen-tail band- 
age, and others, to be met with in 
surgical treatises. 

Bandl'ra. A plant which grows 
in Ceylon, whose root is said to be 
astringent. 

Bangle. Bange. A species of 
opiate used in the East, for its in- 
toxicating qualities. It is the leaf 
of a kind of wild hemp, growing in 
the countries of the Levant, and 
made into powder, pills, or con- 
serves. 

JJa'mca. The wild parsnep. 

Bam'lia. 1 c „ . . 

Bani'las J Sec &?»*»***- 

Bao'bab. Bahobab. A species of 
the genus of plants called by Lin- 
naeus Adansonia ; which sec. 

Ba'ptica co'ecus. Kermes berries. 

Baitiste'rium. (From t 3a-lo>, to 
immerge). A bath, or repository of 
water, to wash the body. 

Bapti 'strum. (From 0axfy, to 
dye). A species of wild mustard, 
thus called from its reddish colour. 

Ba'rac. (From borak, Arabian, 
splcn lid |, Barac/i pants. Nitre. Xi- 
truin salis. liul(indi/\. 

Ba'ras. (Arabianj . Synonimous 
with Alphus, or Leuce. M. A. Se- 
ver i mis. 

Barathrum. (Arabian'. Any ca- 
vity or hollow place. 

Ba'rba. (From barbarus, because 
wild nations are usually unshaven). 
— l.The beard of man. — 2. Some 
vegetables have the specific name 
of barl/ir, whose ramifications are 
bushv, like a beard, as barba Jovis, 
&c. 

Ba'rba auo'nis. The arum. 

Ba'rba ca'pr.s:. The ulmaria. 

Ba'rba iji'rci. The tragopogon. 

Ba'rba Jo'vis. Jupiter's beard, or 
tlie silver bush. Also a name of the 
sempervivum majus, and of a spe- 
cies of anthyllis. 

Barba'does che'rry. The fruit 
of the malphigia glabra of Linnaeus, 
resembling the inferior sorts of our 
cherries. 



Barbadoes nut. See Jatropha cureas. 

Barba'does tar. This article in 
medicine is limited to its occasional 
external application in paralytic cases. 

Barba'rea. See Erysymum bar- 
barea. 

Barba'ria. Barbaricum. An ob- 
solete term formerly applied to rhu- 
barb. 

Barbaro'ssje pi'lula. Barbaros- 
sa's pill. An ancient composition of 
quicksilver, rhubarb, diagridium, 
musk, amber, &c. The first internal 
mercurial medicine which obtained 
any real credit. 

Ba'rbarum. The name of a plas- 
ter. Scribun. Larg. 

Barbatina. A Persian vermifuge 
seed. 

Ba'rbel. An oblong fish, re- 
sembling the pike. Eating the roe 
of this fish, it is said, often brings 
on cholera. 

Barberry, See Bcrbcris. 

Bar bo' i a. The barbut. A small 
river-fish. It is remarkable for the 
size of its liver, which is esteemed 
most delicate. 

Barda'n a. (From bardus, foolish ; 
because silly people are apt to throw 
them on the garments of passengers, 
having the property of sticking to 
whatever they touch). Burdock. See 
An tium. 

Bare'ge. A small village, cele- 
brated for its thermal waters. It is 
situated on the French side of the 
Pyrenees, about half way between 
the Mediterranean and the Bay of 
Biscay. The hot springs are four 
in number. The coolest of them 
raises Fahrenheit's thermometer to 
73 deg. ; the hottest to 120 deg. 
They are resorted to as a bath in 
resolving tumours of various kinds, 
rigidities, and contractions of the 
tendons, stiffness of the joints, left 
! by rheumatic and gouty complaints, 
' and are highly serviceable in cuta- 
neous eruptions. Internally taken, 
this water gives considerable relief 
in disorders of the stomach, especi- 
ally attended with acidity and heart- 
burn, in obstinate colics, jaundice, 
and in gravel, and other affections 
of the urinary organs, 
H 3 



BAR 



78 



Bari'glia. "1 

Bari'lla. > Sec Soda impura. 

Bari'llor. j 



Bari'glia. 

B 

Bari 

Bark. A term very frequently 
employed to signify, by way of emi- 
nence, Peruvian bark. See Cin- 
chona. 

Bark, Carrib&an. See Cinchona 
Caribcea. 

Bark, Jamaica, See Cinchona Ca- 
ribrna. 

Bark, Peruvian. See Cinchona. 

Bark, red. See Cinchona oblon- 
gifolia. 

Bark,' yellow. See Cinchona cor- 
di folia. 

Barley. See Hordeum. 

Barley, caustic. See Cevadilla. 

Barley, pearl. See Hordeum. 

Barm. A name (Scotch) given to 
yeast. 

Barnet water. Similar in qua- 
lity to that of Epsom, and of about 
half its strength. 

Baro'meter. (From /3aooc,weight, 
and [lETpov, measure). An instru- 
ment to determine the weight of the 
air. A weather-glass. 

Baro'nes. Small worms ; called 
also Nepones. 

Baro'ptis. A black stone, said 
to be an antidote to venomous bites. 

Ba'ros. (Bapoc) ■ Gravity. — 1 . Hip- 
pocrates uses this word, to express 
by it an uneasy weight in any part. 
— 2. Also the Indian name of a Spe- 
cies of camphirc, distilled from the 
roots of the true cinnamon-tree. 

Ba'rrenness. Synonimous with 
sterility. 

Bartholin i a'n.e cla'ndulje. See 
Sublingual glands. 

Barycoi'a. (From ftapvg heavy, 
and clkovoj, to hear). Deafness, or 
difficulty of hearing. 

Baryoco'ccalon. (From fiapvg, 
heavy, and xoxxaXoc, a nut; be- 
cause it gives a deep sound) . A name 
for stramonium. 

Barypho'ma. (From j3apvg, dull, 
and (piovn, the voice). A difficulty of 
vpeaking. 

BARYTA. Barytes, (From ftapvg, 
heavy; so called because it is very 
ponderous). ('auk. Calk. Terra pon- 
i. usa. Baryt. Ponderous earth. 



BAS 

Heavy earth. It is always found iff 
combination with sulphuric or car- 
bonic acid, and never in a pure 
state. United with the sulphuric 
acid, it forms the mineral called 
sulphate of barytes, or baroselenite. 
It is found in Staffordshire, Derby- 
shire, &c. When united to carbonic 
acid, it is called aerated barytes, or 
carbonate of barytes, found at Angle- 
zark, near Chorley, in Lancashire. 
Both combinations are met with re- 
gularly crystallized and amorphous. 

BARYTiE MURIAS. Terra ponderosa 
salita. The muriate of barytes is a 
very acrid and poisonous prepara- 
tion. In small doses it is sudorific,* 
diuretic, deobstruent, and alterative ; 
in an over-dose, emetic, and vio- 
lently purgative. The late Dr. 
Crawford found it very serviceable 
in all scrophulous diseases. 

Basaal. (Indian). The name of 
an Indian tree. A decoction of its 
leaves, with ginger, in water, is 
used as a gargle in disorders of the 
fauces. The kernels of the fruit kill 
worms. Ray's Hist. 

Basa'ltes. (yEthiop.) Iron. A 
heavy and hard kind of iron-coloured 
stone, chiefly black, or green. It 
frequently contains iron, has a flinty 
hardness, is insoluble in acids, and 
is fusible by fire, &c. 

Basam'tes. (From f3a<javi%Lo, to 
find out). — 1. A stone, said by Pliny 
to contain a bloody juice, and useful 
in diseases of the liver. — 2. A stone 
upon which, by some, the purity of 
?old was formerlv said to be tried, 
and of which medical mortars were 
made. 

Base, acid if able. See Acid. 

Base, acidifying. See Acid. 

Basia'tio. (From basiare, to kiss). 
Venereal connection between the 
sexes. 

Basia'tor. Sphincter oris. The 
Kissing muscle. See Orbicularis oris. 

Basil. See Ocimum basilicum. 

Basila're os. (Basilaris; from 
fiaaiktvg, a king). Several bones 
were so termed by the ancients ; as 
the sphenoid and occipital bones. 

Basila'ris arte'ria. Basilary 
artery. An artery of the brain. Su 



BAS 



7§ 



BAT 



called because it lies upon the basilary 
process of the occipital bone. It is 
formed by the junction of the two 
vertebral arteries within the skull, 
and runs forwards to the sella turcica 
along the pons varolii, which it sup- 
plies, as well as the adjacent parts, 
with bicod. 

Basila'rjs processus. Basilary 
process. See Occipital bone. 

Basilia'ris apophysis. The great 
apophysis of the os occipitis. 

Basi'lica media'na. See Basilica 
vena. 

Basi'lica nlx. The walnut. 

Basi'lica ve'na. The large vein 
that runs on the inside of the arm. 
It evacuates its blood into the axillary 
vein. The branch which crosses, at 
the head of the arm, to join this 
vein, is called the basilic median. 
Either of which may be opened in 
venesection. 

Basilicon ointment. Sec un- 
guentum basilicum. 

Basi'liclm. (From pamXutoc, 
royal ; so termed from its groat 
virtues) . Ocimum. Basil. See Oci- 
iiu/m basilicum. 

Basi'licus pu'lvis. The royal 
powder. An ancient preparation. 
Formerly composed of calomel, rhu- 
barb, and jalap. 

Basili'dion. An itchv ointment 



was formerly so called by Galen. 

Ba'silis. A name given to collyria 
by Galen. 

Basili'scus. (From fiacnXevc, a 
king). The basilisk, or cockatrice, 
a poisonous serpent ; so called from 
a white spot upon its head, which 
resembles a crown. Also the philo- 
sopher's stone, and corrosive subli- 
mate. 

Basio-cerato-chondro-glo'ssus. 
See H'joglossus. 

Basio-glo'ssum. See Ifi/oglossus. 

Basio-pharyng.e'is. See Con- 
strictor pfutri/ngis medius. 

Ba'sis. (From f5aivo>, to go : the 
support of any thing, upon which it 
stands or goes) . Frequently applied 
anatomically to the body of any part, 
or to that part from which the other 
parts appear, as it were, to proceed, 
or by which they arc supported. In 



pharmacy it signifies the principal 
ingredient. 

Ba'sis cereb i. Applied formerly 
to the palate. 

Ba'sis co'rdis. The base of the 
heart. The broad part of this muscle 
is thus called, in contradistinction to 
the apex, or point. 

Bassi co'lica. The name of a 
medicine compounded of aromatics 
and honey. Scribon. Larg. 

Bastard Pleurisy. See Peripneu~ 
monia notha. 

Bata'tas. In Peru, the name for 
the potatoe, which is a native of that 
country. A species of night-shade. 
See Solanum tuberosum, Linn. 

Bath. See Balneum. 

Bath waters. Bathonia? aaiur. 
The city of Bath has been long ce- 
lebrated for its numerous hot springs, 
which are of a higher temperature 
than any in this kingdom (from 112° 
to 116°), and which, indeed, are the 
only natural waters we possess that 
are at all hot to the touch ; all the 
other thermal waters being of a heat 
below the animal temperature, and 
only deserving that appellation, from 
being invariably warmer than the 
general average of the heat of com- 
mon springs. These waters are par- 
ticularly adapted to the benefit of in- 
valids, who find here avaricty of estab- 
lishments, contributing equally to 
health, convenience, and amusement. 

*** The diseases for which these 
celebrated waters arc resorted to, 
are very numerous, and are some of 
the most important and difficult of 
cure of all that come under medical 
treatment. In most of them, the 
bath is used along with the waters, 
as an internal medicine. See Saun- 
ders, Falconer, and others, on the 
Mineral and Bath ff r aters, &c. 

Bath, Cauteres. A sulphureous 
bath near Barege, which raises Fah- 
renheit's thermometer to 131°. 

Bath, cold. See Balneum frigiduvu 

Bath, St. Sauveur's. A sulphu- 
reous and alkaline bath, in the valley 
adjoining Barege, much resorted to 
from the south of France, and used 
chiefly as a simple thermal water. 

Bath, vapour. See Balneum va port 



^» 



BAY 



80 



BEC 



Bath, tepid. See Balneum tepidum. 
Bath, hot. See Balneum callidum. 
Ba'thmis. (From /3aivw, to en- 
ter) . Bathmus. The seat, or base. 
The cavity of a bone, with the pro- 
tuberance of another, particularly 
those at the articulation of the hu- 
merus and ulna. Hipp, et Galen. 

Batiio'm^ a'qu.e. Bath waters : 
which see. 

Ba'thron. (From /3aivw, to en- 
ter) . Bathrum. The same as bath- 
mis. Also an instrument used in the 
extension of fractured limbs, called 
scamnum. Hipp. — Described by Ori- 
basius and Scultetus. 

Ba'tia. A name formerly given 
to a retort. 

Ba'tinon-mo'ron. (From parog, 
a bramble, and jiopov, a raspberry). 
A raspberry. 

Batra'ciiium. (From ftarpaxoe % 
a frog' ; so called from its likeness 
to a frog). The herb ranunculus, 
or crow's foot. 

Ba'trachls. (From fiarpaxog, 
a frog ; so called, because they who 
are infected with, it croak like a 
frog) . An inflammatory tumour un- 
der the tongue. Hipp. 

Battari'smus. (From Barroc, a 
Cyrenaean prince, who stammered). 
Stammering ; a defect in pronuncia- 
tion. See Balbuties. 

Batta'ta Virginia'na. See Sola- 
num tuberosum. 

Batta'ta peregri'na. The ca- 
thartic potatoe ; a species, perhaps, 
of ipom&a. If about two ounces of 
them are eaten at bed-time, they 
greatly move the belly the next 
morning. 

Bal'da. A vessel for distillation 
was formerly so called. 

Ball monk v. See JEthusa meum. 
Bau'racii. (Arab. Bourach). A 
name formerly applied to nitre, or 
any salt ; hence the name of borax. 
Baxa'na. (Ind.) A poisonous tree 
growing near Ormuz; called by Ray, 
rabuxit. 

Bay-cherry. Sec Prunus Lauro- 
ccrasos. 

Bay-i.eaves. See Lauras. 

BAY- LEAVED PASSION -FLOWER. 

The plant so called is the Passi- 



flora laurifolia of Linnseus : which 
see. 

Bay-salt. A very pure salt, pro- 
cured from sea water by spontane- 
ous evaporation. 

Ba'zcher. A Persian word for 
antidote. 

Bde'lla. (From /3£a\\w, to suck) . 
Bdellerum. A horse-leech. 

BoE'LLiUM.^(From bedallah. Arab.) 
Called by the Arabians, mokel. A 
gum, like very impure myrrh. It 
is one of the weakest of the deob- 
struent gums. 

Bde'llus. (From j3$eu), to break 
wind). A discharge of wind per 
anum. 

Bdely'gmia. (From peso), to 
break wind). Any disagreeable or 
nauseous smell. 

Bean. The common bean is the 
seed of the Viciafaba of Linnaeus : 
which see. 

Bean, French. ") See Phaseolus vul- 
Bean, kidney. J gar is. 

Bean, Malacca. See Avicennia 
tomentosa. 

Bean of Carthagena. See Bejuio. 
Bean, St. Ignatius. See Ignatia 
amara. 

Beard. The hair growing on 
the chin and adjacent parts of the 
face in adults of the male sex. 
Bears-breech. See Acanthus. 
Bears-foot. See Hellcborusfwtidus* 
Bear s-whortleberry . See Arbutus 
uva ursi. 

Be'cca. A fine species of resin 
from the turpentine and mastich 
trees of Greece and Syria, formerly 
in great repute. 

Beccabu'nga. (From bachbungen, 
water-herb, German, because it 
grows in rivulets. See Veronica. 
Be/cha. See Bechica. 
Be'ciiica. (From /3ij£, a cough). 
Bee hit a. An obsolete term for me- 
dicines to relieve a cough. 

Be'ohion. (From /3»/S, a cough ; 
so called from its supposed virtues 
in relieving coughs). Bechium. The 
herb colt's-foot, or tussilago. 

Becui'ba nux. (Ind.) A large 
nut, growing in Brazil, from which 
a balsam is drawn that is highly 
esteemed in rheumatic complaints. 



BEL 



81 



BEL 



Bede'guar. (Arab.) Bedeguar. 
The Carduus lacteus Syriacus is so 
called, and also the cynosbatos, or 
dog rose. 

Bedengian. The name of the 
love-apples in Avicenna. 

Bedstraw, lady's. See Galium 
uparine. 

Bee. Apis mellifica of Linn. This 
insect was formerly exhibited, after 
being dried and powdered, inter- 
nally, as a diuretic. 

Beech-tree. See Fagus. 

Bees'-wax. See Cera. 

Beet, red. See Beta. 

Beet, white. A variety of red 
beet. The juice and powder of the 
root are good to excite sneezing, and 
bring away a considerable quantity 
of mucus. 

Bf/gma. (From fin<T(T(x), to cough) . 
A cough. Expectorated mucus, ac 
cording to Hippocrates. 

Be'hen a'lbum. (Arab. From 
heheiiy a finger) . See Centaurea bc- 
ken. 

Be'hen officina'rlm. See Cu- 
cubalus behen. 

Be'hen ru'brum. See Statice 
L/imonium. 

Beide'lsar. Bcidellopar. A spe- 
cies of Asclepias, used in Africa as 
a remedy for fever and the bites of 
serpents. The caustic juice which 
issues from the roots when wounded, 
is used by the negroes to destroy ve- 
nereal and similar swellings. 

Beju'io. Habilla dc Carthagt /in. 
Bean of Carthagena. A kind of bean 
in South America, famed for being 
an effectual antidote against the poi- 
son of all serpents, if a small quan- 
tity is eaten immediately. This bean 
is peculiar to Carthagena. 

Bela-aye co'rtex. (Ind.) Belae. 
A bark of Madagascar, said to be 
of considerable efficacy in the cure 
of diarrhoeas. 

Belemnoi'des. (From f3t\e/j,vov, 
a dart, and £icoc, form ; so named 
from their dart-like shape) . Bele- 
jioides. Beloidos. The styloid pro- 
cess of the temporal bone, and the 
lower end of the ulna, were for- 
merly so called. 
. Bele'son. (Ind.) Belilia. The 



Mussenda frondosa of Linnaeus, a, 
decoction of which is, according to 
Ray, cooling. 

Belladonna. (From bella donna, 
Italian, a handsome lady; so called 
because the ladies of Italy use it, to. 
take away the too florid colour of 
their faces). See Atropa bell<i~ 
donna. 

Bellegu. "} 

Belleregi. ( See Myrobalanus Bel- 
Bel nileg. f lirica. 

Belle'rira?. J 

Bellidioi'des. (From bellis, a 
daisy, and e idoc,* form) . See Chry- 
santhemum. 

Be'llis. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Syngenesia; Order, Polygamia su- 
perf.ua. The daisy. 

Be'llis major. See Ckrysanthetnum. 

Be'llis minor. See Bellis perennis. 

Be'llis pere'nms. The systema- 
tic name of the common daisy. Bel- 
lis. Bellis minor. The bellis peren- 
nis of Linnaeus: — scapo nudo, or 
bruisewort, was formerly directed in 
pharmacopoeias by this name. 

Bello'culus. (From bcllus, fair, 
and oculus, the eye) . A precious 
stone, resembling the eye, and for- 
merly supposed to be useful in its 
disorders. 

Bf/llon. The Devonshire colic, 
or colica pictonum. 

Bellona'ria. (From Bellona, the 
goddess of war) . An herb which, if 
eaten, makes people mad and pug- 
nacious, causing them to act outra- 
geously, like the votaries of Bellona. 

Bellu'tta tsja'ivipacam. (Ind.) 
A tree of Malabar, to which many 
virtues arc ascribed. 

Beliuu'schus. A name given to 
the Abelmoschus. 

Belo'ere. (Ind.) An evergreen 
plant of America, whose seeds purge 
moderately, but the leaves roughly. 

Belonoi'des. Beloides. The same 
as belemnoides. 

Belu'bcum. (From jfoXoc, a dart, 
and t\*io, to draw out). A surgeon's 
instrument for extracting thorns or 
darts. 

Beli/zzar. Belvzaar. The Chal- 
dee word for antidote » 



BEN 



82 



BER 



JBelzoe. Ice* r 

„ . , >bee Sti/rax benzoin. 

Belzoinum. J J 

Bemcurim. An Indian shrub 
used in gout. 

Bem-ta'mara. (Arab.) The faba 
jEgyptiaca. 

Ben. (Arab.) See Guilandina 



moringa. 



Ben ma'gnum. The avellanapurga- 
trix, or purging filberd, which purges 
and vomits violently. Monaidus. 

Ben ta'maka. The Egyptian bean. 

Be'nath. (Arab.) Small pus- 
tules produced by sweating in the 
night. 

Be'nedict. (From benedicere, to 
bless) . A specific name prefixed to 
many compositions and herbs, on 
account of their supposed good qua- 
lities ; as benedicta herba, benedicta 
aqua, &c. 

Benedi'cta a'oua. Blessed water. 
Lime-water was formerly so called : 
also a water distilled from serpyl- 
lum, or thyme, and, in Schroeder, 
it is the name for an emetic. 

BENEDl'CTA a'qUA COMPO'siTA. 

Compound lime-water. 

Benedi'cta iie'rba. See Geum 
vrbanum. 

Benedi'cta laxati'va. A com- 
pound of turbith, scammony, and 
spurges, with some warm aromatics. 

Benedi'ctum laxati'vum. Rhu- 
barb, and sometimes the lenitive 
electuary. 

Benedi'ctum lignum. Applied 
to Guaiacum. 

Benedi'ctum vi'num. Antimonial 
wine. 

Benedi'ctus ca'rduus. See Cen- 
tat/rea benedicta. 

Benedi'ctus la'pis. A name for 
the philosopher's stone. 

Beneo'lentia. (From bene, well, 
and oltre, to smell). Sweet-scented 
medicines, as gums, &c. 

Beng. A name given by the Ma- 
homedans to the leaves of hemp, 
formed into pills, or conserve. They 
possess exhilarating powers. 

BENGALS ra'dix. Bengal root. 
Sec Cussutnuniar. 

Benga'l quince. This fruit is the 
produce of the Kratevu mnrmelos of 
Linnaeus : which see. 



Benga'lle Indo'rum. See Cas- 
sumuniar. 

Ben'gi ei'ri. A species of ever- 
green, Indian ricinus, which grows 
in Malabar. 

Benit herb. See Geum urbanum. 

Benivi arbor. See Styrax ben- 
zoin. 

Benjamin. See Sty rax benzoin. 

Benjamin /towers. See Benzoic 
acid. 

Benzo'as. A benzoate. A salt 
formed by the union of benzoic acid, 
with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic 
base ; as benzoate of alumine, &c. 

Benzoe. See Styrax benzoin. 

Benzoe amygdaloides. See Styrax 
bejizoin. 

Benzo'ic ACID. Acidum benzoicum. 
Floresbenzoes. Flores benzoini. Ben- 
jamin flowers. This acid exists in 
several balsams, but principally in 
the concrete balsam, called benzoin. 
See Styrax benzoin. 

*#* Benzoic acid is very seldom 
used in the cure of diseases ; but 
now and then it is ordered as a sti- 
mulant against convulsive coughs, 
and difficulty of breathing. The 
dose is from one grain to five. It 
combines with alkaline, metallic, 
and earthy bodies ; and forms ben- 
zoates. 

Benzoifera. See Styrax benzoin. 

Benzo'inlm. (From the Arabic 
term benzoah). See Styrax benzoin. 

Benzo'es elo'res. See Benzoic 
acid. 

Benzoi'm magiste'riim. Magis- 
tery, or precipitate of gum-benja- 
min. 

Benzo'ini o'leum. Oil of benja- 
min. 

Bk'rberis. (Berber i, wild. Arab. 
used by Averrhoes, and officinal 
writers). — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, llexandria ; Order, Mojiogynia. 
The barberry, or pepperidge bush. 
— 2. The pharmacopceial name for 
the barberry. See Berberis vulgaris. 

Be'rberis gelati'na. Barberries 
boiled in sugar. 

Be'rberis yulga'kis. The sys- 
tematic name for the barberry of the 
pharmacopoeias. Oxycantha Galen i. 



BES 



83 



BET 



Spina acida. Crespinus. This tree, 
Berberis pedunculis racemosis, spinis 
triplicibus, of Linnaeus, is a native 
of England. The fruit, or berries, 
which are gratefully acid, and mo- 
derately astringent, are said to be 
of great use in biliary fluxes, and in 
all cases where heat, acrimony, and 
putridity of the humours prevail. 
The filaments of this shrub possess 
a remarkable degree of irritability ; 
for on being touched near the base 
with the point of a pin, a sudden 
contraction is produced, which may 
be repeated several times. 

Bere'drias. An ointment. 

Bereni'ce. (The city from whence 
it was formerly brought) . Amber. 

Berent'cilm. (From 0£/oo>, to 
bring, and vlktj, victory). Applied 
by the old Greek writers to nitrate 
of potash, from its supposed power 
in healing wounds. 

Berem secum. Mugwort. See 
Artemisia vulgaris. 

Bergamo'te. A species of citron, 
the essence of which is used as a 
perfume. See Citrus. 

Beribe'ri. (An Hindostanee word, 
signifying a sheep). Beriberia. A 
species of palsy, according to Bon- 
tius, common in some parts of the 
East Indies. 

Bermudas berry. Sec Sapindus 
Saponaria. 

Berna'rvi. An electuary. 

Berrio'nis. A name for colo- 
phony, or black rosin. 

Bers. Formerly the name of an 
exhilarating electuary. 

Be'rula. An old name for brook- 
lime. 

Be'rula ga'llica. Upright water 
parsnep. 

Bery'tion. fFrom Berytius, its 
inventor). A collyrium described by 
Galen. 

Bes. An eight-ounce measure. 

Be'sachar. An obsolete term for 
a sponge. 

Be'sasa. Formerly applied to wild 
rue. 

Besbase. An old name for mace. 

Bese'nna. (Arab.) Muscarum 
Fungus. Probably a sponge, which 
is the nidus of some sorts of flies. 



Bessa'nen. (Arab.) A redness of 
the external parts, resembling that 
which precedes the leprosy ; it oc- 
cupies the face and extremities. 
Avicenna. 

Be'sto. A name in Oribasius for 
Saxifrage. 

Be'ta. (So called, from the river 
Bcetis, in Spain, where it grows na- 
turally; or, according to Blanchard, 
from the Greek letter /3/;ra, which 
it is said to resemble when turgid 
with seed). — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Pentandria ; Order, Digynia. 
The beet. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of the common beet. See 
Beta vulgaris. 

Be'ta vulga'ris. The systematic 
name for the beet of the pharmaco- 
poeias. Beta Jloribus co?igestis of Lin- 
naeus. The root of this plant is fre- 
quently eaten by the French ; it may 
be considered as nutritious and anti- 
scorbutic, and forms a very elegant 
pickle with vinegar. 

Betele. Bet hie. Belle. Betelle. 
An oriental plant, like the tail of a 
lizard. It is chewed by the Indians, 
and makes the teeth black ; is cor- 
dial and exhilarating, and in very 
general use throughout the East. 
It is supposed to be the long pepper. 
Beto'nica. (Corrupted from Ft7- 
to/uca, which is derived from the 
Vectoncs, an ancient people of Spain;. 
Betony. — 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnajan system : Class, 
Didynamia; Order, Gymnospermia. 
— 2. The pharmacopceial name for 
the wood betony. See Betonica offi- 
cinalis. 

Beto'nica aqua'tica. See Scro- 
phularia aauatica. 

Beto'nica officinalis. The svs- 
tematic name of the betony of the 
pharmacopoeias. Betonica purpurea. 
Vetonica cordis Betonica spica inter - 
rupta corollarum labii lacinia inter- 
media emarginata of Linnaeus. 

*** Antonius Musa, physician to 
the Emperor Augustus, filled a whole 
volume with enumerating its virtues, 
stating it as a remedy for no less 
than forty-seven disorders ; and 
hence in Italy the proverbial com- 



BEZ 



84 



BIC 



pliment, You have more virtues than 
betony . 

Beto'nica pau'li. A species of ve- 
ronica. 

Beto'nica vulga'ris. The beto- 
nica officinalis is so called in some 
pharmacopoeias. 

Betony water* See Scrophularia 
aquatica, 

Be'tula. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Monwcia; Order, Tetandria, 
Alder and birch. — The pharmaco- 
poeial name of the white birch. See 
Betula alba, 

Be'tula a'lba. The systematic 
name for the betula of the pharma- 
copoeias. Betula alba y foliis, acu- 
rninattSy serratis, of Linnaeus. The 
juice is esteemed as an antiscorbutic, 
deobstruent, and diuretic. The 
leaves and bark are used externally 
as resolvents, detergents, and anti- 
septics. 

Be'tula al'nus. The systematic 
name for the alnus of the pharma- 
copoeias. The common alder, called 
Amendanus. See Rhamnus frangula. 

Bex. (From /fyo-cxw, to cough). 
A cough. 

Bexu'go. The root of the sEma- 
titis Peruviana of Caspar Bauhin; 
one drachm of which is sufficient for 
a purge . 

Bexagui'llo. The white ipeca- 
cuanha, which the Spaniards bring 
from Peru, as the Portuguese do the 
brown from Brazil. 

Be'zahan. The fossile bezoar. 

Beze'tta cozru'lea. See Croton 
linctorium. 

Be'zoar. (From pa-zahar, Per- 
sian, a destroyer of poison). Lapis 
hezoardicus . Bezoard. A preterna- 
tural or morbid concretion formed in 
the bodies, principally the eyes of 
stags, and other land animals. 

Be'zoar bovi'num. The bezoar 
from the ox. 

Be'zoar germa'nicum. The be- 
zoar from the Alpine goat. 

Be'zoar hy'stricis. Lapis por- 
cinus. Lapis malacensis. Petro del 
par en. The bezoar of the Indian 
porcupine. Said to be found in the 
^all-bladder of the Indian porcupine, 



particularly in the province of Ma- 
lacca. 

Be'zoar occidenta'le. Occiden- 
tal bezoar. This concretion is said 
to be found in the stomach of an 
animal of the stag or goat kind, a 
native of Peru, &c. 

Be'zoar orienta'le. Lapis be- 
zoar orientalis. Oriental bezoar- 
stone. This concretion is said to be 
found in the polyrus, or fourth sto- 
mach of an animal of the goat kind, 
which inhabits the mountains of 
Persia. 

Be'zoar microco'smicum. The 
calculus found in the human bladder. 

Be'zoar porci'num. See Bezoar 
hystricis. 

Be'zoar si'mix. The bezoar of 
the monkey. 

Bezoa'rdica ra'dix. See Dors- 
tenia, 

Bezoa'rdicum jovt'ale. Bezoar 
with tin. It differed very little from 
the Antihecticum Poterii. 

Bezoa'rdicum luna'le. A pre- 
paration of antimony and silver. 

Bezoa'rdicum martia'le. A pre- 
paration of iron and antimony. 

Bezoa'rdicum minera'le." A pre- 
paration of antimony, made by add- 
ing nitrous acid to butter of anti- 
mony. 

Bezoa'rdicum satu'rni. A pre- 
paration of antimony and lead. 

Bezoa'rdicus pu'lvis. The pow- 
der of the oriental bezoar. 

Bezoa'rticum minera'le. An 
inert calx of antimony. 

Bezoa'rticus spi'ritus ni'tri. 
The distilled acid of the bezoarticum 
minerale. 

Bezoas. A common chymical 
epithet. 

Bix'on. Wine of sun-raisins and 
sea-water. 

Bibine'lla. See Pimpinella, 

Bibito'rius. (From bibere, to 
drink ; because by drawing the eye 
inwards towards the nose, it causes 
those who drink to look into the 
cup) . See Pectus interims oci/li. 

Bi'ceps. (From 6m, twice, and 
caput , a head). Many muscles have 
this denomination, from their having 
two distinct heads, or origins. 



BIG 



85 



BIL 



Bi'ceps bra'chii. See Biceps 
flexor cubit i. 

Bi'ceps cru'ris. See Biceps flexor 
cubiti. 

Bi'ceps cu'biti. See Biceps fiexor 
cubiti* 

Bi'ceps exte'rnus. See Triceps 
extensor cubiti. 

Bi'ceps fle'xor cru'ris. Biceps 
cruris of Albiims. Biceps of Wins- 
low, Douglas, and Cowper, and Is- 
chio-femoroperonien of Dumas. A 
muscle of the leg, situated on the 
hind part of the thigh. 

Bi'ceps fle'xor cu'biti. Biceps 
brachii of Albinus. Coraco-radialis , 
seu biceps of Winslow. Biceps inter- 
ims of Douglas. Biceps internus hu- 
meri of Cowper. Scapula- cor acora- 
dial of Dumas. A muscle of the 
fore-arm, situated on the fore part 
of the os humeri. 

Bi'ceps inte'rnus. See Biceps 
flexor cubiti. 

Biciu'ciiLJE. An epithet of certain 
troches, described by RJiazes, made 
of liquorice, &c. 

Bi'chos. Chigres. A Portuguese 
name for the worms that get under 
the toe of the people in the Indies, 
which are destroyed by the oil of 
cashew nut. 

Bi'corn. Bicornis. (From bis, 
twice, and cornu, an horn). An 
epithet sometimes applied to the os 
hyoides, which has two processes, or 
horns; and likewise, in former times, 
to muscles that had two insertions. 

Bicu'sPlS, -idis, m. (Bicusjns: from 
bis, twice, and cuspis, a spear). The 
name of those teeth which have dou- 
ble fangs. See Teeth. 

Bi'dens, -ffV, m. (From bis, twice, 
and dens, a tootli ; so called from its 
being deeply serrated, or indented). 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Syngenesia; 
Order, Polygamia fp-padis. 

Bifurcated. (Bifurcus: from bis, 
twice , and fur en , a fork ) . A vessel , 
or nerve, is said to bifurcate when 
it divides into two branches ; e. g. 
Bifurcation of the aorta, &c. 

Biga'ster. (From bis, twice, and 
yarrjp, a belly). A name given to 
muscles having two bellies. 



Bihe'rnius. (From bis, double, 
and hernia, a disease so called). A 
hernia, or rupture, on each side of 
the scrotum. 

Bila'den. A name of iron. 

Bile. Bilis. (Naevius derives it 
from bis, twice, and lis, contention ; 
as being supposed to be the cause of 
anger and dispute). The gall. A 
bitter fluid, secreted in the glandular 
substance of the liver ; in part flow- 
ing into the intestines, and in part 
regurgitating into the gall-bladder. 
The secretory organ of this fluid is 
the penicilli of the liver, which ter- 
minate in very minute canals, called 
biliary ducts. The biliary ducts pour 
their bile into the ductus hepaticus, 
which conveys it into the ductus 
commiuiis choledochus, whence it is 
partly carried into the duodenum. 
The other part of the bile regurgi- 
tates through the cystic duct (ao» 
Gall-bladder) , into the gall-bladder : 
for hepatic bile, except during diges- 
tion, cannot flow into the duodenum, 
which contracts when empty ; hence 
it necessarily regurgitates into the 
gall-bladder. It appears, therefore, 
that there are, as it were, two kinds 
of bile in the human body : — 1. He- 
patic bile, which flows from the liver 
into the duodenum : this is thin, of 
a faint yellow colour, inodorous, and 
very slightly bitter, otherwise the 
liver of animals would not be eata- 
ble : — 2. Cystic bile, which regurgi- 
tates from the hepatic duct into the 
gall-bladder. 

The uses of this fluid, so impor- 
tant to the animal economy, are : — 
1. To separate the chyle from the 
chyme : thus chyle is never observed 
in the duodenum before the chyme 
has been mixed with the bile ; and 
thus it is that oil is extracted from 
linen by the bile of animals. — 2. By 
its acridity it excites the peristaltic 
motion of the intestines ; hence the 
bowels are so inactive in people with 
jaundice. — 3. It imparts a yellow co- 
lour to the excrements ; thus we ob- 
serve the white colour of the faeces 
in jaundice, in which disease the flow 
of bile into the duodenum is entirely 
prevented. — 4. It prevents the abun- 



BIO 



86 



BIT 



dance of mucus and acidity in the 
primae viae ; hence acid, pituitous, 
and verminous saburra are common 
from deficient or inert bile. 

Bi'liary duct. Ductus biliosus. 
The very vascular glandules, which 
compose almost the whole substance 
of the liver, terminate in very small 
canals, called biliary ducts, which 
at length form one trunk, the ductus 
hepaticus. Their use is to convey 
the bile, secreted by the liver, into 
the hepatic duct; this uniting with 
a duct from the gall-bladder, forms 
one common canal, called the ductus 
communis choledochus, which con- 
veys the bile into the intestinal canal. 

Bili'mbi. (Ind.) See Mains Indica. 

Bi'lious. A term very generally 
used to signify diseases arising from 
too copious a secretion of bile ; thus 
bilious colic, bilious diarrhoea, bilious 
fever, &c. 

Bi'lis. See Bile, 

Bi'lis a'tra. Black bile. Sup- 
posed by the ancients to be the cause 
of melancholy. 

Bi'lis cy'stica. Bilis fellea. Cys- 
tic bile. The bile when in the gall- 
bladder is so called to distinguish it 
from that which is found in the liver. 

Bi'lis iiepa'tica. Hepatic bile. 
The bile when it has not entered the 
gall-bladder. 

Bi'lobus. (From bis, double, and 
iobus, the end of the ear) . Having 
two lobes, resembling the tips of ears. 

Bimf/stris. (From bis, twice, and 
mensis, month) . Two months old. 

Bindweed. See Convolvulus sepium. 

Binga'lle. See Casumuniar. 

Bino'culus. (From binus, double, 
and oculus, the eye). A bandage for 
securing the dressings on both eyes. 

Bi'nsica. A disordered mind. Van 
Helmont. 

Bi'nsica mors. The binsical, or 
the death consequent upon a disor- 
dered mind. 

Bioly'chmum. (From piog, life, 
and Xv-^viov, a lamp). Vital heat : 
an officinal nostrum. 

Bi'ote. (From piog, life). Life. 
Light food. 

Biotha'nati. (From pia, vio- 
lence, or jSioc, life, and Savalog, 



death). Those who die a violent 
death, or suddenly, as if there were 
no space between life and death. 

Bipemu'lla. See Pimpinella. 

Bipene'lla. Sae Pimpinella. 

Bi'ra. Malt liquor or beer. 

Bira'o. Stone parsley. 

Birch tree. See Betula. 

Bird's tongue. A name given to 
the seeds of the Fraccinus excelsior of 
Linnaeus. 

Bi'rsen. (Heb. an aperture) . A 
deep ulcer, or imposthume in the 
breast. 

Birthwort, climbing. See Aristo- 
lochia clematitis. 

Bisco'ctus. (From bis, twice, 
and coquere, to bake or boil) . Twice 
dressed. It is chiefly applied to bread 
much baked, as biscuit. 

Biscute'lla. Mustard. 

Bise'rmas. A name formerly 
given to clary, or garden clary. 

Bishop*s weed. See Ammi. 

Bisli'ngua. (From bis, twice, 
and lingua, a tongue ; so called, from 
its appearance of being double- 
tongued; that is, of having upon 
each leaf a less leaf) . The Alexan- 
drian laurel. 

Bisma'lva. (From vismalva, quasi 
viscum malva, from its superior vV 
scidity). The water, or marsh- 
mallow. 

Bi'smuth. (Bismut, Germ.) Bis- 
muthum. A metal found in the earth 
in very few different states, more 
generally native, or in the metallic 
state. 

Bismu'thum. See Bismuth, 

Bistort. See Bis tort a. 

Bisto'rta. (From bis, twice, and 
torquere, to bend ; so called from the 
contortions of its roots). Bistort. 
See Polygonum bistorta. 

Bistoury. (Bistoirc, French). 
A small knife for surgical purposes, 
partially curved, and having a blunt 
point or otherwise. 

Bi'thinos. A Galenical plaster. 

Bithi'nici empla'strum. A plaster 
for the spleen. 

Bitter apple. See Cucumis Colo- 
cynthis. 

Bit noben. Salt of bitumen. A 
white saline substance lately imported 



87 



BLE 



from India by this name, which is 
not a natural production, but a Hin- 
doo preparation of great antiquity. 
It is called in the country, bit noben 9 
padaoon, and soucherloon, and popu- 
larly khala mimue, or black salt. It 
is conjectured to be the sal asphaitites, 
and sal sodomemcs of Pliny and Galen : 
and is far more extensively used in 
Hindostan than any other medicine 
whatever. 

Biti'men. (flflvpa, vrilvg, pine ; 
because it flows from the pine-tree ; 
or, quod vi iumeat e terra, from its 
bursting forth from the earth) . Bitu- 
f mnd either in the internal 
part of the earth, or exuding through 
the clefts of the rocks, or floating on 
the surface of waters. Like oils, they 
burn with a rapid flame. Natural 
historians have divided them into 
several genera ; but modern chymists 
arrange them according to their chy- 
mical properties, and are only ac- 
quainted with six species, which arc 
very distinct from each other : these 
are, naphtha, amber, asphaltos, jet, 
pit-coal, and petroleum. 

Bitu'men barbade'nse. SeePe- 
troleum barbadense. 

,*BlTL''.MEN JldaVuM. As]>haltus. 
Jews' pitch. A solid light bituminous 
substance, of a dusky colour on the 
outside, and a deep shining black 
within ; of very little taste, and 
scarcely any smell, unless heated, 
when it emits a strong pitchy one. 
It is said to be found plentifully in 
the earth in several parts of Egypt, 
and floating on the surface of the 
Dead Sea. 

Bitu'men li'^uidum. See Petro- 
leum, 

Bive'nter. (Biventer; from bis, 
twice, and venter, a belly). A two- 
bellied muscle. 

Bive'nter cervi'cis. A muscle 
of the lower jaw. 

Bive'nter maxi'll<e jnferio'ris. 
See Digastricus. 

Bi'xa orlea'na. The systematic 
name for the plant affording the terra 
orlcana of the pharmacopoeias. The 
substance so called is a ceraceous 
mass obtained from the seeds of the 
Bixa orleana of Linnaeus. 



Bla'cctje. The measles. Rhazes. 

Bla'ckberry. The fruit of the 
common bramble, Rubus fruticosus 
of Linnaeus : which see. 

Bladder, See Urinary, and Gall- 
bladder, 

Bladder, inflamed. See Cystitis, 

Blade-bone. See Scapula. 

Bl.e'sitas. (From blcesus). A de- 
fect in speech, called stammering. 

Bl&'sus. (From fiXcnrlo), to in- 
jure). A stammerer. 

Bla'nca. (Blanc, French). A 
purging mixture ; so called because 
it was supposed to evacuate the white 
phlegmatic humours. Also white 
lead. 

Bla'nca muli'erum. White lead. 

Bla'sa. (Ind.) A tree, the fruit 
of which the Indians powder, ami 
use to destroy worms. 

Blaste'ma. (From pXa^avto, to 
germinate). A bud or shoot. A 
cutaneous pimple like a bud. Hipp. 

Bla'stum mosyi.itim. Cassia bark 
kept with the wood. 

Bi a'tta. (From fiXaTrtj, to hurt) . 
A sort of beetle, or bookworm ; so 
called from its injuring books and 
clothes : the kermes insect. 

Blatta'ria lc/tea. (From blatta; 
so called, because, according to Pliny, 
it engenders the blatta). The herb 
yellow moth-mullein. 

Ble'ciion. (From pXi^xaoftai, to 
bleat ; so called, according to Pliny, 
because if sheep taste it they bleat). 
The herb Avild penny-royal. 

Bleeding, See Blood-letting an J 
Haemorrhage, 

Bleeding at the nose. See Epi- 
staxis, 

Ble'ma. (From fiaXXu, to inflict) . 
A wound. 

Ble'nde. A species of zinc ore, 
formed of zinc in combination with 
sulphur. 

Ble'nna. (BXevva), Blena. Mu- 
cus, a thick excrementitious humour. 

Blennorrha'gia. (From fiXzwa, 
mucus, and peco, to flow). The 
discharge of mucus from the ure- 
thra. 

Blennorrhce'a. (From fiXevva, 
mucus, and p«o>, to flow) . Gonorrhoea 
mucosa, A gleet. A discharge of 
12 



BLI 



88 



BOD 



mucus from the urethra, arising from 
weakness ; or the relics of an old 
clap. 

Ble'phara. (Quasi fiXtirov q <papoc, 
as being the cover and defence of the 
sight). The eyelids. 

Blepha'rides. (From f3\e(})apov) . 
The hair upon the eyelids ; also the 
part of the eyelids where the hair 



grows. 



Blepharophtha'lmia. (TromfiXe- 
<papov, the eyelid, and otpQaXpia, a 
disease of the eye). Inflammation 
of the eyelid. 

Blepijaropto'sis. (From fiXetya- 
pov, the eyelid, and ^lioaig, from 
'snirlio, to fall). A prolapse, or 
falling down of the upper eyelid, so 
as to cover the cornea. 

Blepharo'tis. (From fiXetyapov, 
the eyelid) . An inflammation of the 
eyelids. 

Blepharoxy'ston. (From j3Xs- 
tyapov, the eyelid, and £e(o, to scrape 
off) . A brush for the eyes. An in- 
strument for cleansing or scraping 
off foul substances from the eyelids. 

Blepharo'xysis. (From flXttyapov, 
the eyelid, and &io, to scrape off). 
The cleansing of the eyelids. In- 
flammation of the eyelids. 

Blessed Thistle* See Centaur ea 
henedicta. 

Blestri'smus. (From fiaXXw, to 
throw about) . Phrenetic restlessness. 

Ble'ta. A word used by Paracel- 
sus to signify white, and applied to 
urine when it is milky, and proceeds 
from a disease of the kidneys. 

Ble'ti. (Bletus, from paXXoj, 
to strike). People seized with dysp- 
noea or suffocation. 

Blaster, I'esicatorium. Emplas- 
trum Lyttae. A topical application, 
which, when applied to the skin, raises 
the cuticle in the form of a vesicle, 
fdled with a serous fluid. Various 
substances produce this effect on the 
skin ; but the powder of the lytta 
vesicatoria, or blistering fly, is what 
operates with most certainty and ex- 
pedition, and is now invariably made 
use of for that purpose. 

hlistvx-fly. See Lijtta. 

Bu'TUM fce'tidum. See Chcno- 
pocuu.-jt vulvar ia* 



Blood. Sanguis, inis, m. A red 
homogeneous fluid, of a saltish taste, 
somewhat urinous smell, and gluti- 
nous consistence, which circulates in 
the cavities of the heart, arteries, 
and veins. The quantity is estimated 
to be about twenty-eight pounds in 
an adult : of this, four parts are con- 
tained in the veins, and a fifth in the 
arteries. The colour of the blood is 
red ; in the arteries it is of a florid 
hue, in the veins darker ; except only 
the pulmonary vessels, in which the 
colour is reversed. It acquires this 
florid colour in passing through the 
lungs, and from the loss of carbon. 

Blood } dragon's* See Calamus 
rotang. 

Blood-letting. Abstraction of 
blood from the body by artificial 
means. Blood-letting is divided into 
general, as venisection and artcrio- 
tomy ; and into topical, as the applica- 
tion of leeches, cupping-glasses, and 
scarification. 

Blood, spitting of. See Haemoptysis* 

Blood, vomiting of . See H&mate- 
mesis. 

Blood-stone. See Haematites. 

Bloody -flux. See Dysenteria. 

Bo'a. (From j3ovg, an ox). A 
pustulous eruption like the small- 
pox, cured, according to Pliny, by 
anointing it with hot ox- dung : also 
the name of a serpent of Calabria ; 
and of the hydroa. 

Boche'tum. A decoction of the 
woods, prepared by a second boiling 
with fresh water. 

Bo'chia. Chym. A subliming 
vessel. 

Bo'chilm. A swelling of the 
bronchial glands. 

Bodies, combustible. A term 
given by chymists to all substances 
which, on account of their affinity 
for oxygen, are capable of burning. 

Bodies, gaseous. See Gas. 

Bodies, im i ammable. Chymists 
give this name to such bodies as 
burn with facility, and flame in an 
increased temperature ; although, 
strictly speaking, all combustible 
bodies are inflammable bodies : such 
are the diamond, sulphur, bitu- 
mens, &c. 



BOL 



89 



BOM 



Bodies, phosphorescent. Bodies 
which produce light, though their 
temperature be not increased. 

Body. Corpus, oris ,n. Thehuman 
body is divided by anatomists into 
head, trunk, and extremities : i. e. 
the head, and inferior and superior 
extremities, each of which have cer- 
tain regions before any part is re- 
moved, by which the physician is 
enabled to direct the application of 
blisters and the like, and by which 
the situation of diseases is better de- 
scribed, which see under their re- 
spective names. 

Bo'e. (From /3oaw, to exclaim). 
Clamour, or moaning made by a sick 
person. 

Boethe'ma. (From (SonOeoj, to 
assist). A remedy. 

Boethema'tica. (From poijQtu, 
to assist). Favourable symptoms. 

Hog-bean. See Mcnyanthes tri- 
foliata. 

Bo'gia Gl/MMI. Gamboge. 

Bohea tea. See Thea. 

liois de coissi. See Quassia. 

Bolar earths. See Bole. 

Bole. (BoAo£, a mass). A friable 
earthy substance, uniting with water 
into a smooth paste, adhering to the 
tongue, and dissolving as it were in 
the mouth ; it is of the argillaceous 
or clay kind, but more readily im- 
bibing water than the clays strictly 
so called. Those used in medicine, 
are the Armenian and French boles. 
See Bole Armenian , and Bolus Gallica. 

Bole, Armenian. Bolus Armenia. 
Bole armenic. A pale, but bright 
red coloured earth, which is occa- 
sionally mixed with honey, and ap- 
plied to children's mouths when 
afflicted with aphthae. It forms, like 
all argillaceous earths, a good tooth- 
powder, when mixed with some aro- 
matic. 

Bole'tus. (From /3oAoc, a mass, 
or (3(jj\iTng, from its globular form). 
The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Cryp- 
togamia; Order, Fungi. Boletus. 
Spunk. 

Bole'tus ce'rvl The mushroom. 

Bole'tus ignta'rius. The sys- 
tematic name for the agaricus of the 



pharmacopoeias. Agaricus chirur- 
gorum. Agaricus quercus. Fungus 
igniarius. Agaric of the oak. Touch- 
wood boletus. Female agaric. This 
fungus Boletus igniarius — acaulis pul- 
vinatus levis, ports tenuissimis of Lin- 
naeus, has been much used by sur- 
geons as an external styptic. 

Bole'tus la'ricis. The systematic 
name for the officinal agaricus albus. 
The plant known by this name in the 
pharmacopoeias, is the Boletus laricis 
of Linnaeus ; so called from its being 
met with on old larch trees, in dif- 
ferent parts of Europe. 

Bole'tus pi' nt la'ricis. A species 
of agaric. 

Bole'tus suave'olens. The sys- 
tematic name for the fungus saUcis 
of the pharmacopoeias. 

Boli'smus. A voracious appetite, 
according to Avicenna ; but most 
probably meant for boulimus. 

Bo'lus. (BoAoc, a bole or bolus). 
Any medicine, rolled round, that is 

_rer than an ordinary sized pea, 
and yet not too large to be swallowed. 

Bo'lus alexipha'rmica. A pre- 
paration of contrayerva. 

Bo'lus ex alu'mine. Alum, bark, 
and nutmeg. 

Bo'lus a'r.mena. See Bole, Ar- 
menian. 

Bo'lus a'kmena a'lba. The white 
Armenian bole. 

Bo'lus armo'ntac. See Bole, Ar- 
menian. 

Bo'lus blesse'nsis. Bole of Blois. 
See Bole. 

Bo'lus Ga'llica. French bole. 
A pale red coloured bolar earth, 
variegated with irregular specks and 
veins of white and yellow. It is 
occasionally administered as an ab- 
sorbent and antacid. 

Bo'mbax. See Gossypium. 

Bo'mbias. A bombiate. A salt 
formed by the union of the bombic 
acid with different bases ; thus bom- 
biate of alumine, &c. 

Bo'mbic a'cid. Acidumbombicum. 
Acid of the silk-worm. Silk-worms 
contain, especially when in the state 
of chrysalis, an acid liquor in a re- 
servoir placed near the anus. 

Bo'mbus. (Bou€oc). A resounding- 
13 



BOR 



90 



BOT 



noise, or ringing of the ears. Also, 
a sonorous expulsion of flatus from 
the intestines. 

Bon a'rbor. A name given to the 
coffee-tree. 

Bo'na. Boona. The phaseolus, 
or kidney-bean. 

Bo'nduch indo'rum. See Gui- 
landina. 

Bone. Os, osszs, n. Bones are 
hard, dry, and insensible parts of the 
body, of a whitish colour, and com- 
posed of a spongy, compact, or recti- 
cular substance ; varying much in 
their appearances, some being long 
and hollow, others flat and com- 
pact, &c. See Monro, Chesselden, &c. 

Bones, growth of. See Osteogeny. 

Bonebinder. See Osteocolla. 

Bononie'nsis la'pis. The Bon- 
onian-stone. Called also phosphorus 
bojioniensis, phosphorus kircheri, the 
light carrier, or Bononian phospho- 
rus. Medicinally, the stone is caustic 
and emetic. 

Bo'nus henri'cus. See Cheno- 
podium. 

Boracic acid. Acidum boracicum. 
Sedative salt of Homberg. Acid of 
borax. Boracine acid. In com- 
bination with alkalies, earths, and 
metallic oxydes, it forms borates. 

/Jo'rage. See Borago. 

Bora'go. (Formerly written Co- 
rago; from cor, the heart, smdagere, 
to affect ; because it was supposed to 
comfort the heart and spirits). Bo- 
rage. — 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pentandria; Order, Monogynia. — 
2. The pharmacopceial name of the 
officinal borage. See Borago offici- 
nalis*. 

Bora'go officinalis. The sys- 
tematic name for the borage of the 
shops. Buglossum verum. Buglos- 
sum latifolium. Borago hortensis. 
The leaves and flowers of this plant, 
Borago; foliis omnibus alter nis, ca- 
lycibus pateniibus of Linnaeus, are 
esteemed in some countries as refri- 
gerant and cordial. 

Bo'ras. A borate. A salt formed 
of boracic acid with an earthy, alka- 
line or metallic base : as borate of 
soda, &c. 



Bo'ras so'de. Borate of soda. 
See Borax. 

Bo'rate. See Boras. 

Bo'rax. (Borak, Arab.) Boras 
sodcB, sub-boras sodce. This salt, con- 
sisting of boracic acid united with 
soda, the soda being slightly in ex- 
cess, is brought from Thibet in Per- 
sia, where it is found in a native 
state. The native or crude borax is 
called tincaly ti?icor, borcsh, pcun.ra, 
in the East Indies, and was formerly 
purified in Europe by the Venetians, 
when it was called refined or Vene- 
tian borax ; but it is now prepared 
by the Dutch by solution in hot wa- 
ter, Alteration, and careful crystal- 
lization. Used in the form of pow- 
der, to remove the aphthous crust 
from the tongue of children. 

Borbory'gmus. (From f3op€o- 
pv^io, to make a noise). The rum- 
bling noise occasioned by flatus in 
the intestines ; frequently preceding 
hysterical affections. 

Boro'zaii. (iEthiop.) An epi- 
demic disease of the ^Ethiopians, in 
appearance similar to the lues ve- 
nerea. 

Borra'go. See Borago. 

Bo'rri. (Ind.) Borri-borri. Bo- 
berri. The Indian name for tur- 
meric ; also an ointment used there, 
in which the roots of turmeric are a 
chief ingredient. 

Bo'sa. An Egyptian word for a 
mass made of the meal of darnel, 
hemp-seed, and water. It is inebri- 
ating. 

Bos'moros. (From /3ocxo>, to eat, 
and popog, a part : because it is di- 
vided for food by the mill) . Bosporus. 
A species of meal. 

Bota'le fora'men. A name for- 
merly applied to the foramen ovale. 

Bo'lANV. (Botanica, fio\avv/.i) : 
from fiolavn, an herb or grass). That 
part of natural history which consi- 
ders every thing relative to the na- 
tural history of vegetables. 

Bota'nicon. (From ficJavt], an 
herb). A plaster made of herbs, 
described by Paulus jEgineta. 

Bo'thor. (Arab.) Tumours : 
pimples in the face : also the small- 
pox, or measles. 



BRA 



91 



BRA 



Bo'fHfUON. (From fio9piov y a 
little pit), Botrium. The ulvrolus 
or socket for the tooth : also an ul- 
cerated cornea. 

Bo'tia. A name given to scrofula. 

Bo'tim. A name for turpentine. 

Bo'tium. liocium. Indurated 
bronchial glands. 

BoTOTHl'NUM. The most evident 
symptom of disease. 

Botri'tis. (From florpvc;, a bunch 
of grapes). Botryites. A sort of 
burnt cadmia, collected on the top of 
the furnace, and resembling a bunch 
of grapes. 

Bo'trys. (Borpj'c, a cluster of 
grapes ; so called, because its seeds 
hang down like a bunch of grapes). 
The oak of Jerusalem. 

Bo'trys Mexica'na. See Cheno- 
podium ambrosioides. 

Bo'trys vulga'ris. See Chcno- 
podium botrys. 

Bo'tus. Botia. Bolus barbatus. — 
Chym. A cucurbite. 

Bouba'lios. See Momordica ela- 
terium, and Pudendum mulicbre. 

Bou'bon. See Bubo. 

Bougi'e. (French for wax candle) . 
Candela cerea. Candela medicata. Ca- 
thcteres of Swediaur. Ccrei mndicati 
of Le Dran. Cereolus chirurgorum. 
A term applied by surgeons to a long, 
slender instrument, that is introduced 
through the urethra into the bladder. 

Bou'limus. (From fiov, greatly, 
and \ijjL0Cy hunger ; or from j3ov\o- 
ficu, to desire). A canine or vora- 
cious appetite. 

Bovi'llje. (From bos, an ox, be- 
cause cattle were supposed subject to 
it I. The measles. 

Bovi'na fa'mes. The same as 
bulimia. 

Bovi'sTA. See Ly coper don. 

Box-tree. See Bu.rus. 

Brache'rium. (From brackiale, 
a bracelet). A truss or bandage for 
hernia ; a term used by the barbarous 
Latin writers. 

Brachi/e'us mu'sculus. See Bra- 
chin lis in t emus. 

Brachi/e'us exte'rnus. See Tri- 
ceps extensor cubiti. 

Brachije'us inte'rnus. See Bra- 
chial is inter nits. 



BraVnial a'rtery. Arttrim bru- 
chialis. The continuation of the ax- 
illary artery, which, as it panel be- 
hind the tendon of the pectoralia 

major, receives the name of bra- 
chial. 

Braciiia'i.e. A bracelet; but by 
ancient anatomical writers, the car- 
pus, or wrist, the part on which the 
bracelet was worn. 

Brachials. See Brachialis iji- 
temus. 

BRACHIA'LIS exte'rnus. External 
brachial. See Triceps extensor cubiti . 

Braciiia'i.is inte'rnus. Internal 
brachial. Brachiams of Winslow. 
Brachiceus internus of Cowper ; and 
Humcro-cubitalol Dumas. A muscle 
of the fore-arm, situated on the 
fore-part of the os humeri. 

Brachio-cubital LIGAMENT. Li- 
gimentum brachio-cubitale. The ex- 
pansion of the lateral ligament, fixed 
in the inner condyle of the os hu- 
meri, running over the capsular, to 
which it closely adheres, and inserted 
like radii on the side of the great 
sigmoid cavity of the ulna. 

Brachio-radial ligament. Li- 
gamentum brachio -radiate. The ex- 
pansion of the lateral ligament, which 
runs over the external condyle of the 
os humeri. It is inserted round the 
coronary ligament, thence down to 
the neck of the radius, and in the 
vicinity of the ulna. 

Bra'chii os. See Humeri os, 

Bra'chiuMj *, n. {^pa\nav 9 the 
arm). The arm, from the shoulder 
to the wrist. 

Bra'chium mo'vens qua'rtls. 
See Latissimus dorsi. 

Brachu'na. A species of furor 
uterinus. Avicenna, 

Brachychro'nius. (From ppa- 
XVQy short, and xpovoc, time). A 
disease continuing but a short time. 

Bracuypnoz'a. (From /BpayrpQ, 
short, and 7tvs(jj, to breathe). Diffi- 
culty and shortness of breathing. 

Bra'chys. {Fromfipaxvc., short), 
A muscle of the scapula. 

Bra'cilm. Copper. Verdigrise. 

Bradype'psia. (From fipaeve, 
slow, and «r£7riu>, to concoct) . Weak 
digestion. See Dyspepsia, 



BRA 



92 



BRA 



Bra'ggat. An old name for a 
ptisan made of honey and water. 

Brain, See Cerebrum, 

Brain, little. See Cerebellum, 

Bran. Furfur , uris, m. The 
husks or shells of wheat, which re- 
main in the boulting machine. It 
contains a portion of the farinaceous 
matter, and is said to have a laxa- 
tive quality, &c. 

Bra'nca. (Branca, Span, a foot, 
or branch). A term applied to some 
herbs, which are supposed to resem- 
ble a particular foot ; as branca le- 
onisy lion's foot ; branca ursina, 
bear's foot. 

Bra'nca leoni'na. See Alche- 
•milla, 

Bra'nca ursi'na. See Acanthus 
and Heracleum. 

Bra'nca leo'nis. See Alchemilla. 

Bra'nch;e. (From /3p£%w, to make 
moist). Branchi. Swelled tonsils, 
or glandulous tumours, of the fau- 
ces, which secrete saliva. 

Bra'nchls. (From j3ptx<*>f to 
moisten). A defluxion of humours 
from the fauces. 

Brandy. Spiritus Gallicus. A co- 
lourless, slightly opaque, and milky 
fluid, of a hot and penetrating taste, 
and a strong and agreeable smell, 
obtained by distilling from wine ; too 
well known to require further illus- 
tration. 

Branks. The name, in Scotland, 
for the mumps. See Cynanche pa- 
rotidwa, 

Brankursine, See Acanthus, 

Brasi'lia. Brazil wood. 

Brasilie'nse li'gnum. See Hxe- 
tnatoxylon, 

Brasilif/nsis ra'dix. The ipe- 
cacuanha root is sometimes so 
called. 

Bra'sium. (From fipacTaio, to boil). 
Malt, or germinated barley. 

Bra'sma. (From fipacraio, to boil). 
The unripe black pepper. Fermenta- 
tion. 

Bra'smos. The same. 

Brass. JEsyvis, n. A combination 
of copper and zinc. 

Bkassadi/lla. Brassatella, Ophi- 
oglossum or the herb, adder's-tongue. 

Bra'ssica, a-, f. (Varro says, 



quasi pr&sica ; from jjr&secare, to cut 
off ; because it is cut from the stalk 
for use ; or from vrpaaia, a bed in 
a garden where they are cultivated) . 
Crambe. Cabbage. Colewort. — The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. 

Bra'ssica a'lba. The white cab- 
bage. 

Bra'ssica apia'na. Jagged or 
crimpled colewort. 

Bra'ssica cani'na. The mercuri- 
alis sylvestris. 

Bra'ssica capita'ta. Cabbage. 
There are several varieties of cab- 
bage, all of which are generally 
difficult of digestion, producing fla- 
tulencies, and affording very little 
nourishment; inconveniences, how- 
ever, not experienced by those whose 
stomachs are strong, and accustomed 
to them. Few vegetables run into a 
state of putrefaction so quickly as 
cabbages ; they ought, therefore, to 
be used immediately after cutting. 

Bra'ssica congylo'des. Turnip 
cabbage. 

Bra'ssica cuma'na. Red cole- 
wort. 

Bra'ssica eru'ca. The systema- 
tic name for the plant which affords 
the semen erucae. Garden rocket. 
Roman rocket. Rocket gentle. — The 
seeds of this plant are eaten by the 
Italians in their pickles, but are 
more esteemed by them for their 
aphrodisiac qualities. 

Bra'ssica eruca'strum. Eruca 
sylvestris. Wild rocket. See Brass-lea 
eruca, 

Bra'ssica flo'rida. Cauliflower. 
A variety of the oleracea. 

Bra'ssica gonylico'des. Turnip 
cabbage. 

Bra'ssica lacutc'rria. Brassica 
lacaturris. The savoy plant. 

Bra'ssica iviari'na. See Convolvulus 
soldanella, 

Bra'ssica na'pus. The systematic 
name for the plant from which the 
semen napi is obtained. Nupus syl- 
vestris. Bunias. Wild navew, or 
rape. The seeds yield upon expres- 
sion a large quantity of oil, called 
rape oil, which is sometimes ordered 
in stimulating liniments. 



BRE 



93 



BRI 



Bra'ssica olera'cea. The sys- 
tematic name for the brassica capi- 
tata of the shops. See Brassica ca- 
pita? a. 

Bra'ssica ra'pa. The systematic 
name for the plant whose root is 
called turnip. Rapum. Rapus. Na- 
pus. Najncs dulcis. The turnip. 

Bra'ssica ru'bra. Red cabbage. 
It affords a very excellent test both 
for acids and alkalies, superior to 
litmus, being naturally blue, turning 
green with alkalies, and red with 
acids. 

Bra'ssica sati'va. The common 
garden cabbage. 

Bra'ssica sabau'da. The savoy 
plant. 

Brasside'llica ars. A way of 
curing wounds, mentioned by Para- 
celsus, by applying the herb Brassi- 
della to them. 

Bra'thu. (fipaOu). The ancient 
name for savine. 

Bread-fruit. The tree which 
affords this, grows in all the Ladrone 
Islands in the South Sea, in Ota- 
heite, and now in the West Indies. 

Breast. Mamma, <r, f. Two 
snowball-like projections, composed 
of common integuments, adipose 
substance, lacteals, and glands, ad- 
hering to the anterior and lateral re- 
gions of the thorax of females. On 
the centre of each protuberance is a . 
small coniform projection, resembling 
a ripe strawberry, called papilla, or 
nipple, in which the secretory ducts 
of the glands terminate, and around 
which is a mock halo, or coloured 
circle, called the areola. 

Breast-bone. See Sternum. 

Bre'gma. (From /3p£x w > to moist- 
en ; formerly so called, because, in 
infants, and sometimes even in adults, 
they are tender and moist) . An old 
name for the parietal bones. 

Bre'via. (From brcvis, short). A 
specific name of some pares whose 
termination is not far from their 
origin, as brevia vasa, the branches 
of the splenic vein. 

Bre'vis mu'sculus. A short mus- 
cle of the scapula. 

Bre'vis cu'biti. A short muscle 
of the fore-arm. 



Bre'vis extensor digitorum pedis. 
See Extensor brevis digitorum pedis, 

Bre'vis flexor pollicis pedis. See 
Flexor brevis pollicis pedis. 

Bre'vis perone'us. See Peroneus 
brevis. 

Bre'vis pronator radii. See Pro- 
nator radii quadrat us, 

Brey'nia. (An American plant, 
named in honour of Dr. Brenniusj. 
A species of capparis. 

Briar, wild. See Rosa canbia. 

Bri'cumum. A name which the 
Gauls gave to the herb artemisia, or 
mugwort. 

Brimstone. See Sulphur. 

Bristol hot- well. Bristoliensis 
aqua. A pure, thermal or warm, 
slightly acidulated, mineral spring, 
situated about a mile below Bristol. 
Efficacious in promoting salutary dis- 
charges, in green sickness, as well 
as in the blind hemorrhoids, in ob- 
structions, and weakness o£ the bow- 
els, arising from habitual costive - 
ness ; and, from the purity of its 
aqueous part, it 1k*s justly been con- 
sidered as a specific in diabetes, ren- 
dering the urinary organs more fitted 
to receive benefit from those medi- 
cines which are generally prescribed, 
and sometimes successful. But the 
high reputation which this spring 
has acquired, is chiefly in the cure 
of pulmonary consumption. It is 
particularly efficacious in moderating 
the thkst, the dry burning heat of 
the hands and feet, the partial night 
sweats, and the symptoms that are 
peculiarly hectical ; and thus, in the 
earlier stages of phthisis, it may ma- 
terially contribute to a complete re- 
establishmcnt of health ; and even 
in the latter periods, mitigate the 
disease when the cure is doubtful, if 
not hopeless. The season for the 
Hot-well is generally the middle of 
May to October ; but as the medi- 
cinal properties of the water are the 
same throughout the year, the sum- 
mer months are preferred merely on 
account of the concomitant benefits 
of air and exercise. (See Natural and 
Medical Dietetitan, &c.) 

Brita'nmca he'rba. See Rumcx 
hf/drolapathum. 



BRO 



94 



BRO 



British oil. A variety of the 
black species of petroleum, to which 
this name has been given as an em- 
pirical remedy. 

Bro'ccoli. Brassica Italica. As 
an article of diet, considered more 
delicious and digestible than cauli- 
flower and cabbage. 

Bro'chos. (Bpoxog, a snare). A 
bandage. 

Bro'chthus. (From /3p6%a>, to 
pour) . The throat ; also a small kind 
of drinking-vessel. 

Bro'chus, (Bpoxoe). One with a 
blubbered upper lip, or one with 
a full mouth, and snaggle or project- 
ing teeth. 

Bro'dium. In pharmacy, the same 
'dsjusculicm, broth, or the liquor in 
which any thing is boiled ; e. g. 
we sometimes read of brodium sails, 
or a decoction of salt. 

Bro'ma. (From /3pw<rxw, to eat) . 
Food of wfy kind that is masticated, 
and not drank. 

Broma-theon. (From /3pw<rxw, to 
eat). Mushrooms. 

Bromato'loGY. (Bromatologia : 
from j3pu)fia, food, and Xoyoc, a dis- 
course) . A discourse or treatise on 
food. 

Brome'lia ana'nas. The syste- 
matic name of the plant which 
affords the a?ianas fruit, is the Bro- 
melia foliis ciliatosphwsis , mucrona- 
tis, spica comosa, of Linnams. Used 
principally as a delicacy for the 
table, and is given with advantage 
as a refrigerant in fevers. 

Brome'lia kara'tas. The syste- 
matic name of the plant from which 
the fruit called penguin is obtained ; 
given in the Spanish West Indies to 
cool and quench thirst in fevers, dy- 
senteries, &c. ; and of which the in- 
habitants make a wine, which is very 
intoxicating, and of a good flavour. 

Bro'mion. (From fipojpog the oat). 
The name of a plaster, made with 
oatmeal, mentioned by Paulus Mg'i- 
neta. 

Bro'mus ste'rilis. (Fromfipuxrmo, 
to eat) . The wild oat. 

Bronchia. (Brimthito ormm, ncut. 
plur. ; from fipoyxoc, the throat) . 
See Trachea. 



Bronx hia'les arte'ri.e. Bron- 
chial arteries. Branches of the aorta 
given off in the chest. 

Bronchia les gla'ndul/E. Bron- 
chial glands. Large blackish glands, 
situated about the bronchia and tra- 
chea, which secrete blackish mucus. 

Bronchoce'le. (From fipoyxoc,, 
the windpipe, and xr]\}j, a tumour). 
Called also botium or botium. A 
tumour situated on the fore part of 
the neck, principally occupying the 
thyroid gland ; peculiar to the inha- 
bitants of certain mountainous dis- 
tricts. The Swiss call it gotre, or 
goitre; others, hernia gutturis, gut- 
tur tumidum, trachelophyma, gos- 
sum, exechebronchos , gvngrona, her- 
nia bronchialis. Heister thought it 
should be named tracheocele. Pros- 
ser, from the frequency of its oc- 
currence in the hilly parts of Der- 
byshire, called it the Derbyshire 
neck; and, not satisfied respecting 
the identity of this tumour with that 
observed in the necks of women in 
the mountains of the Alps, who are 
mostly tne subjects of it, the English 
bronchocele. See Dr. Reeves* Paper on 
Cretinism; — Edinb. Med. and Surg. 
Jour. vol. v. p. 31; — Traite sur le 
Goitre et le Cretinisme, 8vo. Paris, 
an 8; — A liber t Xosolog. Nat. t. i. 
p. 469, &c. For the best plates of 
the disease, see Dr. Baillie's Series 
of Engravings, &c. &c. 

Broncho'tomy. From /3poy%oc, 
the windpipe, and TSjavw, to cut). 
Tracheotomy. Laryngotomy. The 
practicability, and little danger, of 
this operation, are founded on the 
facility with which certain wounds of 
the windpipe, even of the most com- 
plicated kind, have been healed, 
without leaving any ill effects what- 
ever, and on the nature of the parts 
cut, which are not furnished with 
any vessels very important. 

* # * It is occasionally practised to 
prevent suffocation, when respiration 
through the mouth and nostrils is im- 
peded by disease, or for the extrac- 
tion of foreign bodies lodged in the 
larynx or trachea. Vide Cheyne's Pa- 
thology of the Larynx and Bronchia; — 
Surg. Obs. by C. Bell ;— Transactions 



BRU 



95 



BRY 



of a Society for the Impr 'ovement of 
Medical Knowledge, vol. iii. p. 275- 
28 ( J ; — CEuvres Chirurg. de Dessault, 
t. ii. p. 236, &c. &c. 

Bro'nchos. (Booyxog, the wind- 
pipe) . A catarrh ; a suppression of 
the voice from a catarrh. 

Bro'nchus. (From /3p£x^, to 
pour). The windpipe. The ancients 
believed that the solids were conveyed 
into the stomach by the oesophagus, 
and the fluids by the bronchia ; 
whence its name. 

Brooklime Speedwell. See Vero- 
nica beccabiuiga. 

Broom, common. See Spartium 
scoparium. 

Bru'cea. (So named by Sir Jo- 
seph Banks, in honour of Mr. Bruce, 
the traveller in Abvssinia, who first 
brought the seeds thence into Eng- 
land). The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system. 

Bru'cea antidysente'rica. The 
systematic name of the plant whence 
was erroneously supposed to be ob- 
tained the angustura bark. See Cus- 
paria, and Brucinc. 

Bru'cea ferrugi'nea. A plant 
also supposed to afford the angus- 
tura bark. 

Brucine. An alkali extracted 
from the bark of the hrucea antidy- 
sentcrica, or false angustura bark. 
It is also found in mix vomica. It 
is intensely bitter, but slightly solu- 
ble in water, and on becoming cool, 
it assumes the consistency of wax. 
It forms neutral salts with the acids. 
It is narcotic, but about six times 
weaker than strychnine. The dose is 
from one to three grains. It has 
been used as a stimulant in paralysis, 
muscular debility, &c. in the form 
of pills, tincture, &c. Proposed by 
M. Andral (see Jour, de Physiolog. 
Juillet, 1823, iii. 266) to be substi- 
tuted, in palsy, for the strychnia or 
strychnine ; he found it necessary to 
begin with one-twelfth of a grain of 
the latter; and he could scarcely give 
with safety more than one grain, 
and that to a patient who seemed 
peculiarly insensible to its action. 

Bru'nner's glands. Glandule 
Brunncri. Peyer's glands. The mu- 



ciparous glands, lying between the 
villous and cellular coats of the in- 
testinal canal ; called after Brunner, 
who discovered them. 

Bru'nus. An erysipelatous erup- 
tion. 

Bru'scus. See Ruscus. 

Bru'ta. (Arab.) Instinct. Savine. 

Bru'tia. An epithet for the most 
resinous kind of pitch, used to make 
the Oleum Picinum. The Pix Bru- 
tia was named after Brutia, a coun- 
try in the extreme parts of Italy, 
where it was produced. 

Bruti'no. Turpentine. 

Bru'tobon. The name of an oint- 
ment used by the Greeks. 

Brutua. See Cissampelos Pareira. 

Bruxane'li. (Ind.) \ A tall tree 
in Malabar, the bark of which, ac- 
cording to Ray, is diuretic. 

Bry'gmus. (From Ppvxu, to 
make a noise). A peculiar kind of 
noise, similar to gnashing or grating 
the teeth ; or, according to others, a 
certain kind of convulsion affecting 
the lower jaw, striking the teeth 
together, most frequently observed 
in children having worms. 

Bryo'nia. (From fipvio, to abound, 
from its abundance). Bryony.— 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Diascia; 
Order, Syngenesia. — 2. The phar- 
macopceial name of the white bryony. 
See Bryonia alba. 

Bryo'nia a'lba. The systematic 
name of the white bryony plant. 
Bryonia; foliis palmatis utrinque 
calloso-scaliris, of Linnaeus : is very 
common in woods and hedges. The 
root has a very nauseous biting 
taste, and disagreeable smell. Ber- 
gius states the virtues of this root to 
be purgative, hydragogue, emmena- 
gogue, and diuretic ; the fresh root 
emetic ; and though now seldom 
prescribed by physicians, is said to 
be of great efficacy in evacuating 
serous humours, and has been chiefly 
employed in hydropical cases. It is 
said to prove a gentle purgative, and 
likewise to operate powerfully by 
urine. Of the expressed juice, a 
spoonful acts violently both upwards 
and downwards ; but cream of tar- 



BUB 



96 



BUC 



tar is said to take off its virulence. 
Externally, the fresh root has been 
employed in cataplasms, as a resolv- 
ent and discutient ; also in ischiadic 
and other rheumatic affections. 

Bryo'nia mechoaciia'na nigri- 
cans. A name given to the jalap 
root. 

Bryo'nia ni'gra. Black bryony, 
or vine. The Tamus communis of 
Linnaeus. 

Bryo'nia Peruviana. Jalap. 

Bryony, black, See Bryonia nigra. 

Bryony, white. See Bryonia. 

Bry'thion. (BpvOiov). A malagma 
so called, and described by Paulus 
iEgineta. 

Bry'ton. (From fipvw, to pour 
out). A kind of ale, or wine, made 
of barley. 

Bubasteco'rdium. From bubastus 
and cor, the heart). A name for- 
merly given to artemisia, or mug- 
wort. 

Bu'bo, onis, c. g. (From f5ov- 
€wr, the groin ; because they most 
frequently happen in that part). 



Modern 



surgeons 



mean, bv this 



term, a swelling of the lymphatic 
glands, particularly those of the 
groin and axilla. 

Bu'bon. (From j3ov£a)v, the groin, 
or a tumour to which that part is 
liable, and which it was supposed 
to cure). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pentandria; Order, Digynia. 

Bu'bon ga'lbanum. The syste- 
matic name of the plant which affords 
the officinal galbanum. The gummi- 
resinous juice, obtained partly by its 
spontaneous exudation from the joints 
of the stem of the Lovage-leaved 
"bubon, Bubon ; foliis rhombeis den- 
tatis striatis glabris, umbellis paucis, 
of Linnaeus : but more generally, 
and in greater abundance, by making 
an incision in the stalk a few inches 
above the root. It is imported into 
England from Turkey and the East 
Indies in large, softish, ductile, 
pale-coloured masses, which, by age, 
acquire a brownish -yellow appear- 
ance ; intermixed with distinct white- 
ish tears, that are the most pure 
part of the mass. It is an ingredi- 



ent in the pilula* gallant composite, 
the emplastrum galbani composition 
of the London Pharmacopoeia, and 
in the emplastrum gummosum of the 
Edinburgh. 

Bu'bon Macedo'mcum. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant which 
affords the semen petroselini Macedo- 
nici of the shops. Macedonian pars- 
ley. Bubon Macedonicum of Lin- 
naeus ; and similar in quality to the 
common parsley, but weaker and 
less grateful. 

Bueo'nium. (From fiovGwv, the 
groin). Golden starwort; so called, 
from the supposition of its being 
efficacious in diseases of the groin. 

Bubonoce'le. (From fiovtow, the 
groin, and xjjXrj, a tumour). Hernia 
inguinalis. Inguinal hernia, or rup- 
ture of the groin. A species of her- 
nia, in which the bowels protrude 
at the abdominal ring. See He, itia. 

Bu'cca. (Heb.) The cheek. The 
hollow inner part of the cheek, that 
is efflated by the act of blowing. 

Buccacra'ton. (From bucca, or 
buccella, and apctw, to mix ; t. e. a 
morsel of bread sopped in wine, 
which, in old times, served for a 
breakfast.) 

Bu'ccal glands. (Glandular buc- 
cinales: from bucca, the cheek). The 
small glands of the mouth, under 
the cheek, which assist in secreting 
saliva into that cavity. 

Bu'ccea. (From bucca, the cheek ; 
as much as can be contained at one 
time within the cheeks). A mouth- 
ful ; a morsel ; a polypus of the 
nose. 

Buccella'ton. (From buccella, a 
morsel). A purgative medicine, 
made up in the form of a loaf, con- 
sisting of scammony, &c. put into 
fermented flour, and then baked in 
an oven. 

Bucce'lla. The carneous ex- 
crescence of a polypus in the nose, 
supposed by Paracelsus, who givt a 
it this name, to be a portion of flesh 
parting from the bucca, and insinu- 
ating itself into the nose. SeeBuccea. 

Buccella'tio. (From buccellatus, 
cut into small pieces) . Bucclatio. A 
method of stopping an hemorrhage, 



BUL 



97 



BUL 



by applying small pieces of lint to 
the vein, or artery. 

Buccina'tor, Muscukts buccina- 
tor. (So named, from its use in 
forcing the breath to sound the 
trumpet, from fivxavn, a trumpet). 
Retractor anguli oris of Albinus, 
and alveolo-maxillaire of Dumas. 
The trumpeter's muscle. 

Bu'ccula. (Dim. of bucca y the 
cheek) . The fleshy part under the chin. 

Buce'phalon, red-fruited. The 
name of the Tmphis Americana of 
Linnaeus. Its fruit is a kind of rough 
red berry, eaten by the inhabitants 
of Jamaica, although by no means 
of an agreeable flavour. 

Bu'ceras. (From jSovg, an ox, 
and aepaQj a horn ; so called, from 
the horn-like appearance of its seed). 
Buceros. Fenugreek seed. See Tri- 
gonella Famumgro'cum . 

Buck-bean. See Menyanthes tri- 
foliata. 

Buck-thorn. See Rhamnus cathar- 
ticus. 

Buck-wheat. See Polygonum fa- 
gopyrum. 

Buck-wheat , eastern. See Poly- 
gonum divarication. 

Bucra'mon. (From /3o?/c, an ox, 
and Kpaviov, the head ; thus called, 
from its supposed resemblance to a 
calf's snout). The antirrhinum, or 
snap-dragon plant. 

Bu'cton. The hymen virginum, 
according to Pyraeus. 

Buga'ntia. Chilblains. 

Bugle. Sec Prunella. 

Bugloss. See Anchusa officinalis. 

Buglo'ssum. (From (3ov<r, an 
ox, and y\y<7(Ta, a tongue ; so called, 
from the shape and roughness of its 
leaf). See Anchusa officinalis. 

Buglo'ssum sylve'stre. The 
stone bugloss. 

Bu'gula. A dim. of buglossa). 
See Ajuga pyramidalis. 

Bulboca'stanum. (From /3o\6oe, 
a bulb, and xa^avov, a chesnut; so 
called, from its bulbous appearance). 
See Bujiium bulbocastanum. 

Bulbocavernous. (Bulbocaver- 
nous, sc. musculus ; so called from 
its origin and insertion). See Acce- 
lerator urijicp. 



Bu'lbonach. (Germ.) The Lu- 
naria rediviva of Linn. Satin and 
honesty. Said by Ray to be a warm 
diuretic. 

Bu'lbus escule'ntus. Comesti- 
ble bulbous roots, are so called. 

Bu'lbus vomito'rius. Muscari. 
Hyacinthus muscari of Linn. Musk- 
Grape-flower. Emetic and diuretic. 
Ray. 

Bulge-water -tree. The Geoffroya 
Jamaicensis. 

Buli'mia. (From /3ov, a particle 
of excess, andXi^Ltoc, hunger). Buli- 
miasis. Boulimos. Bulimus. Bolismos 
of Avicenna. Fames comma, Appetitus 
caninus. Phagedena. Adephagia. 
Bupeina. Cynorexia. Insatiable hun- 
ger, or canine appetite. A genus of 
disease in the Class Locales, and 
Order Dysorexia?, of Cullen, who only 
distinguishes three species of it. See 
his Nosology. 

Buli'mia addepha'gia. A vora- 
cious appetite. 

Buli'mia cam'na. Voracious ap- 
petite, and subsequent vomiting. 

Buli'mia cardia'lgica. Voracious 
appetite, with heartburn. 

Buli'mia convulso'rum. Vora- 
cious appetite, with convulsions. 

Buli'mia eme'tica. Voracious 
appetite, with vomiting. 

Buli'mia iielluo'num. Gluttony. 

Buli'mia esuri'gio. Gluttony. 

Buli'mia syncopa'lis. Voracious 
appetite, with fainting, from hunger. 

Buli'mia vermino'sa. Voracious 
appetite, from worms. 

Bulimi'asis. See Bidimia. 

Bu'limus. See Bulimia. 

Buli'thum. (From (3ovg, an ox, 
and \i9og,, a stone). A bezoar, or 
stone, found in the kidneys, or gall, 
or urinary bladder of an ox, or 
cow. 

Bl'lla, -<p, f. A bubble. A clear 
vesicle, arising from burns, scalds, 
or other causes. 

Bu'llace. The fruit produced 
by the Primus ijisitia of Linnaeus, 
growing wild in our hedges. There 
are two varieties of bullace, the red 
and the white, which are used with, 
the same intentions as the coraraoo 
damson. 
K 



BUP 



98 



BUR 



Bullo'sa fe'bris. An epithet 
applied to the vesicular fever, be- 
cause the skin is covered with 
little vesicles, or blisters. See Pem- 
phigus. 

Bunj'tes vi'num. (From Buniu?n, 
wild parsley). A wine made of wild 
parsley and must. 

Bu'nium. (From jSovvog, a little 
hill ; so called, from the tuberosity 
of its root). — 1. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Limnean system: 
Class, Pentandria; Order, Digynia. 
— 2. The name of the wild parsley. 

Bu'nium bulboca'stanum. The 
systematic name of a plant whose 
root is called the pig-nut. Agrio- 
caslanum. Nucula terrestris. Bulbo- 
castaneum. Bulbocastanum majus et 
minus. Earth-nut. Hawk-nut. Kip- 
per-nut, and pig-nut. The root is as 
large as a nutmeg ; hard, tuberous, 
and whitish ; and is eaten raw, or 
roasted. It has a sweetish taste, is 
nourishing, and supposed to be of 
use in strangury, &c. 

Bu'mus. A species of turnip. 

Bltei'na. (From /3ov, a particle 
of magnitude, and ^siva, hunger). 
Voracious appetite. 

Bi/rHAcos. (From fiov, a particle 
of excess, and £>ayw, to eat). The 
name of an antidote which caused a 
voracious appetite in Marcellus Em- 
piricus. 

Buphtha'lmum. (From fiovg, an 
< x, and ocpOaXfiog, an eye ; so called 
from its flowers, which are supposed 
to resemble an eye). The ox-eye 
daisy. See Chrysanthemum teucan- 
themum. 

Buphtha'lmum cre'ticum. Pel- 
litory of Spain. See Anthemis Py- 
rcihrum. 

Buphtha'lmum Germa'nicum. 
The common ox-eye daisy. 

Buphtha'lmum ma'jus. Great, or 
ox-eye daisy. See Chrysanthemum 
faicanthcmum. 

Buphtiia'lmus. (From fiovg, an 
ox, and ocpQaXjiog, an eye ; so named 
from its large appearance, like an 
ox's eye). — 1. Diseased enlargement 
of the* eye. — 2. House -leek. 

\\\ pi.eu'kum. (From j3ov, Large, 
and <5r\tvpov, a rib ; so named from 



its having large rib-like filaments- 
upon its leaves). — 1. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem. — 2. The pharmacopceial name 
of the herb hare's ear. 

Bupleu'rum rotundifo'lium. 
The systematic name of the plant 
called perfoliata, in some pharma- 
copoeias. Round-leaved hare's ear, 
or thorow wax. This plant, Bupleu- 
rum rotundifoUum of Linn, it is said, 
was formerly celebrated for curing 
ruptures, mixed into a poultice with 
wine and oatmeal. — Query. What 
kind of rupture ? Was it a breach of 
treaty between the stomach and small 
intestines, that could only be appeased 
by a mess of hotch-potch ? 

Burdock. See Arctium Lappa. 

Burgundy pitch. See Pinus Abies. 

Bu'rac. (Arab.) Borax. It also 
means any kind of salt. 

Bu'ris. A schirrous hernia, or 
hard abscess. Avicenna. 

Burn, or Scald. A lesion of the 
animal body, occasioned by the ap- 
plication of heat, or other chymical 
means ; but the latter term is ap- 
plicable only where this is con- 
veyed through the medium of some 
fluid. 

%* These injuries are usually di- 
vided into three kinds: 1. Such as 
produce inflammation of the cutane- 
ous texture, and which, if not im- 
properly treated, almost invariably 
manifest a tendency to resolution. — 
2. Into burns which injure the vital 
powers of the cutis, occasion the se- 
paration of the cuticle, and produce 
suppuration on the surface of the 
cutaneous texture. — 3. Into those 
where the vitality and organization 
of a greater or less portion of the 
cutis are either immediately or sub- 
sequently destroyed, and a soft slough* 
or hard eschar produced. See Thomp- 
son s Lectures on Inflammation, p. 
585-586 ; in which also Sir James 
Karles Plan is laid down, p. 591 ; — • 
Cleghorn s Plan, published by I\Ir. 
Hunter, in JMed. Facts and Observ. 
vol. ii. ; and Memoir cs de Chirurgie 
Militaire, by Baron Larrey; see also 
Dr. Kentish on Burns, &c. 

Bu'rnea. Pitch. 



BUT 



09 



BYN 



Burnet saxifrage. See Pimpinella. 
Burning. Brenning. An ancient 
medical term, signifying an infectious 
disease, and supposed to be the 
same with what is now called the 
venereal disease. 

Bu'rriii spi'ritus matrica'lis. 
Burrhus's spirit, for disorders of 
the womb. A compound of myrrh, 
olibanum, amber, and spirit of 
wine. 

Burnt hartshorn. See Cornu ustum. 

Burnt sponge. See Spongia usta. 

Bu'rsa. A bag. — 1. The scrotum. 
— 2. An herb called Thlaspi bursa* 
pastoris, from the resemblance of its 
seminal follicles to a triangular 
purse. 

Bursa'logy. (From fivp<7a, a 
bag, and \oyoQ, a discourse}. The 
doctrine of the bursae mucosa?. 

Bu'rsa muco's/e. Mucous bags. 
Membranes, containing a kind of 
mucous fat, formed by the exhaling 
arteries of the internal coat. They 
vary in size and nrmness, and are 
connected by the cellular membrane 
frith articular cavities, tendons, li- 
gaments, the periosteum, &c. Their 
use is to secrete, and contain an 
oleaginous fluid to lubricate tendons, 
muscles, and bones, in order to ren- 
der their motion easy. 

Bursa'lis mi/sculus. (From its 
resemblance to a bursa, or purse). 
See Obturator extenius <>t in t emus. 

Buseli'nlm. (From fiov, great, 
and aeXivov, parsley). A large spe- 
cies of parsley. 

Bu'ssn spi'ritus bezoa'rdicus. 
The bezoardic spirit of Bussius. A 
distillation of ivory, sal-ammoniac, 
amber, &c. 

Butcher* s-broom. Sec Ruscus. 

Bu'tiga. Synonymous with gutta 
rosacea. 

Bu'tino. Turpentine. 

Bu'tomon. See Iris pseudacorus. 

Butter. Buti/ru?n, -/, n. (From 
/3ouc, a cow, and rvpog, coagulum, 
or cream). A concrete and soft sub- 
stance, of a yellow colour, approach- 
ing more or less to that of gold, and 
of a mild, agreeable taste. Fresh 
butter is nourishing and relaxing, 
but it readily becomes sour, and, in 



general, agrees with few stomachs. 
Rancid butter is one of the most 
unwholesome and indigestible of all 
foods. 

Butter-bur. See Tussilago petta- 
sites. 

Butter -flower. See Ranunculus. 
Butter- milk. The thin and sour 
milk which is separated from the 
cream by churning it into butter. 
Butterwort. See Pinguicula. 
Butua. See Cissampelos paricra. 
Buty'kum. See Butter, 
Buty'rum antimo'nii. See Ma- 
rias antimojiii. 

Buxton waters. Aquco Buxtoni- 
enses. Warm mineral springs at Bux- 
ton, in Derbyshire, long celebrated 
for their medicinal properties. 

*** The cases which derive most 
benefit from the extertialuse of these 
springs, are those in which a loss of 
action, and sometimes of sensation, 
affects particular limbs, in conse- 
quence of long-continued or violent 
inflammation, or external injury. 
Hence the chronic rheumatism suc- 
ceeding the acute, &c. The itUi ma! 
use of the water has been found to 
be of considerable service in symp- 
toms of defective digestion, and de- 
rangement of the alimentary organs. 
In all active inflammations, the use 
of these waters should be carefully 
avoided, on account of their sup- 
posed heating properties. 

Bu'xus, -*, m. (From 7ri'xa^cu, to 
become hard). The box-tree. — 1. 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Moncecia; 
Order, Triandria. — 2. The pharma- 
copceial name of the Buxus temper- 
vire?is of Linnaeus, the leaves of 
which possess a very strong, nau- 
seous, bitter taste, and aperient vir- 
tues. They arc occasionally exhi- 
bited, in form of decoction, amongst 
the lower orders of people, in cases 
of dropsy, asthma, and worms. 

Bu'xus sempervi'rens. The sys- 
tematic name of the buxus of the 
pharmacopoeias. Sec Buxus. 

By'arus. A plexus of blood-ves- 
sels in the brain. 

Byng. A Chinese name for green 
tea. 
K2 



CAA 



100 



CAC 



Byre'thrum. (Beretta, ltal. or ba- 
rette, Fr. a cap). Byrethrus. An 
odoriferous cap, filled with cephalic 
drugs, for the head. 

By'rsa. (Bvpva, leather). A lea- 
thern skin, on which plasters are 
spread. 

Bysau'chen. (From fivu), to hide, 
and avxvv, the neck). Morbid stiff- 
ness of the neck. 



By'ssus. (Heb.) A woolly kind 
of moss. Pudendum mulibre. A 
kind of fine linen. 

By'thos. (BvOog, deep). An epi- 
thet used by Hippocrates for the bot- 
tom of the stomach. 

By'zen. (From fivto, to rush to- 
gether) . In a heap ; throngingly. 
The rapidity in which the menses 
flow in an excessive discharge. Hipp, 



C. 



t-'j In the chymical alphabet, stands 
for nitre. 

Caa-a'pia. (Ind.) A Brazilian root, 
which, chewed, has nearly the effects 
of ipecacuanha. It is the JDorstenia 
Brasiliensis of Wildenow. The Bra- 
zilians use it in the cure of wounds 
from poisoned arrows : they pour 
the juice of the root into the wound. 

Caa-atay'a. (Ind.) The name of 
a bitter plant growing in Brazil ; 
powerfully cathartic and emetic It 
resembles the euphrasia. Ray, 

Caaci'ca. (Ind.) A Brazilian 
herb applied in cataplasms against 
venomous bites ; called also colu- 
brina Lusitanica. Bay. 

Caa'co. (Ind.) The name of a 
species of sensitive plant, whose 
root is used by the natives of Ame- 
rica as an antidote to several poi- 
sons. 

Caaet ma'y. (Ind.) Senecio Bra- 
siliensis. A decoction of the plant 
thus called, is used as a wash to 
cure the itch. Its systematic name 
is unknown. Bay. 

Caaghiyu'yo. (Ind.) Frutex bac- 
<ifer Brasiliensis. A Brazilian shrub, 
whose leaves are desiccative. 

Caa-o'pia. (Ind.) Arbuscitlagum- 
mi/'tra Brasiliensis. Hypericum bac- 
ciferum of modern naturalists. The 
name of a tree in the Brazils, the 
bark of which, when wounded, emits 
a juice, which, in a dried state, re- 
sembles gamboge, except that it is 
rather of a darker colour. 

Caait/ba. Sec Cissampelos pareira. 



Caapo'nga. (Ind.) The Brasilia*! 
name for crithmum ; also called 
Trifolia spica, Crithmum marinum 
non spinoswm. Inula crithmoides of 
Linnaeus. The leaves and voung 
stalks are pickled for the use of the 
table. They are gently diuretic. 

Caaro'ba. (Ind.) The name of a 
tree which grows in the Brazils. A 
decoction of its leaves promotes per- 
spiration, and is said to cure the ve- 
nereal disease. Bay. ? . 

Cabali'stica ars. (From tv — p, 
Kabbalah, and properly signifies re- 
ception ; formed from the verb 7u p, 
Kebel, to receive by tradition, or 
from father to son, especially in the 
Chaldee and Rabbinical Hebrew). 
Cabla. Cabula. Kabala. The cabalistic 
art. A term formerly used, in a very 
mysterious sense, amongst divines ; 
and since, some enthusiastic philoso- 
phers and chymists have transplanted 
it into medicine, thereby importing 
something magical. Such unmeaning 
terms are now justly rejected. 

Cdballine aloes. See Aloe. 

Cabbage. See Brassica. 

Cabbage-bark tree. See Geoffroya 
Jamaicensis. 

Cabalistic art. See Cabalistica ars. 

Caburei'ba. Caburiiba. A name 
of the Balsamum Peruvianum. Ray 
thinks it is the tree which affords 
that balsam. 

Cacago'ga. (From xarxx/7, excre- 
ment, and ayio, to expel). Cathar- 
tics. — Ointments which : being rubbed 



CAC 



101 



CAC 



on the fundament, procure stools. 
Paulas JE'riiuta. 

Caca'lia. (From *rmov, bad, and 
Xtav, exceedingly ; because it is mis- 
chievous to the soil on which it 
grows). Cacamum. The herb wild 
chervil, or wild carraways, formerly 
said to be pectoral. 

Cacamotictla.no oltlont. (Ind.) 
Batatas peregrina. The purging po- 
tatoe. 

Ca'caMUM. Sec Cacalla. 

Ca'cao. Cacoa. Cocoa. Cacavifera. 
t'acari. Quahoil. Cazavata. The 
cocoa or chocolate nut of Virginia 
and Jamaica. 

Cacapiio'ma. (From natoc, bad, 
and (pojvrj, the voice). Defective 
articulation. 

Ca'cari. See Cacao. 

Cacato'ria fe'bris. fFrom cacare, 
to go to stool). An epithet given by 
Sylvius to a kind of intermittent fe- 
ver, with copious stools. 

Caccio'nde. A kind of pill, re- 
commended by Kaglivi against dy- 
senteries ; its basis is catechu. 

Cache'xia. (From xaxoc, bad, 
and f£ic, a habit). Cachexy* A bad 
habit of body, known by a depraved 
or vitiated state of the solids and 
fluids. 

Cacfie'xi.t. A class of diseases in 
Cullcn's nosology, embracing three 
orders, viz. Marcores y Intumcscintite, 
and Impetigines. 

Cachf/xia uteri's a. Fluor alb us 
is sometimes so called. 

Cacme'xia ictf/rica. Jaundice, 
or a disposition thereto. 

CA'cilLAN.The buphf/ialmum verunu 

Ca'ciilfx. A little stone, or peb- 
ble. Cachleces, heated in the fire, 
and quenched in whey, become 
astringents, and useful in dysente- 
ries. Galen. 

Cacninna'tio, -onis, f. (From 
cachinnare, to laugh aloud). A ten- 
dency to immoderate laughter, as in 
some hysterical and maniacal affec- 
tions. 

Cacho're. A name for catechu, 
or Japan earth. 

Ca'chos. (Ind.) A shrub used by 
the Indians as a diuretic, and to ex- 
pei concretions from the kidneys. 



Cachu'nde. A medicine celebrated 
among the Chinese and Indians, 
made of several aromatic ingredi- 
ents, perfumes, medicinal earths, 
and precious stones. It is highly 
esteemed in nervous complaints, and 
is reckoned a prolonger of life, and 
a provocative to venery — the two 
grand desiderata of most oriental 
medicines. 

Ca'chrys. Galen says it some- 
times means parched barley. In Lin- 
naeus's botany, the name of a genus 
of which he enumerates three spe- 
cies. 

Ca'chrys odonta'lgica. A plant, 
the root of which may be substituted 
for that of the pyrethrum. 

Cachy'mia. (Krtxujuia). An im- 
perfect metal, or an immature me- 
talline ore. Paracelsus. 

( acoalexite'rium. (From ncmoe, 
bad, and a\f£?/7//|0£w, to preserve). 
Alexipharmics. Antidotes against 
poison, or infectious diseases. 

Cacocho'lia. (From xaxoc, and 
^oX//, bile). Unhealthy secretion, 
or disease of the bile. 

Cacociiv'lia. (From *a>toc, bad, 
and x v ^1> the chyle). Indigestion, 
or depraved chylitication. 

Cacociiy'mia, -<r, f. (From x.axoQ> 
bad, and y^vfioQ, juice, or humours;. 
Diseased or depraved state of the 
humours. 

( acocne'mus. (From xaxoc, bad, 
and ici'rnij] y the leg). Some natural 
defect in the tibia. 

Cacocore'ma. (From xaxoc, bad, 
and xopsio, to purge or cleanse). 
Medicine which carries off the viti- 
ated humours. 

Cacod#/mon, -onis, m. (From 
xccaoQi bad, and cai/j,ojv, a spirit). 
An evil spirit, or genius, supposed 
to preside over the bodies of men, 
and to afflict them with certain dis- 
orders. The night-mare. 

Caco'dia. (From kcikoq, bad, and 
o?m> to smell). Defective sense of 
smelling. 

Cacoe'thes. (From aanoc, ill, 
and t]9og, a word, when applied to 
diseases, signifying a quality, * or a 
disposition). Malignant and difficult 
distempers. Hipp. — Galen, and some 
K3 



CAC 



102 



CMS 



others, express by it an incurable 
ulcer, that is rendered so through 
the acrimony of the humours flowing 
to it. — Linnaeus and Vogel use this 
term much in the same sense with 
Galen, and describe the ulcer as su- 
perficial, spreading, weeping, and 
with callous edges. 

Cacopa'thia. (From xaxog, bad, 
and *5ra0og, affection) . An ill affec- 
tion of the body, or part. 

Cacopho'nia. (From hclkoq, bad, 
and (po)vrj 9 the voice). Defect in the 
organs of speech ; bad pronuncia- 
tion. 

Cacopra'gia. (From xanog, bad, 
and 'srparJoj, to perform). Diseased 
chylopoietic viscera. 

Cacorry'thmus. (From xaaog, 
bad, and pvOpog, order). Disordered 
state of pulse. 

Caco'sis. (From nanog, bad). A 
bad disposition of body. 

Cacosi'tia. (From Kctxog, and 
(tO.lov, food). Aversion to food. 
Nausea. 

Cacosphy'xia, (From x«koc, bad, 
and <7<£u£ic, pulse). Disordered state 
of pulse. 

Cacosto'machus. (From actKog, 
bad, and ^ojxaxog, the stomach). A 
bad or disordered stomach ; also 
food which the stomach rejects. 

Caco'stomus. (From xaxog, bad, 
and <50fia 9 a mouth). A bad-formed, 
or disordered mouth. 

Cacoth\'mia. (From mxog, ill, 
and Srvfiog, the mind). Any vicious 
disposition, or diseased state of 
mind. 

Cacotro'phia. (From x,aicog> ill, 
and Tpotyrj, nutriment). Vitiated 
nourishment; a wasting of the body, 
from deficiency of nutriment. 

Ca'ctus. A genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Icosandria ; 
Order, Monogynia. The melon- 
thistle. 

Ca'ctus opi/ntia. The systematic 
name of the plant bearing the epithet 
opuntia in the pharmacopoeias. 

Cacu'balus. (From nanog, evil, 
and /3<A\w, to cast out ; so named, 
because it was thought to be cflica- 
cioue in expelling poisons). The 
I crry- bearing chickweed. 



Ca'cule. The Arabian term fov 
cardamoms. 

Cacu'men, -minis, n. The top or 
point. 

Cada'ver, -veris, n. From cadere, 
to fall ; because the body, when de- 
prived of life, falls to the ground). 
A carcass. A body deprived of life. 

Ca'dmia. (Heb.) Chlimia. Ca- 
timia. A name of the lapis calami- 
naris. See Zinc. 

Ca'dmia meta'llica. A name 
given to cobalt by the Germans. 

Cadu'ca. (From cadere, to fall 
down). See Decidua. 

Cadu'cus mo'rbus. (From cadere , 
to fall down) . The epilepsy or fall- 
ing sickness. 

C;e'citas, -tatis, f. (From eacus, 
blind) . Blindness. See Caligo, and 
Amaurosis. 

C&'cum, -t, n. (From caucus, blind) ■• 
The caecum, or blind gut ; so called 
from its being perforated at one end 
only. 

Cte'ros. (Kaiooc) • The opportu- 
nity or moment in which whatever is 
to be effected should be done. Hipp. 

Cjesa'rian opera'tion. Called 
also Ilysterotomia. Hysterotomatocia. 
(From vcrrepa, uterus or womb ; and 
rofirj, sectio, or section). In Pliny's 
Natural History, lib. vii. cap. 9, the 
etymology as well as the antiquity of 
this operation is given as follows : 
" Auspicatius enectd parente gignuti- 
tur, sicut Scipio Africanus prior ?iatus, 
primusque C&sar a ca?so matris utero 
diet us ; qua de causa ca?so?ies appellati. 
Simili modo natus est Manlius qui 
Carthaginem cum exercitu intravit." 
The operation of extracting the foetus 
from the uterus. 

There are three conditions in which 
this operation may be necessary. — 

1. When the foetus is perceived to 
be alive, nnd the mother dies, either 
in labour or in the last two months. — 

2. When the foetus is dead, but can- 
not be delivered in the usual way, 
from the deformity of the mother, or 
the disproportionate size of the child. 
— 3. When both the mother and the 
child are living, but delivery cannot 
take place, from the same causes as 
in the second instance. Both {\\Q 



CMS 



103 



CAL 



mother and the child, if accounts can 
be credited, have often lived after 
the Caesarian operation, and the mo- 
ther even borne children afterwards. 
Heister gives a relation of such suc- 
cess, in his Institutes of Surgery ; 
and there are some others. In Eng- 
land, the Caesarian operation has 
almost always failed. Mr. James 
Barlow, of Chorley, Lancashire, suc- 
ceeded, however, in taking a foetus 
out of the uterus by this bold pro- 
ceeding, and the mother was per- 
fectly restored to health. Several 
cases are also more recently related, 
where the operation has been suc- 
cessfully performed. 

%* From the preceding quotation 
from Pliny, it appears that the Caesari- 
an operation is extremely ancient, not- 
withstanding no account of it is to be 
met with in the works of Hippocrates, 
Celsus, Faulus j^Kgineta, or Abucasis. 
The earliest account we are furnished 
with, is, that in the Chin/rgia (iiii- 
donis de Cauliaco, published about the 
middle of the fourteenth century; and 
here the practice is only alluded to as 
proper after the death of the mother ; 
and is alledged to have been adopted 
only at such a conjuncture in the 
case of Julius Caesar. Vigo, who 
was born toward the close of the 
fifteenth century, takes no notice of 
this operation ; and Fare, who greatly 
improved the practice of midwifery, 
thinks it a measure only allowable in 
women who die undelivered, &c. 

By the Caesarian operation, is com- 
monly understood that, in which the 
t'cetus is taken out of the uterus, by 
means of an incision made into the 
abdomen, and through the parietes 
of the womb. In its most compre- 
hensive ser.se, however, the term is 
applied to three different proceedings. 
— 1. To denote the incision occa- 
ionally practised in the cervix uteri 
to facilitate delivery, called the va- 
ginal Caesarian section to distinguish 
it from the former, winch by way of 
contrast is not unfrequently called 
the abdominal Caesarian section. — 
2. The incision made in the parietes 
of the abdomen for the extraction of 
the foetus, when, instead of the 



uterus, it lies in the cavity of the 
peritoneum, inconsequence of a rup- 
ture of the womb, or in the ovary or 
Fallopean tube, the result of the 
extra-uterine conception ; which, as 
Sabatier has remarked, is a species 
of gastrotomy ; although analogous 
to the abdominal and vaginal Cae- 
sarian operations : — For a particular 
account of which, see Diet, Dei- 
Sciences Med. t. 23, p. 297 ; — Lavcrgat 
Xouvelle Methode depratiquer I' opera- 
tion Cesarienne, Paris, 1788 ; — Saba- 
tier' s Medecine Operatoire, vol. i. ; — 
Heister s Institutes of Surgery , c. 113 ; 
— Med. Chirurg. Trans, vol. ix. and 
xi. &c. ; — Hull's Defence of the Cce- 
s'trtan Operation, p. 10, &c. ; — Edinh, 
Mid. and Surg. Journal, vol. iv. 
]). 178 ; — Haightoji \v KiK/uiry con- 
cerning the True and Spt/n'ous Cen- 
sor inn Operation ; — C. Bell in Med. 
Chirurg. Trans, vol. iv. p. 347, &c. ; 
— Vaughan*% Cases, &c. &c. 

C/k'sares. Ca'soms. Children who 
are brought into the world by the 
Casaariao operation. 

CsfTi m. See sJcacia catechu. 
C\r. (Arab.) Cafa. Caffa. A name 
given by the Arabians to camphire. 

Caga'8TRUM. A barbarous term 
need by Paracelsus, to express the 
rbific matter which generates dis- 
ease 

Ca'jan. Cay an. The Phaseolus 
creticus of Lmnsraa. A decoction of 
the leaves restrains the haemorrhoids 
when excessive. Kay. 

Cetjtput oil. See Melaleuca. 
Cala'ba. The Indian mastich tree. 
A native of America, accounted vul- 
nerary, resolvent, and anodyne. Ca- 
tophylfonn inophyllu.m of Linnaeus. 

Cai.AGUa'lae RADIX. Calaguelw 
radix. A knotty root somewhat like 
that of the polypody tribe : exhibited 
internally at Rome, with success, in 
dropsy ; and said to be efficacious in 
pleurisy, contusions, abscesses, &c. 
Used in America, where it is ob- 
tained ; and Italian physicians have 
since written concerning it, in terms 
of approbation. 

Calamagro'stis. (From na\aficc 9 
a reed, and «ypw<ric, a sort of grassj, 
Sheer grass. Heed grass. 



CAL 



104 



CAL 



Cala'mbac (Ind.) The agallo- 
rhum, or aromatic aloe. 

Calama'corus. Indian reed. 

Calame'don. (From kciXciuoc, a 
reed). A kind of fracture running 
along the bone, in a straight line, 
like a reed, but lunatcd in the ex- 
tremity. 

Ca'lamina prjspara'ta. Prepared 
calamine. Burn the calamine, and 
reduce it to powder ; then let it be 
brought into the state of a very fine 
powder, in the same manner that 
chalk is directed to be prepared. 
See Calamine. 

Ca'lamine. (From calamus, a 
reed ; so called from its reed-like 
appearance) . Cadmia lapid«sa cei'osa. 
Cadmia fossilis. Calami ?ia. Lapis 
calaminaris. An ore of zinc. A 
sort of stone, or mineral, containing 
oxyde of zinc and carbonic acid, 
united with a portion of iron, and 
sometimes other substances. It is 
found in quarries of considerable ex- 
tent, in several parts of Europe, and 
particularly in this country, in Der- 
byshire, Gloucestershire, Notting- 
hamshire, and Somersetshire ; as 
also in Wales. The calamine of 
England is, by the best judges, al- 
lowed to be superior in quality to 
that of most other countries. When 
properly prepared, it is employed 
in collyria, for weak eyes ; for pro- 
moting the cicatrization of ulcers, 
and healing excoriations of the skin. 
It is the basis of an officinal cerate, 
called Ceratum calaminae, by the 
London College, formerly called ce- 
ratum lapidis calaminaris ; ceratum 
epuloticum ; and ceratum carbonatis 
zinci impuri by the Edinburgh Col- 
lege. 

Calamint, common. See Melissa 
calamintka. 

Calamint, mountain. Sec Melissa 
grandi [flora. 

Calami'ntha. (From xaXoc, beau- 
tiful, or KoXnc/Ltoc, arced, and fiivdrj, 
mint) . Common calamint. See Me- 
lissa. 

Calami'ntha a'nglica. Sec Me- 

lissa /ttpcta. 

Calami'ntha humi'lior. The 
ground-ivy. 



Calami'ntha ma'gno flo're. See 
Melissa grandi flora. 

Calami'ntha monta'na. See Me- 
lissa Calamintka. 

Ca'lamus. (Arab.) — 1. A general 
name denoting the stalk of any plant. 
— 2. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnsean system : Class, Hex- 
andria; Order, Monogynia. 

Ca'lamus aroma'ticus. (From 
kalam, Arab.) Sweet flag or acorus. 
See Acorus Calamus. 

Ca'lamus aroma'ticus Asia'ticus. 
The Acorus calamus of Linn. 

Ca'lamus odora'tus. See Acorus 
calamus. 

Ca'lamus rota'ng. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant from which 
the dragon's blood is obtained. 

Ca'lamus scripto'rius. A kind 
of canal at the bottom of the fourth 
ventricle of the brain, so called from 
its resemblance to a writing-pen. 

Ca'lamus vulga'ris See Acorus 
Calamus. 

Cala'thiana. (From *a\a6oc, a 
twig basket ; so called from the 
shape of its flowers.) The herb 
marsh-gentian, or Gentiana pneu- 
monaiithe of Linnaeus. 

Calbia'num. The name of a plas- 
ter in Myrepsus. 

Calca'dinum. Vitriol. 

Calca'dis. An Arabian name for 
white vitriol and alkali. 

Calca'neum. (From vol*, cis, f, 
the heel). Calcar ptcrna. Os calcis. 
The largest bone in the tarsus, which 
forms the heel. 

Calca'nthum. (From x aAxoc » 
brass, and avGog, a flower ; i. e. 
flowers of brass). Calcanthos. Cop- 
peras vitriol. 

Ca'lcar. (From coir, the heel ; 
also from ealere, to heat). The hecl- 
bone; also the furnace of a labora- 
tory. 

Calcareous earth. See Calx and 
Lime. 

Calca'ris fi.os. TKe larkspur. 

Caica'rius i a'iis. Limestone. 

Ca'lcatar. A name for vitriol. 

Ca'lcaton. White arsenic. Troches 
of arsenic. 

C'ALCATRi'rPA. See Ajuga pyrami- 
dal is* 



CAL 



105 



CAL 



Calce'na. Calcenonius. Calcetus. 
The tartarous matter in the blood ; 
or that the blood is impregnated with 
tartarous principles. Paracelsus. 

Ca'lces, meta'llic. Metals which 
have undergone the process of calci- 
nation, or combustion ; or any other 
equivalent operation. 

Ca'lceum eoui'num. (From cal- 
ceiiSy a shoe, and et/uus, a horse ; so 
called from the figure of its leaf.) 
The herb tussilago, or colt's foot. 

Calchi'theos. (From koXxiov, 
purple). Verdigrise. 

Calchoi'des, (From xa\i£, a 
chalkstone, and udog, form). Cal- 
vhoidea ossicula. A name for the 
cuneiform bones. 

CALCIDl'ciUM. The name of a 
medicine in which arsenic is an in- 
gredient. 

Calci'fraga. (From calx, a stone, 
and frangere, to break ; so named 
from its supposed property of break- 
ing the human calculus). Breakstone. 
The herb spleenwort, or scolopen- 
drium. Scrib. Larg. 

Calcina'tion. Oxidation. The 
fixed residues of such matters as 
have undergone combustion are called 
cinders, in common language, and 
calces, but now more commonly 
oxydes, by chymists ; and the opera- 
tion, when considered with regard to 
these residues, is termed calcination. 
In this general way, it has likewise 
been applied to bodies not really 
combustible, but only deprived of 
some of their principles by heat; c. g. 
we hear of the calcination of chalk, 
to convert it into lime, by driving off 
its carbonic acid and water ; — of 
gypsum, or plaster-stone ; — of alum ; 
— ol borax, and other saline bodies, 
by which they arc deprived of their 
water by crystallization ; — of bones 
which lose their volatile parts by 
this treatment, &c. 

Calcina'tum. Cinificatum. Terms 
applied to calcined substances. 

Calcina'tum ma'jus. Whatever 
is dulcified by the art of chymistry, 
which was not so by nature ; such as 
dulcified mercury, lead, and the like 
substances, which are speedily con- 
solidated. 



Calcina'tum ma'jus Pote'rii, 
Mercury dissolved in aqua fortis, and 
precipitated with salt water : used by 
Poterius in the cure of ulcers. 

Calcina'tum mi'nus. Any thing 
sweet by nature, and speedily cures, 
as sugar, manna, tamarinds, &c. 

Calcino'nia. See Calcena. 

Ca'lcis a'qua. See Calx. 

Ca'lcis vi'yi flo'res. The pelli- 
cle on lime-water. 

Ca'lcis os. See Calcancum* 

Calcita'ri. Alkaline salt. 

Calcitr'a. Vitriol. 

Calciteo'sa. Litharge. 
Verdigrise. 
See Ceutaurea cal- 



OFFICINA LIS. 



See 



Ca'lcitiios. 

Calcitra'pa. 
citrapa. 

Calcitra'pa 
Ceutaurea solstitialis. 

Calcitre'a. Vitriol. 

Calcoi'dea ossicula. The cunei- 
form bones. 

Ca'lcotar. Vitriol. 

Calculi'fragus. (From calculus, 
a stone, andfrangcrc, to break). Hav- 
ing the power of breaking calculi, or 
stones in the human body ; synony- 
mous with lithontriptic ; which see. 
Also a name sometimes applied to 
scolopendrium, or the pimpernel, 
from its supposed virtue. 

Ca'lculus, -/, m. (Diminutive of 
calx, a lime-stone). Calculus huma- 
nus. Ifczoar niicrocosmicum. Gravel. 
Stone. By gravel is understood small 
sand-like concretions, or stones, 
which pass from the kidneys through 
the ureters in a few days ; andby stoncy 
a calculous concretion in the kidneys, 
or bladder, of too large a size to pass, 
without great difficulty. Calculi also 
form in the ducts of the salivary 
glands, gall-bladder, and in the la- 
chrymal sac ; for an account of which, 
see Grae/e's New Journal (Journal 
fur die Chir. No. 1, Berlin, 1820). 

*** Women seem less subject to 
this complaint than men, either ow- 



ing 



to constitutional causes, or to 



the capaciousness, shortness, and 
straightness of their urethrae, allow- 
ing the calculi to be discharged when 
small, together with the urine. See 
Lithontriptics and Lithotomy. 
Ca'lculus, bilia'ris. SccGall 'stones.. 



CAL 



106 



CAL 



Calda'rium. (From Calere, to 
make hot) . A vessel in the baths of 
the ancients, to hold hot water. 

Calefa'cients. (From calidus, 
warm, and fa cere, to make.) Medi- 
cines, or other substances, belong- 
ing to the class of stimulants, which 
excite a degree of warmth in the parts 
to which they are applied : as pepper, 
spirits of wine, &c. 

Cale'ndula. (Quod singulis ca- 
lendis, i. e. ?ne?isibus, florescat ; so 
called, because it flowers every 
month). Marigold. — 1. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Synge?icsia ; Order, 
Polygamia necessaria. — 2. The phar- 
macopceial name of the single mari- 
gold. Garden marigold. Calendula 
saliva. Chrysant hemum. Sponsa solis. 
Caltha vulgaris. The flowers and 
leaves of this plant, Calendula offici- 
?talis ; semi/dbus cymbiformibus, mu- 
ricatis, incurvatis onmibus, of Lin- 
naeus, have been exhibited medici- 
nally : the former, as aperients in 
uterine obstructions and icteric dis- 
orders, and as diaphoretics in exan- 
thematous fevers ; the latter, as 
gentle aperients, and to promote 
the secretions in general. 

Calendula alpi'na. The Arnica 
montana of Linnaeus. See Arnica. 

CaleSduia arvf/nsis. The wild 
marigold. See Caltha. 

Cale'ndula officinalis. The 
systematic name of the single mari- 
gold plant. See Calendula. 

Cale'ndula palu'stris. Common 
single marsh-marigold. See Caltha 
palustris. 

Ca'lenture. A febrile delirium, 
said to be peculiar to sailors, where- 
in they imagine the sea to be a 
green field, and will throw them- 
selves into it if not prevented, Bo- 
netus gives an account of it ; also 
Doctors Oliver and Stubbs : probably 
a species of phrenitis. 

Cale'sium. (Ind.) A tree grow- 
ing in Malabar, whose bark, » made 
into an ointment with butter, is said 
to cure convulsions from wounds, 
and to heal ulcers. The juice of the 
bark cures the aphtha?, and, taken in- 
wardly, the dysentery. Ruy. 



Ca'li. (Arab.) The same as kali. 

Calicha'pa. The spina alba, or 
white thorn. 

Ca'lidum. In medical phraseology, 
it is commonly used with the adjec- 
tive animate, or innatum, for animal 
heat, or the vis vitae. 

Calie'ta. (From noKia, a nest, 
which it somewhat resembles). Cat- 
lie ttc. A fungus growing on the ju- 
niper-tree. 

Cali'go, -ginis, f. A disease of 
the eye, known by diminished or 
destroyed sight ; and by the inter- 
position of a dark body between 
the object and the retina. It stands 
in the Class Locales, and Order Dy- 
sesthesia*, of Cullen. Its species are 
distinguished according to the skua- 
tion of the interposed body : thus 
caligo lentis, caligo cornea?, caligo 
pupillcF, caligo humorum, and caligo 
palpebrarum. 

Cali'go le'ntis. Glaucoma JFoul- 
housi. The true cataract. See Ca- 
taract. 

Cali'go co'rne;e. Opacity of the 
cornea. See Caligo. 

Cali'go pupi'll.*:. Synchysis. A- 
myosis. Blindness from obstruction 
in the pupil. See Caligo. 

Cali'go humo'rum. Glaucoma Vo- 
gelii. Blindness from an error in 
the humours of the eye. See Caligo. 

Cali'go palpebrarum. Blindness 
from a disorder in the evelids. See 



Caligo. 

Caliha'ciia. The cassia-lignea, or 
cassia-tree of Malabar. 

Cali'mia. The lapis calaminaris. 

Ca'lix, -ids, m. (From aa\vn1io, 
to cover) . Caly.r. — A name given to 
the membrane which covers the pa- 
pilla in the pelvis of the human kid- 
ney. The name also of the case or 
sheath, in which the flower or plant 
is concealed before it expands. 

Call elm. (From koXKvvw, to 
adorn.) Callaon. The .<:iils of a 
cock, which, Galen says, is food not 
to be praised or condemned. 

Calle'na. A species of salt-petre. 

Ca'lli. Nodes in the gout. Galen, 

Ca'llia. (From xaXoc, beautiful). 
A name for the chamomile. 

Callible'phara. (From kciXoc, 



CAL 



107 



CAL 



good, and j3\£<papov, the eyelid). 
Medicines, or preparations appro- 
priated to the eye-lids. 

Callico'cca. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Pentandria; Order, Mono- 
gynia. 

Callico'cca ipecacua'nha. The 
plant from which ipecacuan root is 
obtained was long unknown ; it was 
said by some writers to be the Psy- 
chotria emetica : Class, Pentandria ; 
Order, Monogynia ; by others, the 
Viola ipecacuanha , a syngenesious 
plant of the order Monogynia. It is 
now ascertained to be neither, but a 
small plant called Callicocca ipecacu- 
anha. There are three sorts of ipe- 
cacuan to be met with in our shops, 
viz. the ash-coloured or grey, the 
brown, and the white. The ash- 
coloured is brought from Peru, the 
brown from Brazil, the ash-coloured 
or grey ipecacuan, is that usually 
preferred for medicinal use. The 
officinal preparations are the ptthii 
ipecacuanha' compositus, and the vi- 
nuni ipeccK unnhcr. 

Calli'creas. (From xaXoc, good, 
and xpeac, meat ; so named from its 
being handsomely jointed, like a 
cane). The polygonum, or knot- 
grass. 

Callioma'rchus. The Gaulish 
name, in jViarcellus Empiricus, for 
tussilago, or colt's-foot. 

Ca'llion. A species of night-shade. 

Calliphy'llum. Prom x«\\oc, 
beauty, and <pv\\ov, a leaf;. The 
herb adianthum, or maidenhair. See 
Adianthum. 

Callistrl'thia. (From xaXoc, 
good, and ^povOoc, a sparrow ; be- 
cause it was said to fatten sparrows) . 
A fig mentioned by Pliny, of a good 
taste. 

Callitri'cum. (From xaXkog, 
beauty, and 8pc£, hair ; so named, 
because it has the appearance of long, 
beautiful hair ; or, according to Lit- 
tleton, because it nourishes the hair, 
and makes it beautiful) . The herb 
maidenhair. 

Callo'ne. (From naXog, fair). 
That decency and gravity of charac- 
ter and deportment, with which it is 



necessary all medical men should be 
familiar. 

Callo'sitas, -tatis, f. Callosity, 
or preternatural hardness of any 
fleshy parts. 

Ca'llous. In surgery, hardened 
or indurated ; thus the callous edges 
of ulcers. 

Ca'llus, -i y m. and Galium, -i, n. 
A glutinous secretion from the mi- 
nute or extreme end of the arteries of 
bones. The ossific matter, new bone, 
or the substance serving to unite 
the end of a fracture for the resto- 
ration of destroyed portions of bone. 
See John Bell's Principles of Surgery , 
vol. i. p. 500, 501. — JFilsoiis Lec- 
tures on the Structure, Physiology, 
and Diseases of the Bone, &c. p. 197, 
8vo. Lond. 1820.— A. M' Donald de 
Necrosi, &c. Edinb. 171)9. — Sir A, 
Cooper on Dislocations and Fractures , 
&c. &c. 

('\loca'tanus. (From miXog, 
beautiful, and aalavov, a cup; so 
called from the beauty of its flower 
and shape.) The papaver rhceas, or 
wild poppy. 

Calo^ie'lan'os turoue'ti. Rive- 
rius calls by this name a purgative 
medicine, composed of calomel and 
scammony. 

Calo'melas, -anos, n. (From xa- 
Xoc, good, and [itXag, black ; from 
its virtues and colour, ^thiop's mi- 
neral, or hydrargyrus cum sulphure, 
was formerly and properly so named. 
But calomel now means a white pre- 
paration of sublimed mercury.) See 
Su b in ur /'as hy dj'a rgy r i . 

Calor'ic. (Caloricum, -i, n. from 
calor, heat.) Heat. Igneous fluid. 

*** Heat and cold are perceptions, 
the ideas of which are acquired from 
the senses ; they indicate only a cer- 
tain state in which we find ourselves, 
independent of any exterior object. 
But as these sensations, for the most 
part, are produced by bodies around 
us, we consider them as causes ; and 
judging by appearances, we apply the 
terms hot, or cold, to the substances 
themselves ; calling those bodies hot, 
which produce in us the sensation of 
heat, and those cold, which commu- 
nicate the contrary sensation. This 



CAL 



108 



CAM 



ambiguity, though of little conse- 
quence in the common affairs of hu- 
man life, has led unavoidably to con- 
fusion and perplexity in philosophi- 
cal discussions. It was to prevent 
this, that the framers of the new 
nomenclature adopted the word ca- 
loric , which denotes that which pro- 
duces the sensation of heat. 

Calorimeter. An instrument 
for ascertaining the whole quantity 
of absolute heat existing in a body 
in chymical union. Ray. 

Ca'ltha. (Ka\0a, corrupted from 
XaXxa, yellow, whence, Vossius 
says, come calthula, caldula, cale- 
dula, calendula) . Marsh marigold. — 
1 . The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Polyan- 
dria ; Order, Polygyria. — 2. The 
pharmacopceial name of the herb wild 
marigold, so called from its colour. 

Ca'ltha arve'nsis. Calendula ar- 
vensis. Caltha vulgaris. The wild 
marigold. Its juice is given, from 
one to four ounces, in jaundice and 
cachexia ; and the leaves are recom- 
mended as a salad for children afflict- 
ed with scrofulous humours. 

Ca'ltha palu'stris. Common 
single marsh marigold. The young 
buds of this plant make, when pro- 
perly pickled, very good substitutes 
for capers. 

Ca'ltha vulga'ris. See Caltka 
arvensis. 

Ca'lthula. The caltha is so called. 

Caltrops. See Trapa natans. 

Calu'mba. The name now adopt- 
ed by the London College of Phy- 
sicians for the columbo. Colombo. 
Calomba. Colomba. The root for- 
merly so called, is now termed C«- 
lumea? radix in the London phar- 
macopoeia. It is imported from Co- 
lomba, in Ceylon, in circular, brown 
knobs, wrinkled on their outer sur- 
face, yellowish within, and consist- 
ing of cortical, woody, and medul- 
lary laminae. Its smell is aromatic ; 
its taste pungent, and very bitter. 
The dose of the powdered root is as 
far as half a drachm, which, in ur- 
gent cases, may be repeated every 
third or fourth hour. 
Ca'lva. (From calvus, bald). The 



scalp or upper part of the cranium 
or top of the head ; so called, be- 
cause it often grows bald first. 

Calva'ria. (From calvus, bald). 
The upper part of the cranium 
which becomes soon bald. It means 
all above the orbits, temples, ears, 
and occipital eminence. 

Calvi'ties, -«", f. (From calvus, 
bald) . Calvitium. Baldness ; want or 
loss of hair, particularly upon the 
sinciput. 

Calx, -m, f. (From kalah, to burn. 
Arab.) Chalk. Limestone. Quick-lime. 

Ca'lcis li'quor. Solution of lime, 
formerly called aqua calcis. It is 
given internally, in doses of two 
ounces and upwards, in cardialgia, 
spasms, diarrhoea, &c. and in pro- 
portionate doses in convulsions of 
children, arising from acidity, or ul- 
cerated " intestines, intermittent fe- 
vers, &c. Externally, it is applied 
to burns and ulcers, &c. 

Ca'lcis mu'rias. Calx snlita. Sal 
ammoniacus fixus. Muriate of lime. 
This preparation is exhibited with 
the same views as the muriate of 
barytes. It possesses deobstruent, 
diuretic, and cathartic virtues, and 
was much used by the celebrated 
Fourcroy against scrofula, and other 
analogous diseases. Six, twelve, and 
twenty grains, are given to children 
three times a day; and a drachm 
to adults. 

Ca'lcis muria'tis li'quor. Solu- 
tion of the'muriate of lime. 

Calx antimonh. See Antimonium 
oxydum. 

Calx cum ka'li pu'ro. Now 
termed, in the L. P. potassa cum 
calce. Potash with lime. 

Calx hydra'rgyri a'lba. See 
Hydrargyrum pr&cipitatum album. 

Calx viva. See Calx. 

Caly'pter. (From tcctkv 7rro>, to 
hide). A carneous excrescence co- 
vering the hemorrhoidal vein. 

Ca'mara. (From Kajxapa, a vault) . 
Camarium. The fornix of the brain : 
also the vaulted part of the auricle 
of the heart. 

Cama'rium. (From Kafiapa, a 
vault). See Camara. 

Camaro'ma. (From na/japa, a 



CAM 



109 



CAM 



vault). Camarosis. Camaratio. A 
fracture of the skull, in the shape of 
an arch or vault. 

Ca'mbing. A tree growing in the 
Molucca Islands, whose bark has 
been recommended in dysenteries. 

Cam b i re a. The venereal bubo is 
thus called by Paracelsus. 

Ca'mbium. (From cambi, -re, to 
exchange) . That nutritious humour 
which is assimilated into the matter 
of which the body is composed. 

Cambo'eha. See Stalagmitis, 

Cambo'gia, cb, f. (From the pro- 
vince of Cambaya, in the East In- 
dies ; called also Cambodja and Cam- 
bogia; hence it has obtained its 
names of Cambodia, Cambogium, 
Gambogia, Gambogium) . See Sta- 
lagmitis. 

Cambo'gia gu'tta. See Stalag- 
mites. 

Cambo'gium. (From the province 
ofCambogia, whence it was brought). 
See Stalagmitis. 

Cambro-brita'nnica. See Rubus 
Chamamorus, 

Cambu'ca. Cambuta membrata. 
The venereal cancer. Paracel. — By 
some it is described as a bubo, an 
ulcer, an abscess on the pudenda ; 
also a boil in the groin. 

Ca'mbui. The wild American 
myrtle of Piso and Margrave, which 
is said to be astringent. 

Camel's hay. See Andropogon Scha?- 
nanthus. 

Ca'mera, velcamara, -&, f. Cham- 
ber or cavity. The chambers of the 
eye are termed camera?. 

Camera'tjo. See Camaroma. 

Ca'mes. Camet. Silver. 

Cami'nga. See Canella alba. 

Ca'minus. A furnace and its chim- 
ney. In Rulandus it signifies a bell. 

Cami'sia fce'tus. (From the Ara- 
bic term kamisah, an under gar- 
ment.) The shirt of the foetus. It 
is frequently used for the chorion. 

Ca'jnomile. See Anthemis nobilis. 

Camomile, stinking. See Anthe- 
mis cotula. 

Camomi'lla. Corrupted from cha- 
maemelum. 

Ca'mmorum. (xapjjiopov, quia ho- 
mines, Ka*t{> iLOpoi,i)irimat ; because 



if eaten, it brings men to a miserable 
end) . A species of monkshood. See 
Aconitum. 

Campa'na, -«-, f. A bell. — Chym. A 
receptacle like a bell, for making sul- 
phuric acid ; e. g. the oleum sulphuris 
per campanam. 

Campanula. (From campana, 
a bell, named from its shape) . The 
bell-flower. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in theLinnsean system : 
Class, Pentandria ; Order, Mono- 
gynia. 

Ca'mpe. (Fromxa^7rrw, to bend). 
A flexure or bending. It is also used 
for the ham, and a joint, or articu- 
lation. 

Campea'chy wood. See H&matoxy- 
Ion Campechianum. 

Campeche'nse li'gnum. See Ha?- 
matoxylon Campechianum. 

Ca'mphor. Ca'mphire* See Laurus 
camphor a. 

Ca'mphor* , -a>, f. 1. (Camphura, 
Arab. The ancients meant, by cam- 
phor, what now is called asphaltum, 
or Jews' pitch; na<povpa.) See 
Laurus camphora. 

Ca'mpiiorjE flo'res. The subtile 
substance which first ascends in sub- 
liming camphor, which is nothing 
more than the camphor. 

Ca'mphorje flo'res compo'siti. 
Compound flowers of camphor. 
Camphor sublimed with benzoin. 

Ca'mphor as. A salt formed by 
the union of the camphoric acid with 
different bases : thus camphorate of 
alumina, camphorate of ammonia, &c. 

Camphora'sma. (From camphora; 
so called from its camphor-like 
smell.) Turkey balsam. See Dra- 
cocephalum . 

Camphora'ta. See Camphor osma. 

Camphora'tuih o'leum. Cam- 
phorated oil. A mixture of olive 
oil, two parts, with one of cam- 
phor : of use in inflammatory swel- 
lings of the throat, if mixed with a 
proper cataplasm and applied to it. 
Supposed to be useful in ascites. 

Campho'ric acid. Acidum cam- 
phor icum. The union of this acid 
with different bases forms what are 
called camphorates, none of which 
have hitherto been used medicinally* 

L 



110 



Camphoro'sma. (From camphor a, 
and 0G-f.it], smell ; so called from its 
smelling of camphire). The cam- 
phor-smelling plant. — 1. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Tetrandria; Order, 
Monogynia. — 2. The pharmacopoeia! 
name of the camphorata. See Cam- 
phorosma Monspeliensis. 

Camphoro'sma Monspeliensis. 
The systematic name of the plant 
called camphorata in the pharmaco- 
poeias. It is rarely, if ever, used in 
modern practice. 

Ca'mpter. (From aajiirlio, to 
bend) . Inflection or incurvation. 

Ca'mpulum. (From jcap7rru), to 
twist about) . Distortion of the eye- 
lids or other parts. 

Campylo'tis. (From aapTvXog, 
bent.) Preternatural incurvation, or 
recurvation of a part ; also distor- 
tion of the eye -lids. 

Ca'mpylum. See Campylotis. 
Ca'nabil. A kind of medicinal 
earth. 

Canabi'na aoua'tica. See Bidens. 
Ca'nabis I'ndica. See Bangue 
and Cannabis. 

Ca'nabis peregri'na. See Can- 
nabis. 

Canada balsam. See Pinits bal- 
samea. 

Canadensis. (From Canada.) The 
name of a balsam. See Pinus bal- 
sam ea. 

Cana'les semicircula'res. Se- 
micircular canals. Three in each 
ear placed in the posterior part of 
the labyrinth, opening by five orifices 
into the vestibulum. See Ear. 

Canaliculus. (Dim. of ca?ialis 9 
a channel) . A little canal. Sec Ca- 
va/ is arteriosus. 

Cana'lis, -is, d. g. 3. (From 
Xavoc, an aperture, or rather from 
canna, a reed) . A canal. A hollow 
round instrument like a reed, for 
embracing and holding a broken 
limb. The hollow of the spine. It 
is also specifically applied to many 
parts of the body; as canalisvenosus. 
Cana'lis arteriosus. Canaliculus 
arteriosus. Canalis Botalii. Ablood- 
\ csscl peculiar to the foetus, disap- 
pearing after birth. 



Cana'lis nasa'lis. A canal go- 
ing from the inner canthus of the 
eye downwards into the nose : it is 
situated in the superior maxillary 
bone, and is lined with the pituitary 
membrane continued from the nose. 

Cana'lis petitia'nus. Named af- 
ter its discoverer, M. Petit. A tri- 
angular cavity, naturally containing 
a moisture, between the two laminae 
of the hyaloid membrane of the eye, 
in the anterior part, formed by the 
separation of the anterior lamina 
from the posterior. 

Cana'lis semispetros. The half 
bony canal of the ear. 

Cana'lis veno'sus. A canal pe- 
culiar to the foetus, disappearing af- 
ter birth, that conveys the maternal 
blood from the porta of the liver to 
the ascending vena cava. 

Cana'ry balm. See Dracocephalum. 

Ca'ncamum Grsco'rum. See 
Hymena?a CourbariL 

Cance'lli, -orum, pi. m.2. (From 
cancellare, to make like a lattice) . 
Lattice-work ; generally applied to 
the reticular substance in bones. 

Cance'llus. (From cancer, a crab) . 
The wrong heir. Bernard the her- 
mit. A species of cray-fish, sup- 
posed to cure rheumatism, if rubbed 
on the part. 

Ca'ncer, -cri et eris, m. (From 
napxivog, a crab ; so called by the 
ancients, because it exhibited large 
blue veins like crab's claws). — l.The 
name of a crab fish, from which the 
chela? cancrorum , and oculi cancrormn , 
or lapides cancrorum are produced. 
The shell fish so called is the Cancer 
astacus of Linnaeus : the officinal pre- 
parations are nevertheless obtained 
also from the cancer gammurus, ma- 
cur us, and pagurus of Linnaeus. 

* # * Crab's claws and crab's eyes, 
as they are called, which are concre- 
tions found in the stomach, are of a 
calcareous quality, and possess an- 
tacid virtues. They are exhibited with 
their compounds in pyrosis, diarr- 
hoea, and infantile convulsions from 
acidity. — 2. The name of a disease 
likewise called Carcinoma, xapnivog 
by the Greeks, Lupus by the Romans, 
because it eats away the flesh like a 



CAN 



111 



CAN 



welf. Dr. Cullen places this genus 
of disease in the Class Locales, and 
Order Tumores, He defines it a pain- 
ful schirrous tumour, terminating in 
a fatal ulcer. Any part of the body 
may be the seat of cancer, though 
the glands are most subject to it. It 
is distinguished according to its 
stages, into occult and open; by the 
former is meant its schirrous state, 
which is a hard tumour that some- 
times remains in a quiet state for 
many years , &c. See Pearson 's Prin - 
ciples of Surgery, §331,348. — Abcr- 
uethy's Surgical Works, vol. ii. p. 69, 
e t seq. — Home's Observations on Can- 
cer, p. 156, 8vo. Lond. 1805. — 
Practical Explanation of Cancer in 
the Breast, by J. Redman, 8vo. 
1815. — Denmans Observations on 
the Cure of Cancer, 8vo. Lond. 
1810, &c. 

Ca'ncer a'staci^. The syste- 
matic name of the fish from which 
the crab's claws are obtained. See 
Cancer. 

Ca'ncer mundito'rlm. Chimney 
sweeper's cancer. See Scrotum. 

Ca'n'CHRYS. Cachrys. Libanotis. 
Galen says it sometimes means 
parched barley. 

Cancrf/na. Used instead ofgan- 
graena, by Paracelsus. 

Cancko'rum che'lje. Crab's 
daws. See Carbonas calcis, and 
Cancer. 

Cancro'rum o'cuu. See Carbo- 
)<as calcis, and Cancer. 

Ca'ncrlm o'ris. (From cancer, a 
>preading ulcer.) Canker of the 
mouth ; called also aphthae serpen- 
tes, gangraenaoris, &c. See Aphtha*. 

Cande'la, -ce, f. (From candere, 
to shine). A candle. 

Cande'la fuma'lls. A candle made 
of odoriferous powders and resinous 
matters to purify the air and excite 
the spirits. 

Cande'la re'gia. See Verbascum. 

Candela'ria. (From candela, a 
'andle, so called from the resem- 
blance of its stalks to a candle). 
The herb mullein. See Verbascum. 

Candy, carrot. See Athamanta 
(.'retensis. 

Cane'la. Sometimes used by the 



ancients for cinnamon, or rather 
cassia. 

Cane'lla. (Canella, dim. of canna, 
a reed ; so named, because the pieces 
of bark are rolled up in the form ol 
a reed). A genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Dodccan- 
dria; Order, Monogynia. The ca- 
nella-tree. 

Cane'lla a'lba. The pharmaco- 
poeial name of the laurel-leaved ca- 
nella. Cortex Winter anus spur ins. 
Canella Cubana. TVinterania Canella 
of Linnaeus. The tree which pro- 
duces the bark so called, is a native 
of the West Indies. It is now merely 
considered as a useful and cheap aro- 
matic, and is chiefly employed in 
correcting, and rendering less dis- 
agreeable, the more powerful and 
nauseous druL r <. 

Ca'nella Cuba'na. See Canella 
alba. 

Ca'nella cil'rdo. The true cin- 
namon-tree. 

Cane'll.e Malaba'ricje co'rtex. 
See Laurus cassia. 

Caneon. (From xavvrj, becai. 
it was made of split cane. J A kind 
of tube or instrument for conveying 
the fumes of antihysteric drugs into 
the womb. H/j/p. 

Ca'mca. A spice used in the 
island of Cuba. 

Ca'niCJC. (From canis, a dog.) 
Coarse meal, was so called by the 
ancients, from cam's, a dog, because 
it was food for dogs. Hence panis 
caniceus, very coarse bread. 

Camci'da. (From canis, a dog, 
and c&dere, to kill ; so called, be- 
cause dogs are destroyed by eating 
it). The herb dog's bane, or aco- 
nitum. See Aconitum. 

Canici'dium. From canis, a dog, 
and candere, to kill). The anatomi- 
cal dissection of living dogs. 

Cani'na bra'ssica. The mercuria- 
lis sylvestris of Linnaeus. 

Cani'na l'ingua. The cyno^Ios- 
sum. 

Cani'na ma'lus. The mandragora. 

Cani'na ra'bies. See Hydrophobia. 

Canine. Whatever partakes of, or 
has any relation to the nature of a 
dog. 
L 2 



CAN 



112 



CAN 



Canine appetite. See Bulimia, 
Canine madness. See Hydrophobia, 

Canine teeth. Dentes canini. 
Cuspidati of Mr. John Hunter; from 
the two sides of their edge being 
sloped off to a point, which is very 
sharp or cuspidated. Columellares 
of Varro and Pliny. The four eye- 
teeth are so called from their re- 
semblance to those of the dog. They 
are situated, two in each jaw, on 
the side of the four middle or inci- 
sor teeth. Their fangs are longer 
than those of the incisores, and 
therefore from the fangs of those in 
the upper jaw being supposed to 
extend the greatest part of the way 
to the eye, they have been called the 
eye-teeth. 

Cani'nus. The name of a muscle, 
from its originating near the canine, 
or eye-tooth. See Levator anguli 
oris. 

Cani'nus se'ntis. (From canis, a 
dog, and sentis, a thorn ; from its 
being prickly like a thorn). See 
Rosa canina. 

Cani'ram. (Ind.) See Strychnos 
nux vomica, 

Canihu'bus. (From canis, andrw- 
bus, a bramble) . See Rosa canina, 

Ca'nis,-^, c g. A dog. The white 
dung of this animal, called album 
gra?cum, was formerly in esteem, 
but now disused. This term was also 
applied to the fraenum of the penis. 

Ca'nis interfe'ctor. Indian caus- 
tic barley, or cevadilla. 

Ca'nis" po'nticus. See Castor. 

Ca'nna. (Heb.) A reed or hollow 
cane. A name of the fibula, from 
its resemblance to a reed. 

Ca'nna fistula. See Cassia fis- 
tula. 

Ca'nna I'ndica. The Sagittaria 
alexipharmica. 

Ca'nna ma'jor. The tibia. 

Ca'nna mi'nor cru'kis. A name 
formerly applied to the fibula. 

Cann abi'na. (From canna, a reed ; 
named from its reed-like stalk) . The 
Datisca of Tournefort. 

Ca'nnabis. (From navva, a reed. 
KavvaGoi are foul springs, wherein 
hemp, &c. grow naturally; or from 
kanaba, from hanah, to mow. Arab.) 



Hemp. — 1. A genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system: Class, Dioecia; 
Order, Pentandria. — 2. The phar- 
macopceial name of the hemp plant, 

Ca'nnabis sati'va. The systematic 
name of the hemp plant. The efflu- 
via from the fresh herb are said to 
affect the eyes and head, and that 
the water in which it has been long 
steeped, is a sudden poison. Hemp- 
seeds, when fresh, afford a consi- 
derable quantity of oil. Decoctions 
and emulsions of them have been 
recommended against coughs, ardor 
urinae, &c. Their use, in general, 
depends on their emollient and de- 
mulcent qualities. The leaves of an 
oriental hemp, called bang or bangue, 
and by the Egyptians assis, are said 
to be used in Eastern countries as 
a narcotic and aphrodisiac. See 
Bangue. 

Canna'corus radi'ce cro'cea. See 
Curcuma. 

Ca'nnula. (Dim. of canna, a 
reed) . A surgical instrument. See 
Canula. 

Ca'non. (Kaviov) . A rule or ca- 
non, by which medicines are com- 
pounded. 

Cano'nial. (YLavoviai). Hippo- 
crates, in his book De A'ere, &c. 
calls those persons by this name, 
who have straight, and not promi- 
nent bellies ; intimating that they are 
disposed, as it were, by a straight 
rule. 

Cano'picon. (From Kavo)7rov, the 
flower of the elder). A sort of 
spurge, named from its resemblance ; 
also a collyrium, of which the chief 
ingredient was elder flowers. 

Canopi'te. The name of a col- 
lyrium. Celsus. 

Cano'pum. (Kavco7rov) .The flower 
or bark of the elder-tree. Paulas 
JEgineta. 

Canta'brica. See Convolvulus. 

Canta'brum. (From kanta, Heb.) 
In Ceelius Aurelianus it signifies bran 
or furfur. 

Ca'ntacon. Garden saffron. 

Ca'ntara. The plant which bears 
the St. [gn&tius's bean. 

Ca'nthari figuli'ni. Earthen cu- 
curbits. 



CAP 



113 



CAP 



Ca'ntharis. (Vantharis, pi. can- 
iharides; from KavOapig, a beetle, 
to whose tribe it belongs). See 
l^jtta. 

Ca'ntfus. (KavOoe, the iron bind- 
ing of a cart-wheel). The angle or 
corner of the eye, where the upper 
and under eyelids meet. That near- 
est the nose is termed the inner, or 
greater canthus, and the other, the 
outer, or lesser canthus. 

Ca'ntion. An epithet for sugar. 
Cantlarie'nsis a'oua. Canter- 
bury water. It is strongly impreg- 
nated with iron, sulphur, and carbo- 
nic acid gas, and recommended in 
disorders of the stomach, in gouty 
complaints, jaundice, diseases of the 
skin, and chlorosis. 

Ca'nula. (Dim. of canna, a reed). 
A small tube, generally adapted to 
harp instrument, with which it is 
thrust into a cavity or tumour con- 
taining a fluid ; the perforation be- 
iriL r made, the sharp instrument i> 
withdrawn, and the canula left, in 
order that the fluid may pass through 
it ; e. g. the trocar, &c. 
Canusa. Crystal. 
Caoutchoi '( . See Indian rubber, 
(apaiva balsam. See Copaifcra 
officinalis. 

CAPELl'NA. (From capeline, Fr. a 
woman's hat, or bandage). A 
double-headed roller put round the 
head. 

Cape'lla. Chi/m. A cupel or test. 
Caper-bush. See Capparis. 
Ca'petus. (Ka-mloc, per aphaere- 
sin, pro Gx,n.7rt1oQ ; from aHCLiflo), to 
dig). A foramen, which is impervi- 
ous, and needs the use of a chirur- 
gical instrument to make an open- 
ing ; as the anus of some new-born 
infants. Hipp. 

( a'phora. (Arab.) Camphire. 
Ca'piiura ba'ros indo'rim. A 
name for camphire. 

CVphur* o'leum. An aromatic 
•ntial oil, distilled from the root 
of the cinnamon-tree. 

Capilla'res vermi'culi. See Cri- 
nones and Dracunculus. 

Capi'llary. (Capillaris: from ca- 
pillus, a little hair ; so called, from 
the resemblance to hair or tine 



thread). The minute ramifications 
of arteries, terminating upon the 
external surface of the body, or on 
the surface of internal cavities, are 
called capillary. 

Capilla'tio. (From capillus, a 
hair). A capillary fracture of the 
cranium. 

Capi'llus, -*, m. The hair. Small, 
cylindrical, transparent, insensible, 
and elastic filaments, arising from 
the skin, fastened in it by means of 
small roots. 

*^* The human hair is composed 
of a spongy, cellular texture, con- 
taining a coloured liquid, and a pro- 
per covering. Hair is divided into 
two kinds : long, which arises on the 
scalp, cheek, chin, breasts of men, 
the anterior parts of the arms and 
legs, the arm-pits, groins, and pel- 
vis ; and short, which is softer than 
the long, and is present over the 
whole body, except only the palm of 
the hand and sole of the foot. The 
hair originates in the adipose mem- 
brane, from an oblong membranous 
bulb, which has vessels peculiar to 
it. It is distinguished by different 
names, in certain parts, as capillus y 
on the top of the head ; crfnis, on 
the back of the head ; circri?inus, on 
the temples ; cilium, on the eyelids ; 
super ciliuni, on the eyebrows; vi- 
brissa, in the nostrils ; barba, on the 
chin ; pappus, on the middle of the 
chin ; mystax, on the upper lip ; 
pilits, on the body. 

Capi'llus ye'neris. See Adian- 
tfunn. 

Capi'llus ve'neris Canadensis. 

The Adianthum Canadense. 

Capiple'mum. (From caput, the 
head, and plenus, full.) A catarrh. 
Used by Baglivi, to signify that con- 
tinual heaviness or disorder in the 
head, which the Greeks call careba- 
ria, Kantj€apia. 

Capistra'tio. (From capistmm, a 
bridle ; so called, because the pre- 
puce is restrained, as it were, with a 
bridle). See Phimosis. 

Capi'strum. (From caput, the 
head). A bandage for the head is 
so called. In Vogel's Nos. it is the 
same as Trismus. 
L 3 



CAP 



114 



CAP 



Ca'pital. Chym. The head or up- 
per part of an alembic. 

Capita'lia. (From caput, the head . 
Cephalics, or medicines which relieve 
affections of the head. 

Capite'llum. The head or seed 
vessels, frequently applied to mos- 
ses, 6ic. Others say it signifies soapy 
water, or a lixivium. 

Capitilu'vilm. (From caput, the 
head, and lavare, to wash) . A lotion 
or bath for the head. 

Capitis obliquus inferior et major. 
See Obliquus inferior capitis. 

Capitis par tertium Fallopii. See 
Trackelo-m astoideus . 

Capitis posticus. See Rectus ca- 
pitis posticus major. 

Capitis rectus. See Rectus capitis 
vosticus minor. 

Capi'tulum. (Dim. of caput, the 
head). A small head or protube- 
rance of a bone, received into the 
concavity of another bone. — Chym. 
An alembic. 

Capi'yi. (Ind. A tree of Brazil, 
which affords the drug called balsam 
of capivi. See Copal/era officinalis. 

Capnele'im. (From ko.t:voc, 
smoke, and eXaioi', oil ; so called, 
from its smokv exhalations when 
exposed to heat; . By Galen it is said 
to be a resin. 

Ca'pmas. 'From kclttvoc, a smoke). 
A jasper of a smoky colour. Also, 
a kind of vine bearing white and part 

ick grapes. 

Capni'ston. 'Froma:T7ri'oc,smok 
A preparation of spices and oil, by 
kindlimr the spices, and fumigating 
the oil. 

Capm'tis. (From y.-trrvog, smoke; 
so called, from its smoky colour^ . 
Tatty. 

Capnoi'des. (From xam-oc, fu- 

tory, and uiog, likeness . A kind 
l r fumitory. 

Ca'pnos. Ka-ri'og. Fumitory ; so 

called, says Blanchard, because its 

■e. if applied to the eyes, produces 

the same effect and sensations as 

smoke. 

Ca'pq mola'go. The Piper Indicum. 

Ca'ppa. fd rnp'te, from the head ; 
fo called from its Supposed resem- 
blance) . The herb monkshood, 



Ca'pparis. (From cabar, Arao. ; 
or vraQa to xainrartiv aoav, from 
its curing madness and melancholv 
The caper plant. — 1. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnsean sys- 
tem : Class, Pol yandria; Order, Mo- 
nogi/nia — 2. The pharmacopoeia! 
name of the caper plant. 

Ca'pparis spinoVx. The systema- 
tic name of the caper plant. Cappa- 
ris; pedunculis solitariis unifloris, sti~ 
pulis spinosis, foliis annuls, capsulis 
ovalibus, of Linnaeus. The buds of 
this plant are in common use as a 
pickle, and are said to possess anti- 
scorbutic virtues. The bark of the 
root was formerlv in hisrh esteem as 
a deobstruent. 

Cafreola'ris. (From capreolus, a 
tendril) . Capreolatus. Resembling in 
its contortions, or other appearance, 
the tendrils of a vine ; as the sper- 
matic vessels. 

C a pre o la' res. See Capreolaris. 

Capre'otas. Dim. of caprea, a 
tendril) . The helix or circle of the 
ear, from its tendril-like contortion. 

C apr i co'rn us. Lead. 

Caprifi'cus. [From caper, a goat, 
and fiats, a fig ; because they are a 
chief food of goats) . The wild fig-tree. 

Caprifolilm, i, n. Honey-suckle. 
Woodbine. Aperient, &c. 

Capri'zan*s. Used by Galen and 
others, to express an inequality in 
the pulse, when it leaps, and, as it 
were, dances in uncertain strokes 
and periods. 

C apse'lla. Dim. of capsn, a chest, 
from its rememblance) . A name in 
Marcellus Empiricus for viper's bug- 
loss. 

Ca'pSICUM. (From nairao, to bite, 
on account of its effect on the mouth . 
— 1 . The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, 1 
tandria; Order, Monogynia. Guinea 
pepper. — 2. The pharmacopceial name 
of the capsicum. 

Ca'psICI m a'nm i m. The systema- 
tic name of the plant from which are 
obtain Cayenne pepper. Piper In- 
dicum. Lada chilli. Capo molago. 
Solanum wrens, Siliquastrum Plinii. 
Piper Bra z Hi an urn . Piper Guineense. 
Piper Calccuticum. Piper Ilixpani- 



CAP 



11 



CAR 



turn. Piper Lusitanicum. Cayenne 
pepper. Guinea pepper. This spe- 
cies of pepper is obtained from the 
Capsicum; cavle herbaceo, pedunculis 
■solitariis, of Linnaeus. 

Ca'psula. 'Dim. of caps a, a chest 
or case . Anat. — Any membranous 
production enclosing a part of the 
body like a bag-; as the capsular 
ligaments, the capsule of the crys- 
talline lens, <Scc. 

Ca'pm.l.e atrabila'ri.t. See Re- 
nal Glands. 

CA'fSULU re'nale*. See Renal 
Glands. 

Ca'pSLLAR Li'GAMENT. Capsular!, , 
from capsa, a bair / . lAgvmaUum 
capsular, ■■, The ligament surround- 
ing every moveable articulation, and 
containing the synovia like a bag. 

Ga'fsule of Gli'sson. (Cm§ 
communis Glissonii. Vagina p-jrtce. 
Vagina Glissoniij . A strong tunic, 
formed of cellular texture, accompa- 
nying the vena portae, and its most 
minute ramifications, throughout the 
liver. 

Ca'pim m 'From an/' -' . to bend . 
Contortion of the eye-lids, or other 
parts. 

( Vpur. 'Arab.) Camphor. 

Ca'itt, -itU, n. Pram <apere, 
to take ; because, according to Yarro, 
the senses take their origin from it . 
The head, cranium, or skull. It i^ 
distinguished into skull and face. On 
the skull are observed vertex, • or 
crown; sinciput, or fore part; m - 
put, or hinder part; and tempera, or 
temples. The parts of the face are 
well known ; as the forehead, nose, 
1, 6cc. 

CVput GAULnfA'GINIS. The head 
of the woodcock. VerwmamtmMwm, 
A cutaneous eminence in the ure- 
thra of men, before the neck of 
the bladder, somewhat like the 
head of a woodcock in miniature, 
around which the seminal ducts, and 
the ducts of the prostate glaud, open. 

Ca'plt mo'rtitm. An arbitrary 
term, much used by the old chy- 
mists, but now entirely rejected. It 
denoted the fixed residue of opera- 
tions, &c. 

Ca'plt obsti'pim. The wry 



neck. Mostly a spasmodic com- 
plaint. 

Ca'plt pu'rgia. (From caput, the 
head, and pmrgart , to pur^re^ . Me- 
dicines which purs-e the head. Err- 
hines. Cephalics. Masticatories. 

Capvri'dio.v. From xa—iooc, 
burnt . Capyrion. A medicated cake, 
much baked. 

Capv'rion. See Capyridion. 

Ca'rabe. {Persian . Amber. 

Ca'rabe fl'nerum. A name of 
bitumen. 

Ca'rabus. A genus of inse 
of the beetle kind. Two species, 
the chrysocephalus and ferrugineus, 
have been recommended for v 
tooth-ache. They should be pressed 
between the fingers, and then rubbed 
on the gum and tooth affected. 

Caraco'»mo>. A name of the sour 
mares' milk, so much admired by 
the Tart;. 

Caragla'ta. The common aloe 
of Brazil. 

< u:a'n\a. Spanish] . Caragna, 
Carani .mi. Bresilis. A con- 

crete resinous juice, that exu 
from a large tree, of which we have 
no particular account, brought from 

. Spain and America, and formerly 
employed as an ingredient in vulne- 
rary* balsam-, strengthening, discu- 
tient, and suppurating plasters. Its 
scarcitv ha- caused it to be fonrot; 

Ca'ra SCBT/lu. Ind. FrutCS In- 
die a spinosa. An Indian shrub, like 
the caper-bush. A decoction of I 
root proves diuretic. Ray* 

Caraway-seed. See Carum. 

Ca'rbasus. Kao^adoc . Seribo- 

— 

nius Largus uses this word for lint. 

Ca'rbo, -on is, f. (Charbah, Heb. 
burnt or dried . Coal. In medi- 
cine and chvmistrv, it is commonly 
understood to mean charcoal, a:. 1 
receives its name from its mode cf 
preparation, which is by burni 
pieces of light wood into a dry black 
coal. 

Ca'rbo li'gm. Charcoal. As an 
external application, powdered char- 
coal has been recommended in the 
cure of jrransrene, from external 
causes, and all descriptions of feci 
ulcers. Meat which ha^ acquired u 



CAR 



116 



CAR 



mawkish, or even putrid smell, is 
found to be rendered perfectly sweet, 
by rubbing it with powdered char- 
coal. It is also used as tooth-powder. 

Ca'rbon. (From carbo, coal) . The 
chymical name of charcoal. It is 
the black residue of vegetables which 
Jiave suffered a complete decompo- 
sition of their volatile principles by 
fire. Charcoal is black, brittle, so- 
norous, and light. It is placed 
among simple bodies, because no 
experiment has hitherto shown the 
possibility of decomposing it. It 
exists in the animal, vegetable, and 
mineral kingdom. When it is re- 
quired to procure carbon in a state 
of great purity, it must be dried by 
strong ignition in a closed vessel. 
The diamond, when burnt in oxy- 
gen ga3, forms carbonic acid, like 
charcoal, and is therefore con- 
sidered to be of the same chvmical 
nature. 

Ca'rbon, ga'seous o'xyde of. Ga- 
seous oxyde of carbon was first de- 
scribed by Dr. Priestley, who mis- 
took it for a hydrocarbonate. With 
the true nature of it, we have been 
only lately acquainted. It was first 
proved to be a peculiar gas, by Mr. 
Cruikshank, of Woolwich, who 
made it known as such, in April 
1801, through the medium of Ni- 
cholson's Journal for that month. 
Several additional properties of this 
gas were soon afterwards noticed by 
Desormes, Clement, and others. 

Properties. Gaseous oxyde of car- 
bon is lighter than common air, in the 
proportion of 22 to 23. When min- 
gled with common air, and ignited, 
it does not explode, but burns with 
a lambent blue flame, and the pro- 
duct is carbonic acid. It is very 
little absorbable by water : it is void 
of taste and odour. A mixture of 
twenty parts of gaseous oxyde of 
carbon and eight of oxygen gas, 
fired over mercury by electricity, 
diminishes to a volume equal to 
about eighteen or nineteen parts, 
which is carbonic acid gas. It con- 
tains neither water nor the basis of 
that fluid. It is exceedingly noxious ; 
animals die in it instantly ; when 



breathed for a few minutes only, it 
produces giddiness and faintings. 
Neither light, heat, nor electricity, 
have any effect upon it. When equal 
quantities of gaseous oxyde of car- 
bon and hydrogen gas are passed 
through a red-hot glass tube, the tube 
is lined with charcoal, water is formed , 
and an excess of hydrogen makes its 
escape. If a piece of iron be put 
into the tube, it is oxydated, but not 
converted into steel. Neither nitro- 
gen gas nor sulphur have any action 
on it, even at high temperatures. It 
is capable of dissolving a minute 
quantity of charcoal, and increases 
in bulk. It dissolves phosphorus, 
and acquires the property of burning 
with a yellow flame. The alkalies 
have no effect on this gas. It is not 
altered when passed with ammonia 
through an ignited tube. When the 
red oxyde of mercury is heated in it, 
a commencement of reduction takes 
place. Neither sulphuric, nitric, nor 
nitro-muriatic acids, alter it, when 
passed with it through a red-hot 
tube. Four parts of oxygenated mu- 
riatic acid gas left with one of gase- 
ous oxyde of carbon, decompose it 
completely. Nitrous gas has no 
effect upon it. When mixed with 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and 
passed through a red-hot tube, sul- 
phur is deposited, and sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas remains mixed with 
gaseous oxyde of carbon. See Ure's 
Diet, of Chym. 

Carbonaeeous acid. See Carbonic 
acid. 

Carbo'nas. A carbonate. A neu- 
tral salt, formed by the union of 
carbonic acid with an alkaline, 
earthy, or metallic base. The car- 
bonates employed in medicine are — 
1. The potassae carbonas. — 2. The 
sodae carbonas. — 3. The creta prae- 
parata, and the testae pra?paratae, 
which arc varieties of carbonate of 
lime. — When the base is imperfectly 
neutralized by the carbonic acid, the 
salt is termed a subcarbonate ; of 
which kind are employed medici- 
nally — 1. The potassae subcarbonas. 
— 2. The sodac subcarbonas, and the 
sodae subcarbonas exaiccata. — 3. The 



CAR 



117 



CAR 



ammoniae subcarbonas, and the liquor 
ammoniae subcarbonatis. — 4. The 
plumbi subcarbonas. — 5. The ferri 
subcarbonas. — 6. The magnesia? car- 
bonas. 

Carbo'nas AMMO'niJE. See Am- 
moniae subcarbonas. 

Carbo'nas ca'lcis. Carbonate of 
lime. Several varieties of this are 
used in medicine : the purest and 
best are the creta praeparata, testae 
preparatae, chelae cancrorum, testae 
ovorum, and oculi cancrorum. 

Carbo'nas fe'rri. See Ferri sub- 
carbonas. 

Carbo'nas MAGNE'siiE. See Mag- 
nesia* carbonas. 

Carbo'nas plumbi. See Plumbi 
subcarbonas. 

Carbo'nas potass je. See Potassa? 
carbonas. 

Carbo'nas so'd^e. Sec Soda car- 
bonas. 

Carbonated hydrogen gas. See 
Carburet ted hydrogen gas. 

Ca'rbonic acid gas. Acidum car- 
bonicum. Fixed air. Carbonaceous 
acid. Calcareous ackl. Aerial acid. 
Carbonic acid gas is the first elas- 
tic aeriform fluid that was known 
after common air. We find that 
the ancients were in some mea- 
sure acquainted with it. Van Hel- 
mont called it the gas of must, or 
of the vintage, or gas sylvestre. — 
Properties. Carbonic acid gas is in- 
visible. It extinguishes flame. It 
is fatal to animal life. It exerts 
powerful effects on living vegetables. 
Its taste is pungent and acid. Its 
energy, as an acid, is but feeble, 
although distinct and certain. Neither 
fight or caloric seem to produce any- 
distinct effect upon it, except that 
the latter dilates it. It unites with ; 
water slowly. These two fluids, after , 
considerable asitation, at last com- 
bine, and form a sub-acid liquid. 
The colder the water, and the greater , 
the pressure applied, the more car- ; 
bonic acid gas will be absorbed. The \ 
water impregnated with it, sparkles 
upon agitation ; it has a pungent, 
acidulous taste, and reddens tine- \ 
ture of litmus. Heat again disen- j 
gages the gas from the water. This | 



gas precipitates lime, strontia, and 
barytes, from their solutions in wa- 
ter. It is greedily attracted by al] 
the alkalies. Its specific weight is 
to that of atmospheric air, as 1500 
to 1000 nearly. It may be poured 
out of one vessel into another. It 
is not acted upon by oxygen, nor is 
it altered by any of the simple com- 
bustible bodies at common tempe- 
ratures; but charcoal, iron, and 
some other metals, are capable of 
decomposing it, when assisted by 
heat ; as is also phosphorus, when 
united to lime. 

%* It is to Dr. Black of Edin- 
burgh we are indebted for the know- 
ledge of some of the most remark- 
able properties of this fluid. In the 
year 1755 he discovered the affinity 
between this gas and alkalies ; and 
Bergman, in 1772, proved that it 
was an acid. 

Carbuncle. See Anthrax. 

Carbu'nculus. (Dim. of tarbo, a 
burning coal). A carbuncle. An- 
thrax. Persicus ignis of Avicenna. 
An inflammatory tumour, which soon 
becomes gangrenous ; and is a very 
common symptom in the plague, but 
comes on also as a primary disease. 

Carburetted hydrogen gas. 
Carbonated hydrogen gas. Heavy 
l n flammable air. Hydro-carbonate. 
There are two gaseous compounds 
of carbon and hydrogen in definite 
proportions, differing materially in 
specific gravity and other circum- 
stances, namely, light and heavy 
carburretted hydrogen gas. 

Properties of light carburetted 
Hydrogen Gas. — It has a fetid odour. 
It is neither absorbed nor altered by 
water. It is inflammable, and burns 
with a denser and deeper coloured 
flame than hydrogen gas. It is un- 
alterable by acids or alkalies. It.i 
specific gravity is greater than that 
of hydrogen gas. Its combustion, 
with a due proportion of oxygen 
gas, is productive of water and car- 
bonic acid. When passed through 
melted sulphur, it becomes converted 
into sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and 
charcoal is deposited. Electrization 
dilates it permanently to a little more 



CAR 



118 



CAR 



tban twice its original balk ; but 
when dried, the dilatation is much 
ir?s. The v> thus tMgmm\m% re- 
quires a greater quantity of oxygen 
to decompose it, than the same 
quantity of gas not dilated by elec- 
tricity ; 100 cubic inches of pure 
light carburetted hydrogen gas weighs 
about seventeen grains. 

Properties ef heavy carburetted 
Hydrogen Gas. — It is not absorbed 
or altered by water. Its weight 
nearly equals that of common air. 
I: has a disagreeable fetid odour, 
different from rtiat of light carburet- 
ted hydrogen gas. It burns with a 
strong compact flame, similar to 
that of resinous oil. When mixed 
with oxygenated muriatic acid gas, 
its bulk is diminished, and an oil is 
formed. When the mixture of these 
two gases is fired, a quantity of 
charcoal is immediately deposited, 
in the form of fine soot. Sulphuric, 
sulphurous, nitric, and muriatic acids 
do not act upon it ; neither does ni- 
trous gas, nor any of the fixed alka- 
lies. Ammonia adds to its volume 
without occasioning any other change. 
Phosphorus heated in it, even to 
fusion, does not affect it. When made 
to pass through an ignited glass tube, 
it does not diminish in volume, but 
loses the property of forming oil 
with oxygenated muriatic acid gas. 
Electric shocks passed through it, 
dilate, and likewise deprive it of 
this property. When passed through 
a tube with sulphur in fusion, sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas is obtained, 
and charcoal deposited. When burnt 
with oxygen gas, or when passed 
through a red-hot tube, filled with 
oxyde of manganese, carbonic acid gas 
is formed, as well as water. 

Ca'rcarl-*. (,arcarf*s. Fromxap- 
jLauhMt, to resound, . A kind of fever, 
accompanied with a continual hor- 
ror and trembling, and an unremit- 
ting sounding in the ears. 

The Barbadoes nut-tree. 
The Cataputia. 

rcax. From tapa, a head . 
A species of poppy, with a very 
large head. 

kCER. A remedy proper for re- 



straining the disorder by motions of 
body and mind, as in curing the 
chorea Sancti Viti. Paracelsus. 

Carche'sks Kaoxneioe,. A 
name of some bandages noticed by 
Galen, and described bv Oribasius. 
Properly, it is the top of a ship's masL 

Carcino'ma. From xaemvoc, a 
cancer ). See Cancer. 

Caro'nos. 'Kaoxu'oc, a cancer . 
See Cancer. 

Carda>ia'vtica. From xapca/ic 
the nasturtium^ . A species of sciatica 
cr 

Cardamele'um. An obscure me- 
dicine, mentioned by Galen. 

Cardami'ne. From xaocia, the 
heart ; because it acts as a cordial 
and strengthener, or from its having 
the taste of cardamum, that is, nas- 
turtium, or cress ; . Cuckoo-flower. 
— 1. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, Te- 
tradynamia; Order, Siliquosa. — 2. 
The pharmacopoeia! name of the 
common lady's smock, or cuckoo- 
flower. See Cardamine pratensis. 

Cardami'ne prate'v-:-. The - 
tematic name of the plant called car- 
damine iu the pharmacopoeias. Car- 
damine ; foliis pinnatis ,/oliolis , radi- 
cibus svbrotundis, caulinis lauceola- 
tis of Linnaeus. This plant is also 
called Cardamantica. Nasturtium, 
aquaticum. Culiflos. Iter is sopitia. 
A variety of virtues have been given 
to this plant, which it does not ap- 
pear to deserve. 

CaRI/AMi'nes FLo'reS. See Car- 
damine pratensis. 

Cardamo'.ml'.m. From xapcapoy, 
and ap.iup.ov : because it partakes of 
the nature, and is like both the car- 
damum and amomum, . The carda- 
mum seed. 

Cardamo'mum ma'jus. The greater 
cardamum seeds, by some called 
grains of Paradise, are contained in 
a large, brown, somewhat triar. 
lar husk, the thickness of one's 
thumb, and pyramidal : their virtues 
arc similar to those of the cardanw- 
mum minus. 

I - vjlm me'dilm. Theni! 

die-sized cardamum ; the seeds ot 
which correspond, in every respect, 



CAR 



119 



CAR 



with the lesser, except in size, the i a hinge;. 

former beinir twice as long", but no a hinge, 
thicker than the cardamomum t*u- 

»US. 

Cardamo'mum mi'nus. 

tart a Cardamomum. 

L ARDAMO .Ml'M PIPERATL M. 

srrains of Paradise. 

ChmATta'mm Siberie'nse. 
\nisuru Indicum. 



A sort of articulation like 



See E 

The 
The 



I \ rdamlm. v From KaoCia, the 
heart ; h m it comforts and 

engthens the heart . Garden 
SSSBSSS. 

Ca'rdia. From scop, the heart . 
This tennwiB applied by the Greeks 
to the heart. The superior opening 
of the stomach is al* died. 

Cardi 1CA. From the 

heart . Car . or Cordials. See 



Lardio'gmi's. 'From xapcity-- . 
to have a pain in the stomach . The 
same as Cardialgia. Also an aneu- 
rism in the aorta, near the heart, 
occasioning pain in the praecordia. 

Cardio'nchi s. From xaocix, the 
heart, and oyxoc, a tumour . An 
aneurism of the heart, or of the 
aorta near the heart. 

lArdiotro'ti >. From xaocur, 
the heart, and nrssMaat, to wound . 
One who has a wound in his heart. 

Carditis. from xapcia, the 

heart . Inflammation of the heart. 

A genus oi disease arranged by Cul- 

len in the (lass Pyrexia, and Order 

srmasia?. 

(.Vrdo, ims, m. et olim, f. A 



Cardial*. The pharmacopctial name I The articulation called 6 



of mother- wort. So named, from 
the supposed relief it _ i i nt- 
inj> and disorders of the stomach . 

1 Leonurus cardiaca. 

CaftDi < o\i f/ctio. S 

tiu armnatica. 

Cxudiaca pa'soo. The card! 
:i. \acient writers frequently 
mentio:i ■ ;isorder under thi> name, 
but the moderns always speak oi it 
-yncipe. 

( MUM u | B MO'rBI 5. A name 
given by the ancients to the typhus 
er. 

CaRDU LWA. 'From xao'ca, the 
heart, and <i\yoc, pain . Pain at 
the stomach. The heartburn. Dr. 
Cullen ranks it as a symptom oi dys- 
pepsia. 

c xrpia'lcia ivn xmmato'ria. Iu- 

immation in the stomach. 

Cardia'lgia SPL'TATO'RIA. 



/• 



C\UD!M1.I ECU. 



From * 



nus ; also the second vertebra of 
the neck. 

C k'ftDONBT. A wild species of es- 
culeut loke. 

1 o'mum. Wine medicated with 

herbs. Paracelsus. 

c Ardopa tilm. The low carline 
thistle, said to be diaphoretic. 

Ga'sJHJUSi /rrer*, quasi apt us 

carenda* lan<r^ being fit to teas* 
wool; or from xftoo>, to abrade ; 
named from its roughness, which 
abrades and SBSR1 whatever it nu I 
with . The thistle, or teasel. The 
name oi a genus of plants in the 
Linnawn system: Class, Syngextsui; 
Older, Polysomia trqua/is. 

Ga'sDOBl u'\miii>. The herb 
bear's breech. 

Ca fmWU altili^. The arti- 
choke. 

(. \ KDl m bENEDl'CTlS. B A- 

taurea. 

Ca'RDUUS I! EMORRF10ID\'lIS. 9 



hear;, and an . Heb. a go- called, because it i> said to relievo 
tenor . A fictitious term in Do- the pains oi the haemorrhoids, it 
laeus's Encyclopaedia, by which would beat into a poultice and appUe ' 



DC expressed • particular active prin 
ciple in the heart, appointed to what 
we call the vital functions 

(vrpimona. A name for Car- 
dial ^ia. 

dinal fi<iuers, l' See Lo- 

btlia. 

( irdiname'ntu m. ^From car do, \ 



Also called carduus vmearum re- 
pens, sonchi folio. Cirsium arvense. 
Ceanothos. The common creeping 
way thistle. Serratuia arvtnsis of 
Linnxus* 

I I uDiis la'ctei s. See Cardum* 
marianus. 

Ca'rduus la'ctbus Syri'aci*. 



CAR 



120 



CAR 



The Spanish milk -thistle. Stomachic 
and anodyne. 

Ca'rduus maris: . See Cardans 
viarianus. 

Ca'rduus maria'nus. The sys- 
tematic name of the officinal Car- 
dials Mar ice. Common milk-thistle, 
or lady's thistle. The seeds of this 
plant, Carduus marianus ; foliis am- 
plexicaulibus, hast at o - pinnatijidis, 
spinosis ; calycibus aphyllis; spinis 
caniliculatis, duplicato-spinosis, of 
Linnaeus, and the herb, have been 
employed medicinally, against pun- 
gent pains. 

Ca'rduus sati'vus. The artichoke. 

Ca'rduus solstitia'lis. The cal- 
citrapa officinalis. 

Ca'rduus TOMENTo'sus.The woolly 
thistle. See Onopordium acanthium. 

Careba'ria. (From ttapi], the 
head, and fiapog, weight}. Pain- 
ful and uneasy heaviness of the 
head. 

Care'num. (From napij, the 
head). A word used by Galen for 
the head. 

Care'num vi'num. Strong wine. 

Ca'reum. (From Carta, the coun- 
try whence they were brought). The 
caraway, 

Ca'rex, -ids. (From car ere, to 
want. Not quia viribus car eat, but 
because, from its roughness, it is fit 
ad carendum, to card, tease, or pull) . 
Sedge. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Monoecia; Order, Triandria. 

Ca'rex arena'ria. The systematic 
name of the officinal sarsaparilla Ger- 
vmnica, which grows plentifully on 
the sea coast. 

Ca'rica. (From Carta, the place 
where they were cultivated) . The 
See Ficus carica. 

Ca'rica papa'va. Papaw-tree. A 
native of both Indies, and the Guinea 
coast of Africa. 

Ca'ricum. (From Caricus, its in- 
ventor) . Carycum. An ointment for 
cleansing ulcers, composed of helle- 
bore, lead, and Spanish Hies. 

Ca'ries, ex, f. (From corah, Chald.) 
Rottenness, or mortification of the 
bones. 

Cari'ma. The cassada bread. 



fig- 



Cari'na. A name formerly ap- 
plied to the spine of the back. 
Ca'rilm te'rra. Lime. 
Carivilla'ndi. A name of sarsa- 
parilla root. 

Carli'na. (From Carolus, Charles 
the Great, or Charlemagne ; because 
it was believed that an angel showed 
it to him, and that, by the use of it, 
his army was preserved from the 
plague) . Carline thistle. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Sy agenesia; Order, 
Polygamia cequalis. The officinal 
name of two kinds of plants. 

Carli'na acau'lis. The systematic 
name of the chamceleon album. Car- 
Una. Cardopatium. Carline thistle. 
Car Una acaulis; caule unifloro, Jiore 
breviore of Linnaeus. 

%* The root is bitter, and said 
to possess diaphoretic and anthel- 
mintic virtues. It is also extolled 
by foreign physicians in the cure of 
acute, chronic, and malignant dis- 
orders. 

Carli'na gummi'fera. Carduus 
pinea. Ixine. Pine thistle. This 
plant is the Atractylis gummifera of 
Linnaeus. It is said to be chewed 
with the same views as mastich. 

Carline thistle. See Carlina acau- 
lis. 

Ca'rlo Sa'ncto ra'dix. St. 
Charles's root ; so called by the 
Spaniards, on account of its great 
virtues. The bark is sudorific, and 
strengthens the gums and stomach. 

Ca'rmen, -inis, n. A verse ; be- 
cause charms usually consisted of a 
verse. A charm ; an amulet. 

Carmes. (The Carmelite friars, 
Fr,) Carmelite water ; so named 
from its inventors ; composed of 
balm, lemon-peel, &c. 
Carmina'ntia. See Carminatives. 
Carmi'natives. Carnii/tatiea. (From 
carmen, a verse or charm ; because 
practitioners, in ancient times, as- 
cribed their operation to a charm or 
enchantment). A term applied to 
those substances which allay pain, 
and dispel flatulencies of the primse 
viae. 

Carnaba'dium. Caraway-seed. 
Ca'rnee colu'mna. The fleshy 



OAR 



121 



CAR 



pillars or columns in the cavities of 
the heart. See Heart. 

Carm'cula. (Dim. of caro, carnis, 
f . the flesh) . The fleshy suhstance 
which surrounds the gums. 

Carmfo'rmis. (From caro, flesh, 
and forma, likeness). Having the 
appearance of flesh. Commonly ap- 
plied to an abscess where the flesh 
surrounding the orifice is hardened, 
and of a firm consistence, 

Ca'ro, -carnis, f. Flesh. The red 
part or belly of a muscle ; also the 
pulp of fruit. 

Ca'ro adna'ta. The recent swelled 
testicle. 

Carolina. See Carlina. 

Caro'pi. The amomum verum. 

Caro'ra. The name of a vessel 
resembling a pot-de-chambre. 

Caro'sis. See Cams. 

Caro'ta. See JJaucus. 

Carotide'je arte'ri^. See Carotid 
artery. 

Carotid artery. (From Kapooj, 
to cause to sleep ; so called, because, 
if tied with a ligature, they cause the 
animals to be comatose, and have the 
appearance of being asleep). The 
carotids are two considerable arteries 
ascending, one on each side of the 
cervical vertebrae, to the head, to 
supply it with blood. The right 
carotid does not arise immediately 
from the arch of the aorta, but is 
given off from the arteria innoniinata. 
The left arises from the arch of the 
aorta. 

* # * Each carotid is divided into 
external and internal, or that portion 
without and that within the cranium. 
The external gives off eight branches 
to the neck and face, viz. anteriorly , 
the superior thyroideal, the sublin- 
gual, the inferior maxillary, the ex- 
ternal maxillary ; posteriorly, the in- 
ternal maxillary, the occipital, the 
external auditory, and the temporal. 
The internal carotid or cerebral ar- 
tery, gives off four branches within 
the cavity of the cranium ; the an- 
terior cerebral, the posterior, the 
central artery of the optic nerve, and 
the internal orbital. 

Caro'im. The caraway-seed. 

( Vrpasus. (So named from wapa 



to xapov TroiY)(?ai : because it makes 
the person who eats it appear as if 
he was asleep). A herb, the juice 
of which was formerly called opo- 
carpason, opocarpathon, or opocal- 
pason ; according to Galen it resem- 
bles myrrh ; but is considered highly 
poisonous. 

Carpa'thicum ba'lsamum. Sec 
Pinus Cembra. 

Carpentaria. (From carpenta- 
rius, a carpenter ; and so named from 
its virtues in healing cuts and wounds 
made by a tool) . A vulnerary herb ; 
though not sufficiently known. 

Carpha'leus. (From naptpio, to 
exsiccate). A word used by Hip- 
pocrates to mean dry, opposed to 

moist. 

Carpholo'gia. (From Kaprpog, the 
nap of clothes, and Xeyoj, to pluck). 
A delirious picking of the bed-clothes, 
a symptom occurring in typhus and 
other dangerous fevers. 

Ca'rpiils. (From teapot), astraw). 
In Hippocrates it signifies a mote, or 
any small substance. A pustule of 
the smallest kind. Also the herb 
fenugreek. 

Ca'rpia. (From carpcre, to pluck, 
as lint is made from linen cloth). 
Lint. See Linteum. 

Carpi's.mls. The wrist. 

Carpoba'lsamum. (From Kapiroq, 
fruit, and fiaXo-afiov, balsam). See 
Amy r is Gilcadensis. 

Caupolo'gia. See Carphologia. 

Ca'kpus. (Kap7roc, the wrist). 
The wrist, or carpus. Jt is situated 
between the fore-arm and hand. 

Carrot. See Daucus. 

Carrot, candy. See Athamanta 
Crctcnsis. 

Carrot, poultice. See Cataplasma 
dam i. 

Ca'rtiiamus. (From KaOaipoj, to 
purge). — 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnsean system : Class, 
Syngenesia; Order, Polysomia &qva- 
lis. — 2. The pharmacopceial name of 
the saffron flower. See Carthamus 
tiiu tori us. 

Ca'rtiiamus tincto'rius. The 

systematic name of the saffron flower. 

Carthamus; foliis oralis, integris, 

serrato-acuteatis of Linnaeus : called 

M 



CAR 



122 



CAR 



also Cnicus, Crocus Saracenicus , Car- 
tkamum officiJiaram, Carduus sativus. 

Carthusia'nus. (From the Car- 
thusian Monks, who first invented 
It). A name of the precipitated 
sulphur of antimony. 

Ca'rtilage. (Cartilago, -inis, f. 
Quasi cavnilago; from caro, carnis, 
flesh). A white elastic, glistening 
substance, growing to bones, and 
commonly called gristle. 

Cartila'go annularis. See Car- 
tilago cricoidea. 

Cartila'go arytanoide'a. See 
Larynx. 

Cartila'go cricoide'a. The cri- 
coid cartilage belongs to the larynx, 
and is situated between the thyroid 
and arytenoid cartilages and the tra- 
chea ; it constitutes, as it were, the 
basis of the many annular cartilages 
of the trachea. 

Cartila'go ensiformis. Cartilago 
sciphpidea. Ensiform cartilage. A 
cartilage shaped somewhat like a 
sword or dagger, attached to the 
lowermost part of the sternum, just 
at the pit of the stomach. 

Cartila'go scutifo'rmis. See 
Thyroid, cartilage. 

Cartila'go thyroide'a. See Thy- 
roid cartilage. 

Cartila'go xiphoide'a. See Car- 
tilago ensiformis. 

Ca'rui. (Caruia, Arab.) The ca- 
raway. See Carum* 

Ca'rum. (Kapov : so named from 
Caria, a province of Asia) . The ca- 
raway. — 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in theLinnsean system : Class, 
Pentandria ; Order, Monogynia. — 
2. The pharmacopceial name of the 
caraway plant. Sec Carum carui. 

Ca'rum ca'rui. The systematic 
name for the plant whose seeds are 
called caraways. It is also called 
Carvi. Cmninum pratense. Cants. 
Caruon. The Carum carui of Lin- 
naeus. An essential oil and distilled 
water are directed to be prepared 
from the^ eeds by the London college. 

Caru'ncle. (Caruncula,-cc, f. Di- 
minutive of caro, flesh). A little 
fleshy excrescence ; as the carun- 
itila? myrtiformes, caruncul£elachry- 
males, &c. 



Caru'ncula lachryjvia'lis. A 
long conoidal gland, red externally, 
situated in the internal canthus of 
each eye, before the union of the 
eyelids. It appears to be formed of 
numerous sebaceous glands, from 
which many small hairs grow. 

* # * The hardened smegma ob- 
servable in this part of the eye in the 
morning, is secreted by this ca- 
runcle. 

Caru'nculaje cuticula'res a'l#. 
The nymphae. 

Caru'ncula mamilla'res. The 
extremities of the tubes in the nipple. 
CARu'NCULiE myrtifo'rmes. When 
the hymen has been lacerated by at- 
trition, there remain in its place, 
two, three, or four caruncles, which 
have received the name of myrti- 
form. 

Caru'nculje papilla'res. The 
protuberances within the pelvis of 
the kidney, formed by the papillous 
substance of this viscus. 

Carunculo'sa ischu'ria. Sup- 
pression of urine, from caruncles in 
the urethra. 

Ca'ruon. See Carum. 

Ca'rus. (Kapog : from napa, the 
head, as being the part affected). 
Caros, Carosis. — 1. Insensibility and 
sleepiness, as in apoplexy, but at- 
tended with quiet respiration. — 2. A 
profound sleep, without fever. A 
lethargy. — 3. The caraway-seed. 
. Ca'rva. The cassia lignea. 

Carye'don. (From napva, a nut). 
Carydon. A sort of fracture, where 
the bone is broken into small pieces, 
like the shell of a cracked nut. A 
comminuted fracture. 

Cary'don. See Carycdon, 

Caryocosti'num. An electuary, 
named from two of its ingredients, 
the clove and costus. 

Caryopiiylla'ta. (From xapvo- 
tyvWov, the caryophyllus ; so named 
because it smells like the caryophyl- 
lus, or clove gilly-flowcr), See 
Geum urhannm. 

Caryophylloi'des co'rtex. See 
Laurus Culiluivan. 

Carvophy'llum, -?', n. (Kapvo- 
<f>vWov : from xapvov, a nut, and 
<f>v\\o}>, a leaf; so named because 



CAS 



123 



CAS 



it was supposed to be the leaf of the 
Indian nut). A clove, gilly-flower. 
Caryophy'llum aroma'ticum. 
The same. See Eugenia Caryophyl- 
lata. 

Caryophy'llum ri/brum. The 
clove pink. See Dianthus caryo- 
phyllus. 

Caryophy'llus, -t, m. The clove 
tree. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, Po- 
ly andria; Order, Monogynia. See 
Eugenia Caryophyllata. 

Caryophy'llus aroma'ticus Ame- 
rica'nus. The piper Jamaicencis. 

Caryophy'llus horte'nsis. The 
caryophyllum rubrum. 

Cakyopiiy'llus vllga'ris. The 
caryophyllata. 

Caryo'tis. (From aapvov, a nut). 
Caryota. Galen uses this word to 
mean a superior sort of dates, of the 
shape of a nut. 

Cascari'lla. (Dim. of cascara, 
the bark, or shell. Span.) A name 
given originally to small specimens 
of cinchona ; but now applied to the 
bark of the Cruton cascarilla ; which 
see. 

Ca'schu. See Acacia Catechu. 

Cashew-nut. See Anacardium Oc- 
cident ale. 

Ca'siioo. An aromatic drug of 
Hindostan, said to possess pectoral 
virtues. 

Ca'sia. Sec Cassia. 

Casmina'ris. The cassumuniar 
of Bengal. 

Ca'ssa. (Arab.) The thorax or 
breast. 

Cassa'da. Cassava. See Jatro- 
pha Manihot. 

Ca'ssa mum. The fruit of the bal- 
sam tree. 

Ca'ssia. (From the Arabic katsia, 
which is from katsa, to tear off; so 
called, from the act of stripping the 
bark from the tree). The name of 
a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Decandria ; Order, 
Monogynia. Cassia and Senna be- 
long to this genus. 

Ca'ssia Caryophylla'ta. The 
clove-bark tree. See Myrtus Caryo- 
phyllata. 

Ca'ssia fi'stula. Cassia nigra. 



Cassia fistularis. Alexandrina. Cka- 
iarxambar. Canna. Cassia solutiva. 
Tlai Xicm. Purging cassia. This 
tree, Cassia fistula ; foliis quinque- 
jugis ovatisy acuminatis glabris, pe- 
tiolis eglandulatis of Linnaeus, is a 
native of both Indies. 

* # * The officinal preparation of 
this drug, is the confectio cassise ; 
it is also an ingredient in the confec- 
tio sennae. 

Ca'ssia fistula'ris. See Cassia 
fistula. 

Ca'ssia li'gnea. Cassia bark. 
See Laurus cassia. 

Ca'ssia ni'gra. See Cassia fistula. 

Cassia, purging. See Cassia fistula. 

Ca'ssia se'nna. The systematic 

name of the plant which affords 

senna. Senna Alc.vandrina. Senna 

■ Italica. Senna, or Egyptian cassia. 

\ Cassia; foliis sejugis subovatis, pe- 

tiolis eglandulatis of Linnaeus. They 

I arc in common use as a purgative. 

%* The formulae given of the 
! senna by the colleges, are an infu- 
sion, a compound powder, a tinc- 
ture, and an electuary. See Infu- 
8um senruBy <S:c. 

Ca'ssia soluti'va. See Cassia 
fistula. 

Ca'ssi/e arame'ntlm. The pulp 
of cassia. 

Ca'ssi.e flo'res. What arc called 
cassia flowers in the shops, are the 
flowers of the true cinnamon tree, 
Laurus cinnatnamum of Linnaeus. 
They possess aromatic and astringent 
virtues, and may be successfully em- 
ployed in decoctions, &c. in all cases 
where cinnamon is recommended. 
See Laurus c/'nnamomu?n. 

Ca'ssia pl'lpa. See Cassia fistula. 

Ca'ssob. An obsolete term for 
kali. 

Cassole'ta. Warm fumigations 
described by Marcellus. 

Cassona'da. Sugar. 

Cassummu'niar. Casamunar. Cas- 
mina. Risagon. Jiengale Lndorum. 
The root occasionally exhibited un- 
der one of these names, is brought 
from the East Indies. It possesses 
moderately warm, bitter, and aro- 
matic qualities, and a smell like 
ginger. It is recommended in by- 



CAT 



124 



CAT 



clerical, epileptic, and paralytic af- 
fections. 

Casta'nea. (Kaffiavov : from Cas- 
tanet, a city in Thessaly, whence 
they were brought) . The common 
chesnut. See Fagus castanea. 

Casta'nea equi'na. The horse- 
chesnut. See JEsculus Hippocastanum. 

Castanea fiore albo. Coffee. 

Castle-leod waters. A sulphu- 
reous spring in Ross-shire, celebrated 
for the cure of cutaneous diseases 
and foul ulcers. 

Ca'stor fi'ber. The systematic 
name of the beaver. See Castoreum. 

Castor. See Castoreum. 

Castor oil. See Rici?ws. 

Castor, Russian. See Castoreum, 

Castore'um. (Castor from na^iop, 
the beaver, quasi ya<rwp : from 
ya^ijp, the belly : because of the 
largeness of its belly; or a castrando, 
because he was said to castrate him- 
self in order to escape the hunters). 
Castoreum Russicum. A peculiar 
concrete substance, called castor, is 
obtained from two bags, situated in 
the inguinal regions of the Castor 
Jiheroi Linnaeus, or beaver, an am- 
phibious quadruped inhabiting some 
parts of Prussia, Russia, Germany, 
&c. ; but the greatest number of 
these animals is to be met with in 
Canada. The best come from Russia. 

%* This substance has an acrid, 
bitter, and nauseous taste ; its smell 
is strong and aromatic, yet at the 
same time, foetid. It is used medi- 
cinally, as a powerful antispasmodic 
in hysterica and hypochondriacal af- 
fections, and in convulsions, in doses 
of from 10 to 30 grains. It has also 
been successfully administered in 
epilepsy and tetanus. 

Castori'um. See Castoreum. 

Castration. Celotomia. Orcho- 
towin. A chirurgical operation, by 
which one, or both testicles, is re- 
moved from the body. 

CaSTRE'nSIS, (From vastra, a 
ramp) . A name applied to those dis- 
eases with which soldiers encamped 
in marshy places, are afflicted. 

Cata'ijasis. (From Kara€aiv<o, to 
descend). A descent or operation 
downward;!. 



Catabi'basis. (From Kara£i£a{(jj, 
to cause to descend) . An exclusion, 
or expulsion of the humours down- 
wards. 

Catablaceu'sis. (From KaratXa- 
kevoj, to be useless). Carelessness 
and negligence in the attendance on, 
and administration to the sick. Hipp. 

Catable'ma. (From KarataXXio, 
to throw round). The outermost 
fillet, which secures the rest of the 
bandages. 

Catabronche'sis. (From Kala, 
and fipoyxog, the throat ; or Kala- 
^l°°yX l C w > to swallow.) The act of 
deglutition. 

Catacau'ma. (From KalaKauo, to 
burn). A burn or scald. 

Catacau'sis. (From KalaKauo, to 
burn). The act of combustion, or 
burning. 

Catacecli'menus. (From Kala- 
Kkivofiai, to lie down) . Bed-ridden, 
from the violence of a disease. 

Catacecra'menCs. (From KalaKi- 
pavvv/xi, to reduce to small particles) . 
Broken into small pieces. A term 
used when speaking of fractures. 

Catacera'stica. (From KalaKt- 
pavvvjjiL, to mix together). Medi- 
cines which obtund the acrimony of 
humours, by mixing with and re- 
ducing them. 

Catachlide'sis. (From Kala- 
xXidaot, to indulge in delicacies). A 
gluttonous indulgence in indolence 
and luxuries, to the generation of 
diseases. 

Catacfiri'ston. (From Kalaxpiw, 
to anoint) . An ointment. 

Catachri'sma. An ointment. 

Cata'clasis. (From mWXaw, to 
break, or distort). Distorted eyelids. 

Cata'cleis. Catacle'is. (From 
Kala, beneath , and kXe. iq, the clavicle) , 
The subclavicle, or first rib, which 
is situated directly under the clavicle. 

Catacm'nes. (From KalaxXivw t 
to lie down). One who, by disease, 
is confined to his bed. 

Cata'clisjs. (From KtflaKXtvw, to 
lie down). A lying down. It means 
also incurvation. 

Catacly'sma. (From jra7afc\i>£w, 
to wash) . A clyster. 

Cataclysm us. (From koIlikXv^o), 



CAT 



1-25 



CAT 



to wash). An embrocation. A dash- 
ing of water upon any part. A 
douche bath. 

Catacre'mnos. (From Kola, and 
Kprffxvog, a precipice). A swoln and 
inflamed throat, from the exuberance 
of the parts. Hipp. 

Catacri/sis. (From kclIukoovoj, 
to drive back). A revulsion of 
humours. 

Catadoule'sis. (From Kalacov- 
Xow, to enslave). The subduing of 
passions, as in a phrensy, or fever. 

Categize'sis. (From Kaltyyifa, 
to repel). A revulsion or rushing 
back of humours, or wind in the 
intestines. 

Cateonf/sis. (From Kulcaoveuj, 
to irrigate). Irrigation by a plentiful 
aifusion of a fluid on some part of 
the body. 

Cata'gma. (From teal a, and ayoj, 
to break). A fracture. Galen pays 
a solution of the bone is called 
catagma, and clcos is a solution of 
the continuity of the flesh : that 
when it happens to a cartilage, it has 
no name, though Hippocrates calls 
it catagma. 

Catagma'tica. (From icalayfia, a 
fracture). Catagmatics. Remedies 
proper for cementing broken bones, 
or to promote a callus, or ossific 
union. 

Catago'ge. (From Kalayopai, to 
abide). The seat or region of a dis- 
ease or part. 

Catagyio'sis. (From Kalayvioio, 
to debilitate). Imbecility and ener- 
vation of the strength and limbs. 

Catale'psis. (From KalaXapGavoj, 
to seize, to hold). Catoche. Cato- 
r/u/s. Congclatio. Detentio. En- 
catalepsis; and by Hippocrates apho- 
nia; byAntigenesa^aw/*V/; byCaelius 
Aurelianus apprehensio, oppressio; 
comprehensio. slpoplexia catalcptica 
of Cullen. Catalepsy. A sudden sup- 
pression of motion and sensation, the 
body remaining in the same posture 
that it was in when seized. 

Catalo'tica. (From KalaXoaio, 
to grind down) . Medicines to soften 
and make smooth the rough edges 
and cnist of cicatrices. 

Cata'lysis. (Kara\u(7ic : from 



KaraXvu), to dissolve or destroy). A 
palsy, or such a resolution as hap- 
pens before the death of the patient ; 
also that dissolution which constitutes 
death. 

Catamara'smus. (From Kalapa- 
paivu), to grow thin) . Emaciation, 
or resolution of tumours. 

Catamasse'sis. (From KciJafiacrGo- 
fiaif to manducate). The grinding 
of the teeth, and biting of the ton- 
gue; so common in epileptic persons, 

Catame'nja, -orurn, n. pi. (From 
Kola, according to, and piyv, the 
month). Menses. The monthly dis- 
charge from the uterus of females, 
between the ages of fourteen and 
forty-five. 

Catana'nce. Succory. 

Catani'phthis. (From Kalari-nliij, 
to wash). Washed, or scoured. It 
is used by Hippocrates of a diarrhoea 
washed and cleansed by boiled milk. 

Catantle'ma. (From KalavWau, 
to pour upon). A lotion by infusion, 
of water, or medicated fluids. 

Catantle'sis. A medicated fluid. 

Catapa'sma. (From KarairauGiOy 
to sprinkle). Catapaslum. Co?tspersio* 
Epipaston. Pasma. Sympas/tia. As- 
persio. shpergo. By this, the an- 
cient Greek physicians meant any dry 
medicine reduced to powder, to be 
sprinkled on the body. 

Catapai'sis. (From kuIutt a vto, to 
rest, or cease) . That rest or cessa- 
tion from pain which proceeds from 
the resolution of uneasy tumours. 

Catapf/ltes. (From ko7«, against, 
and vreXrr], a shield). This word 
means a sling, a granado, or battery ; 
and is also used to signify the medi- 
cine which heals the wounds and 
bruises made by such an instrument. 

Cata'phora. (From Kararpepot, to 
make sleepy). Coma somnolentum. 
A preternatural propensity to sleep. 
A mild apoplexy. 

Cata'phora arthri'tica. Apo- 
plexy from gout. 

Cata'phora co'ma. Sanguineous 
apoplexy. 

Cata'phora exantiiema'tica. A 
lethargy in eruptive diseases, 

Cata'phora hydrocepha'uca. Se- 
rous apoplexy. 
M3 



CAT 



126 



CAT 



Cata'phora scorbutica. Apo- 
plectic symptoms in scurvy. 

Cata'phora ti'mor. A lethargic 
disposition. 

Cataphra'cta. (From;caia0|Oa<T(7w, 
to fortify). A bandage on the tho- 
rax. 

Catapla'sma, -matis, n. (From 
K\i1a7r\rt(T<rw, to spread like a plaster) . 
A cataplasm or poultice. 

Cataplf/xts. (From Kara and 
f sr\i]<T(TU), to strike.) Sudden stu- 
pefaction, or privation of sensation, 
in any of the members or organs. 

Catapo'sis. (From Karawivco, to 
swallow down.) The apparatus of 
deglutition. Areta?us. — Hence also 
catapotium. 

Catapo'tium. (Kara7roTiov) . A 
pril. 

Catapsy'xis. (From ^v%w, to 
cool) . A sense of coldness without 
shivering, either universal, or of 
some particular part. A chilliness, 
or, as defined by Vogel, an uneasy 
sense of cold in a muscular or cuta- 
neous part. 

Catapto'sis. (From KarairnrTO), 
to fall down). Falling down, such 
as happens in apoplexies ; or the 
spontaneous falling down^bf a para- 
lytic limb. 

Catapu'tia. (From koIclttvBlo, to 
have a bad taste ; or from the Italian, 
iacapuzza, which has the same 
meaning ; so named from its foetid 
wnell). Spurge. 

Catapu'tia ma'jor. See Ricinus. 

Catapu'tia minor. See Euphorbia 
f.athyris. 

Ca'taract. (Cataract a; from Kara- 
p.tvvo), to confound or disturb ; bc- 
canse the sense of vision is con- 
founded, if not destroyed) . A dis- 
rase of the eye. The Caligo lentis 
of Cullen. Hippocrates calls it 
yXavKujfia. Galen, v7ro%v/ia. The 
Arabians, gutta opaca. Cclsus, suf- 
fusio. It is a species of blindness, 
arising almost always from an opa- 
« ity of the crystalline lens, or its 

,)sule, preventing the rays of light 
passing to the optic nerve. — See Sir 
J. Ear! 's Account of a New Mode 
of Operating far the Removal of Ca- 
taract, Bvo. Lond. 1301.}-— Lchre 



von denAugenkr, b.2. Wien. 1817; — - 
Gibbons on the Extraction of Soft 
Cataracts, &c. 8vo. Lond. 1811; — 
Teardrop* s Essays on the Morbid Ana- 
tomy of the Human Eye, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Lond. 1818 ; — retch's Practical Trea- 
tise on the Diseases of the Eye, 
p. 109. Lond. 1820, &c. &c. 

Catarrheu'ma. From Kalaooeot, 
to flow from). Catarrh, or defluxioa 
of humours. 

CATARRHE'xis.(FroniK:aJapp??7*'iw, 
to burst out) . A violent and copious 
eruption or effusion; joined with 
koCKiclq, it is a copious evacuation 
from the belly, and sometimes alone 
it is of the same signification. It is 
denned, a discharge of pure blood 
from the intestines, such as takes 
place in dysentery. VogeVs Nos. 

Catarrhcecus. (From Kalaopew, 
to flow from). Diseases proceeding 
from a discharge of phlegm. 

Cata'rropa phy'mata. (Karap- 
poira (f)Vfxara). Tubercles tending 
downward ; or, as Galen states, those 
that have their apex on a depending 
part. 

Cata'rrhopos nou'sos. Karap- 
0O7roc. vovaoQ. Remission of disease, 
or its decline, opposed to the pa- 
roxysm. 

Cata'rrhus, -?, m. 2. (From 
Kalappeo), to flow down.) Coryza. 
A catarrh. An increased secretion 
of mucus from the membranes of the 
nose, fauces, and bronchia, with 
fever, and attended with sneezing, 
cough, thirst, lassitude, and want of 
appetite. It is a genus of disease in 
the Class Pyrexia*, and Order Pro • 
fluvia, of Cullen. 

%* There are two species of ca- 
tarrh, viz. catarrhus a f rigor e, which 
is very common, and is called a cold 
in the head ; and catarrhus d con- 
tagio, the influenza, or epidemic ca- 
tarrh, which sometimes seizes n 
whole city. Catarrh is also sympto- 
matic of several other diseases. 
Hence catarrhus rubeolosus ; tussif 
variolosa, verminosa, calculosa ,phthi- 
sica, hysterica, a dentitione , gravida- 
rum, metaUicolarum , &c. &c. 

Cata'rrhus a fri'gore. Catarrh 
from cold. 



CAT 



127 



CAT 



Cata'rrhus bellinsula'sus. 
Mumps, or cynanche parotidaea. 

Cata'rrhus a conta'gio. The 
influenza. 

Cata'rrhus suffocati'vus. The 
croup, or cynanche traehealis. 

Cata'rrhus vbsi'cje. Strangury, 
with discharge of mucus. 

Catarti'smus. (From Kaiap1i((o> 
to make perfect) . A translation of 
a bone from a preternatural to its 
natural situation. Galen. 

Catasa'rca. (From Kola and crapZ, 
flesh). The same as Anasarca. 

Catasbe'stis. (From Kola, and 
c^evvvfiiy to extinguish). A resolu- 
tion of tumours without suppura- 
tion. 

Catascha'smus. (From kcl- 
laGya^b) , to scarify). Scarification. 

Catasei'sis. (From Kola, and 
fftuoy to shake). A concussion. 

Cataspa'sma. (From Ka\art7Tam, 
to draw backwards) . Revulsion or 
retraction of humours, or parts. 

Catasta'gmos. (From icala, and 
<ra£w, to distil). This is the name 
which the Greeks, in the time of 
Celsus. had tor a distillation. 

Catasta'lticus. (From kcito.- 
KTiWio, to restrain, or contract;. 
Styptic, astringent, repressing. 

Cata'stasis. (Kara<rra(rtc). The 
constitution, state, or condition of 
any thing. 

Cata'tasis. (From Kalalitvoj, to 
extend). The extension of a frac- 
tured limb, or a dislocated one, in 
order to replace it. Also the act^il 
replacing it in a proper situation. 
J lip p. 

Cata'xis. (From Ka.ayu), to 
break.) A fracture, or division of 
parts by an instrument. 

Cateciio'menus. (From Kakr*> 
to resist). Resisting and rendering 
inert the remedies which have been 
given or applied. 

Ca'techu. (fu the. Japanese lan- 
guage, katc signifies a tree, and chu, 
j nice) . See Acacia. 

Cateia'dion. (From *ro>ra, and 
and eta, a blade of grass). An in- 
strument, having at the end a blade 
of grass, or made like a blade of 
grass, which was thrust into the 



nostrils to provoke hemorrhage 
when the head ached. Aretceus. 

Cate'llus. (Dim. of catulus, a 
whelp). A young whelp. — Chym. In- 
strument called a cupel, which was 
formerly in the shape of a dog's 
head. 

Cath^'resis. (From icaQaipu), to 
take away) . The taking away any 
part or thing from the body. Some- 
times it means an evacuation, and 
Hippocrates uses it for such. Aeon- 
sumption of the body happening 
without manifest evacuation. 

Cath/ere'tica. (From KaOatObj. 
to take away). Substances which 
consume or remove superfluous- 
flesh. 

Catha'rma. (From KaOaiou), to 
remove). The excrements, or hu- 
mours, purged off from the body. 

Catha'r.mus. (From KaBaipu), to 
remove). A purgation of the ex- 
crements, or humours. A cure by 
incantation. The royal touch. A 
charm, &c. 

Catha'ksia. (From KaQaipu), to 
purge) . Cathartics, having a purg- 
ing property. 

Catiia'ksis. (From Ka.9aipu)> to. 
takeaway). A purge, or purgation, 
of the excrements, or humours, 
eitlter medically or naturally. 

Catiia'rtics. (KaOapTLica : from> 
icaQainu), to purge). Medicine? 
which, when taken internally, in- 
crease the quantity of alvine eva- 
cuations. The different articles 
referred to this class of medi- 
cines are divided into five orders : 
e. £?. stimulating, refrigerating, 
astringent, emollient, and narcotic. 
Murray, in his Materia Medica, and 
others, consider the different ca- 
thartics under the two divisions of 
laxatives and purgatives ; the former 
being mild in their operation, and 
merclv evacuating the contents of 
the intestines ; the latter being more 
powerful, and even extending their 
stimulant operation to the neighbour- 
ing parts. This, however, appears to 
be a distinction without difference, 
and of very little practical utility^ 
since purgatives in small doses are 
laxatives or aperients j while, ia 



CAT 



128 



CAU 



large doses they are cathartic or 
drastic. 

Catharticus sal. See Sulphas 
f/iagnesice, and Sulphas sodce. 

Catha'rticus Hispa'nicus sal. 
A kind of sulphate of soda, pro- 
cured from some springs near Ma- 
drid. 

Catha'rticus Glaube'ri sal. See 
Sodce sulphas. 

Cathe'dra. (From itaOeZopai, to 
sit). The anus, or rather, the whole 
of the buttocks, as being the part on 
which we sit. 

Cathere'tica. (From aaOaipoj, 
to remove). Corrosives. Medicines 
which, by corrosion, remove super- 
fluous flesh. 

Ca'theter, -teris, m. {KaOenjp', 
from iiaQirjpi, to thrust into). A ca- 
theter. A surgical instrument to draw 
off the urine when the person is 
unable to pass it. 

Catheteri'smus, -z, m. (From 
xaOtlrjp, a catheter). Catheterism. 
The operation of introducing the ca- 
theter. P. JEgiiicta. 

Cathi'drysis. (From Ka9tcpvix) 9 
to place together). The reduction of 
a fracture. The operation of setting 
a broken bone. 

Ca'thmia. A name for litharge. 

Ca'thodos. (From Kara, and 
ocoq). A descent of humours. 

Catiio'lceus. (From Kara, and 
oXk£w, to draw over). An oblong 
fillet, made to draw over and cover 
the whole bandage of the head. 

Catho'licon. (From ttara, and 
©Xtxoc, universal). A panacea, or 
universal medicine. A term formerly 
given to medicines supposed to purge 
all the humours. 

Cathy'pnja. (From Kara, and 
vnvog, sleep). A profound but un- 
healthy sleep. 

Ca'tias. (From HctOujpt, to place 
in). An incision-knife, formerly 
used for opening an abscess in the 
uterus, and for extracting a dead 
foetus. 

Cati'llus. Sec Catellus. 

Ca'tinum ali/men. A name of 
potash. 

Ca'tinus. (Karavov), A crucible. 
Catmint, Sec Nepeta, 



Catocatha'rtica. (From xctTio, 
downwards, and xaQaipu) 9 to purge). 
Medicines whose operation is by 
stool. 

Ca'toche. (From aaTSx^f to de- 
tain). See Catalepsis. 

Catochei'lum. (From Karu), be- 
neath, and xeiXog, the lip). The 
lower lip. 

Ca'tochus. (From tcarsx^, t0 
detain). A catalepsy. Also a teta- 
nus, or spasmodic disease, in which 
the body is rigidly held in an erect 
posture. 

Ca'tochus cervi'nus. Tetanus, 
particularly affecting the neck. 

Ca'tochus diu'rnus. An occa- 
sional tetanus. 

Ca'tochus holoto'mcus. Another 
name for tetanus. 

Catomi'smus. (From narto, be- 
low, and (x)pog, the shoulder). A 
method of reducing a luxated shoul- 
der, by raising the patient over the 
shoulder of a strong man, that 
by the weight of the body, the 
dislocation may be reduced. P. 
JE gin eta. 

Cato'psis. (From y,aT07rropat f to 
see clearly). Acute and quick per- 
ception. Thatacuteness of the facul- 
ties which accompanies the latter 
stages of consumption. 

Cato'pter. (From a-arciy and o~- 
Topai, to see, and, by metaphor, to 
probe). A probe. An instrument 
called a speculum ani. 

Catorchi'tes. (From Kara, and 
opxie., the orchis) . A wine in which 
the orchis root has been infused. 

Catore'tica. (From aario, down- 
wards, and peoj, to flow). Catotere- 
tica. Catoterica. Medicines which 
operate by stool. 

Catotere'tica. See Catoretica. 
Catulo'tica. (From HarovXocj, 
to cicatrize) . Medicines that cicatrize 
wounds. 

Catutri'pali. A name of the pi- 
per longum. 

Cau'calis. (From navaaXwv, a 
cup ; or from davaaXig, the daucus) . 
Bastard parsley, so named from the 
shape of its flower. Also the wild 
carrot. 

Caucaloi'des. (From xai/xa\«<r, 



CAU 



129 



CAV 



and ttcog, a likeness ; from its like- 
ness to the flower of the caucalis) . 
The patella is sometimes so called. 

Cau'da. (From cadere, to fall ; 
because it hangs or falls down be- 
hind). A tail. — 1. The tail of ani- 
mals. — 2. A name formerly given to 
the os coccygis, that being in tailed 
animals the beginning of the tail. — 
3. A fleshy substance, projecting 
from the lips of the vagina, and re- 
sembling a tail, according to Aetius. 
Several herbs are also named cauda, 
with the affixed name of some ani- 
mal, whose tail the herb is supposed 
to be like ; as cauda equina, horse- 
tail ; cauda muris, mouse-tail, &c. 

Cau'da eqlt'na. The spinal mar- 
row, at its termination about the 
second lumbar vertebra, gives off a 
large number of nerves, which, 
when unravelled, resemble the 
horse's tail ; hence the name. See 
also Hippuris vulgaris. 

Cauda'tio. (From cauda, a tail). 
An elongation of the clitoris. 

Call. The English name for the 
omentum. See Omentum. 

Caule'don. (From KavXog, a 
stalk). A transverse fracture, when 
the bone is broken, like the stump 
of a tree. 

Cal'liflowek. A species of bras- 
sica, whose flower is cut before the 
fructification expands. See Brassica 
I aj)itata. 

Cau'lis. (Kalab. A Chaldean 
word). — 1. The stem or stalk of a 
plant. — 2. A cabbage. — 3. The penis 
of a man. 

Cau'lis flo'kida. Cauliflower. 

Callo'des. (From KavXog, a 
stem). The white or green cabbage. 

Caulo'ton. (From KavXog, a 
stem ; because it grows upon a stalk) . 
A name given to the beet. 

Cal'ma. (From jcatoj, to burn). 
The heat of the body, or the heat of 
the atmosphere, in a fever. 

Cau'nga. A name of the areca. 

Cau'sis. (From Kauo, to burn). 
A burn ; or rather, the act of com- 
bustion, or burning. 

Causo'des. (From Kaico, to burn) . 
A term applied by Celsus to a burn- 
ing fever. 



Causo'ma. (From Kaito, to burn). 
An ardent or burning heat and in- 
flammation. Hipp. 

Caustic alkali. The pure alka- 
lies are so called. See Alkali. 

Caustic barley. See CevadiUa. 

Caustics. (From Katuj, to burn ; 
because they always produce a burn- 
ing sensation) . See Escharotics. 

Cau'sticum America'num. The 
cevadilla. 

CauVticum antimo'male. Mu- 
riate of antimony. 

Cau'sticum commu'ne fo'rtius. 
See Putassa cum calce. 

Cau'sticum luna're. See Argenti 
nitras. 

Cau'sus. (From Kauo, to burn). 
An highly ardent fever. A fiery heat, 
insatiable thirst, a rough and black 
tongue, complexion yellowish, and 
the saliva bilious, are its peculiar cha- 
racteristics. Hipp. — From the de- 
scription given of it by others, it 
appears to be neither more nor less 
than a continued ardent fever in a 
bilious constitution. 

tausus, endcmial. The name given 
to the yellow fever of the West In- 
dies, by Dr. Mosely. 

Cautery. (From Kauo, to burn). 
Cauteries were divided, by the an- 
cients, into actual and potential; but 
the term is now given only to the 
red-hot iron, or actual cautery ; This 
was formerly the only means of pre- 
venting hemorrhages from divided 
arteries, till the invention of the li- 
gature. It was also used in diseases, 
with the same view as we employ a 
blister. Potential cautery was the 
name by which kali purum, or pot- 
assa, was distinguished in the former 
dispensatories of Edinburgh. Sur- 
geons understand, by this term, any 
caustic application. 

Ca'va. The name of a vein, and 
also of the pudendum muliebre. See 
Veins. 

Cave'kna. (From cavus, hollow) . 
A cavern. Also a name of the pu- 
dendum muliebre. 

Caviare. Caviarium. A food made 
of the hard roes of sturgeon, formed 
into cakes, and much esteemed by 
the Russians. 



CED 



130 



CEL 



Cavi'cula. (Dim. of cavilla). See 
C a villa. 

Cavi'lla. (From cavusj. The an- 
kle, or hollow of the foot. 

Ca'vitas, -tatis, f. (From cavus, 
hollow] . Any cavity, or hollowness. 
The auricle of the heart was for- 
merly called the cavitas innominata, 
the hollow without a name. 

Cayenne pepper. See Capsicum. 

CazaBI. See Jatropha. 

Ceano'ti-ius. (From KtavujQoc, 
quia kesi avivOep, because it pricks 
at the extreme part) . A genus of 
plants in the Linnosan system : Class, 
Pentandria; Order, Monogynia. 

CeANO'tHUS AmeRICA'.NUS. Celas- 
trus. Celastus. Some Indians place 
more confidence on this than on the 
lobelia, for the cure of syphilis, and 
use it in tne same manner as lo- 
belia. 

Cea'sma. (From ksoj, to split, or 
divide] . Ceasmus. A fissure, or frag- 
ment. 

Ce'ber. (Arab.) The agaUochum. 
Also the capparis. 

Cebipi'ra. (Ind.; A tree growing 
in Brazil, the bark of which is used 
in baths and fomentations, to relieve 
pains in the limbs and cutaneous 
diseases. 

Ce'dar. See Cedrinum lignum. 

Ce'd.ma. (From Kstcuo, to dis- 
perse). A defluxion, or rheumatic 
affection, scattered over the parts 
about the hips. 

Ce'dra, esse'ntia de. See Citrus 
-medica. 

Ce'drinlm li'gnlm. Cedar, the 
wood of the Pinus cedrus of Linnaeus. 
An odoriferous wood, more fragrant 
than the fir, but possessing similar 
•> irtues. 

Cedri'tes. (From Ktcpoc, the 
cedar-tree,. Wine in which the resin 
that distils from the cedar-tree has 
been steeped. 

Ce'dkilm. Cedar. A name for 
common tar, in old writings. 

Cedkome'i.a. The fruit of the 
citron-tn 

DRQSB'tAJi. Turkey balm. 

C. -. (From tcttipoc, t 

cedar-tree . \ Wi.m>' of the white 
bryony, which smells like the cedar. 



Ce'drus. (From Kedron, a valley 
where thev nrrew abundantly. The 



- . L- 



Pinus cedrus of Linnaeus, or cedar- 
tree. 

Ce'drus America'na. Tne arbor 
vitae. 

Ce'drus bacci'fera. The savine. 

Cei'ria. (From ksiqiu, to abrade). 
The tape-worm ; so calied from its 
excoriating and abrading the intes- 
tines. 

Celandine. See Chelidonium majus. 

Cela'strus. (From ksXu, a dart, 
or pole, which it represents). See 
Ceanothus Americanus. 

Cela'stts. The same. 

Ce'le. (From KtjXtj;. A tumour 
caused by the protrusion of any soft 
part. Hence the compound terms 
hydrocele, bubonocele. 

Ce'lerv. The English name for 
a variety of the apium graveolens. 

Celiac artery. See Casliac artery. 

Ce'lis. (From jcaiw, to burnj. 
A spot or blemish upon the skin, 
particularly that which is occasioned 
by a burn. 

Ce'lla tl'rcica. See Sella turcica. 

Ce'llui.a. (Dim. of cella, a cell, . 
A little cell, or cavity. 

Ce'llul-E mastoide'.e. See Tem- 
poral bones. 

Ce'llular me'.mbrane. Mrmbrana 
cellulosa, &c. The cellular tissue of 
the body, composed of laminae and 
fibres, variously joined together, 
which is the connecting medium of 
every part of the body. It is by 
means of the communication of the 
cells of this membrane, that the 
butchers blow up their veal. The 
cellular membrane is, by some ana- 
tomists, distinguished into the reti- 
cular and adipose membrane. The 
former is evidently dispersed through- 
out the whole body, except the sub- 
stance of the brain. It makes a bed 
for the other solids of the body, 
covers them all, and unites them to 
each other. The adipose membrane 
consists of the reticular substance, 
and a particular apparatus for the 
M-cretion of oil, and is mostly found 
immediately under the skin of many 
parts, and about the kidneys. 

Celoi </.mia. (From kijXtj, hernia, 



131 



CEN 



and rsfiino, to cut). The operation 
for hernia. 

Ce'lsa. A term used by Para- 
celsus, to signify what is called the 
beating of life in a particular part. 

Cemente'rium. A crucible. 

Ce'nchramis. (From iceyxpog, mil- 
let) . A grain or seed of the fig. 

Ce'nchrius. A species of herpes 
resembling Ke-yxpog, or millet. 

Ceneangei a. (From icevog, emp- 
ty, and ayyog, a vessel). The eva- 
cuation of blood, or other fluids, 
from their proper vessels. 

Cent'gdam. Ceniplam, &c. An 
instrument formerly used for open- 
ing the head in epilepsies. 

Gemote'}] il m. A purgative re- 
medy, formerly used in the vene- 
real disease, supposed to be mercu- 
rial. 

Ceno'sis. (From icevog, empty). 
Evacuation. Distinguished thus from 
Catharsis : Cenosis imports a general 
evacuation ; Catharsis moans the 
evacuation of a particular humour, 
offensive with respect to quality. 

Cemu'rea. (So called "from 
Chiron, the centaur, who is said to 
have employed one of its species to 
cure himself of a wound accidentally 
received, by letting one of the ar- 
rows of Hercules fall upon his foot). 
The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Order, Poly- 
t>'6mia fn/stama ; Class, Syngcnesia. 

Centau'rea behen. The sys- 
tematic name of the officinal behen 
album, &c. The true white behen 
of the ancients. The root possesses 
astringent virtues. 

Centau'rea benedi'cta. The sys- 
tematic name of the blessed thistle. 
Cardvus benedict as. Cnicus sylvestris. 
Blessed or holy thistle. Centaurea 
benedicta ; calycibus duplicato-spinosis 
fanatis involucratis, Jvliis semidecur- 
rentibus denticulato-spinosis , of Lin- 
naeus. A native of Spain, and some 
of the Archipelago Islands, and ob- 
tained the name of Benedictus from 
its being supposed to possess extra- 
ordinary medicinal virtues. In loss 
of appetite, where the stomach was 
injured by irregularities, its good 
-effects have been frequently expe- 



rienced. It is a powerful bitter tonic 
and astringent. Bergius considers 
it as antacid, corroborant, stomachic, 
sudorific, diuretic, and eccoprotic. 
Chamomile flowers are now usually 
substituted for the carduus bene- 
dictus. 

Centau'rea calcitr'apa. The 
systematic name of the calcitrapa. 
Carduus stellatus. Jacea ramosis- 
sima, stellata,rupina. Common star- 
thistle. Star-knapweed. The plant 
thus called in the pharmacopoeias, 
is the Centaurea calcitrapa ; calycibus 
subduplicato-spinosis, sessilibus ; fo- 
liis pinnatifidis, linearibus dentatis; 
caule piloso, of Linnaeus, every part 
of which is bitter. It scarcely differs, 
in its effects, from other hitters, and 
is now little used. 

Centau'rea centau'rium. Rha- 
ponticum vnlgare. Centaurium mag- 
num. Centaurium ma jus. Greater 
centaury. It is now discarded from 
the Materia Medica of this countrv. 
Centau'rea cy'anus. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant which 
affords the flores cyani. Cyamis. 
Blue-bottle. Corn-flower. The flow- 
ers of this plant, Centaurea < y anus ; 
(illy cifnts serratis ; foliis linearibus, 
integerrimis. injimis dentatis, of Lin- 
naeus, were formerly in frequent use, 
but arc now, with great propriety, 
forgotten. 

Centau'rea solstitia'lis. Calci- 
trapa officinalis. St. Barnaby's this- 
tle. A weak tonic. 

Centaurioi'des. The gratiola. 
Centau'rium. (From Ktvlavpoc, 
a centaur). Vide Centaurea, See 
Ch ironia Centaurium . 

{See Cen- 
taurea 
Centau- 
rium. 
Centau'rium mi'nus. See Chiro- 
jiia Centaurium. 

Centau'ry. See Chironia. 
Centimo'rbia. (From centum, a 
hundred, and morbus, a disease). 
Nummularia, or money- wort. 

Centino'dia. (From centum, a 
hundred, and nodus, a knot). The 
herb polygonum ; so called from its 
many knots, or joints. 



CEP 



132 



CEP 



Centra'tio. (From centrum, a 
centre). The concentration and affi- 
nity of certain substances to each 
other. Paracelsus expresses by it 
the degenerating of a saline princi- 
ple, and contracting a corrosive and 
exulcerating quality. Hence Centrum 
salis is said to be the principle and 
cause of ulcers. 

Cf/ntrium. (From ksvteoj, to 
prick). A plaster against stitches 
and pricks in the side. Galen. 

Ce'ntrum. (From ksvteoj, to 
point or prick). The middle point of 
a circle. — Chym. The residence or 
foundation of matter. — Med. The ! 
point in which its virtue resides. — 
Anat. The middle point of some 
parts ; e. g. centrum nerveum, the 
middle or tendinous part of the dia- 
phragm. 

Ce'ntrum ova'le. When the two 
hemispheres of the brain are re- 
moved on a line with a level of the 
corpus callosum, the internal medul- 
lary part presents a somewhat oval 
centre ; hence called centrum ovale. 
Vieussenius supposed all the medul- 
lary fibres met at this place. 

Ce'ntrum tendino'sum. The ten- 
dinous centre of the diaphragm. See 
Diaphragm, 

Ce'ntrum ne'rveum. The centre 
of the diaphragm is so called. See 
Diaphragm. 

Centimno'dia. (From centum, a 
hundred, and nodus, a knot; so 
called, from its many knots, or 
joints}. Common knot-grass. See 
Polygonum aviculare. 

Clntu'nculus. Bastard pimper- 
nel. 

Ce'pa. fFrom Kniroq, a wool- 
card, from the likeness of its roots] . 
The onion. See Allium cepa. 

Cepje'a. A species of onion, once 
esteemed for salads in spring, but 
now di<re£r!trded. 

Cepiiai .l'a. (From KEtyaXn, the 
head;. The flesh of the head which 
covers the skull. Also a long-conti- 
nued pain of the cerebrum, and its 
membranes. 

Cephalalgia* (From Ki<pa\n, the 

head, and aXyoc, pain). C<phal<ra. 
The head-ache. It is symptomatic 



of very many diseases, but is rarely 
an original disease itself. When re- 
cent and mild, it is called cepha- 
lalgia ; when inveterate, cephalaea. 
When one side of the head only is 
affected, it takes the name of hemi- 
crania, &c. ; in one of the temples 
only, crotaphos; and that pain which 
is fixed to a point, generally in the 
crown of the head, is distinguished 
by the name of clavus. 

Cephalalgia catarrh a'lis. Head- 
ache, with catarrh, from cold. 

Cephalalgia inflammato'ria. 
Phrenitis, or inflammation of the 
brain. 

Cephalalgia spasmo'dica. The 
sick head-ache. A consequence of 
indigestion. 

Cephala'rtica. (From Ke<pa\rj, 
the head, and aprtjw, to make pure) . 
Medicines which purge the head. 

Ce'phale. (Kf0aXrj). The head. 

Cepha'lic vein. (Vena cephalica ; 
so called, because the head was sup- 
posed to be relieved by opening it) . 
The anterior vein of the arm, that 
receives the cephalic of the thumb. 

Cepha'lica. (From KEtyaXn, the 
head) . Cephalics. Remedies for the 
cure of disorders of the head ; e. g. 
errhines, which produce a discharge 
from the mucous membrane of the 
nose, &c. 

Cepha'lica po'llicis. A branch 
from the cephalic vein, sent off from 
about the lower extremity of the 
radius, running superficially between 
the thumb and metacarpus. 

Cepiia'licls pu'lvis. Cephalic 
powder. A powder prepared from 
asarum. 

Cephali'ne. (From KEfyaXri, the 
head). The head of the tongue. 
That part of the tongue next the 
root, and nearest the fauces. 

Cephali'tis. (From KsfiaXrj, the 
head). Inflammation of the head. 
See Phrenitis. 

Cephalono'sus. (From Ki<pa\n, 
the head, and vovoc,, a disease; . 
This term is applied to the febris 
hungarica, in which the head i* 
principally affected. 

Cephalo-pharyngf/us. fFrom 
KepaXi], the head, and 0api>y£, the 



CER 



133 



CER 



throat). A muscle of the pharynx, 
Otherwise named constrictor phan/n- 
gis inferior ; which sec. 

Cei'HALOPo'ma. (From Kt<pa\r)> 
the head, and uroroc, pain). Head- 
ache ; heaviness of the head. 

Cepi'ni. Vinegar* 

Ce'pula. Large myrohalans. 

Ce'ra. Wax. Bees'- wax. The 
chief medicinal nse of wax, is in the 
form of plasters, unguents, <\c. 
partly for (firing the reqaisite con- 
sistence to other ingredients, and 
partly on account of its own emol- 
lient quality. 

Ce'ra a'lba. Bleached wax ; vir- 
gin, or white wax. 

Ce'ra dica'rdo. The carduus pi- 
nea. 

Ce'ra PLX'VA, Yellow wax. the 
state in which it is obtained from 
the combti 

(Y.w v.'je. (From Btpag, a horn). 
So llufns Kphesius calls the cornua 
of the uterus. 

Cut wi'n-.s. (From BUJMWV/U) to 
temper together). A name formerly 
applied to a pastil, or troch, by 
Galen. 

Cr.'i;\s. (Ktpac, a horn). A wild 
sort of parsnop is so named, from its 
shape. 

Ce'k\>\. (Kf^rtfTnc, the cherry- 
tree ; from Kfpa<fOv7«j a town in 
Pontus, whence Liicullns fust brought 
them to Home ; or from x//o, the 
heart ; from the fruit having a re- 
semblance to it in shape and colour). 
The cherry. See Primus. 

Cb'RASA NI'GRA, Black cherries. 
Tlic fruit of the Primus Avium ; 
which see. 

Ck'kam iu'iii:a, svn'sx, or a'n- 
c.i.ica. Red cherries. See Primus 
Verasut, 

CbRASIA'TVM. (From ccrasus, a 
cherry). A purging medicine in Li- 
bariu8| so called, because the juice 
of cherries is an ingredient. 

Cbra'sius. Crattott (Fromeerw- 
sus, a cherry). The name of two 
ointments in Mesne. 

rCERA'sMA. (From KtpaWVM*, to 
x). A mixture of cold and warm 
ter, when the warm is poured into 



Ce'rasus. The cherry-tree. See 
Crrasa and Primus. 

Ce'rate. (From eera, wax) , O- 

ratum. A composition oi wax, oil, 
or lard, with or without other ingre- 
dients. 

Ceua'ita. (From Ktoac. a horn, 
which its fruit is said to resemble) . 
The siliqua dulcis. See Ccratonica. 

Cbr v'iia DiPHTYLUS.SeeCwraartA 

Cerato-gi .0 r 8SI 3, (From vtoac, 
a horn, and yXio&cra, a tongue), A 
muscle, so named from its shape and 
insertion into the tongue. See Hyo- 
glossus. 

Cerato-fivoiof/i s. (From the at 

/u/oides). See Sft/lo-/it/o:deus. 

Cbratoi / db8. (From rcpaloc, the 

irenitive of JCCpag) horn, and EiOOgj 
appearance). See Cornea. 

Ckkaio-m u \ <.m \. A cerate. 

CbRATO'NIA si'uoi v. The syste- 
matic name o( the plant whicli affords 
the sweet pod. Ci rut turn. Ccratia. 
Siliqua dulcis* 

CbRA'TUM, See (\rate, and CV- 
ratum simpler. 

CV.u\'iiM a'LBUM. See Ceratum 

cetae, i. 

t'r.ia'n m ( vi.omi i wos. — R>Hy« 
drarg. Bubmur. ji, Cerat. calam. 

tat* iMisce. Csed by some practi- 
tioners as a drafting for chancres. 

Cf.kx'itm cai \minv. Formerly 
called ceratum lapis calaminarit l and 

ceratum epuloticum. Calamine cerate. 
Turner*! Cerate. Calculated to pro- 
mote the cicatrization of ulcere. 
CBRA'TUM I ' \M H i'RIDI8« (datum 

liitt<c. ('crate of blistering fly. 
Cr.ux'n m CBTA'cbi. Ceratum «>„ 

matisoti. Ceratum all, >im. Sperma- 
ceti cerate. Cooling and emollient, 

and applied t»> excoriationji ftc. and 

may be used with advantage in all 
ulcers, where no stimulating sub- 
stance can be applied, being ex- 
tremely mild and unctuous. 

Cr.iiAHM CONl'l, Hemlock cerate. 
— \Ji Untruenti conii tlij. Spermatis 
cad 5JJ. Cora; alba* Jill. Misee. — - 
One of the formula* of St. Baitholo- 
mew's hospital, occasionally applied 
to cancerous, scrofulous, phagede- 
nic, herpetic, and other invekialJ 
sores. 

N 



CER 



134 



CER 



. Cera'tum ci'trinum. See Cera- 
tum resina?. 

Cera'tum epulo'ticum. See Ce- 
ratum calami7ics. 

Cera'tum la'pidis calamina'ris. 
See Ceratum calamine?. 

Cera'tum litha'rgyri aceta'ti 
compo'situm. See Ceratum plumbi 
compositum. 

Cera'tum plu'mbi aceta'tis. Un- 
guentum cerussce acetate. Cerate of 
superacetate of lead. Cooling and 
desiccative. 

Cera'tum plu'mbi compo'situm. 
Ceratum lithargyri acetati composi- 
tum. Compound cerate of lead. 
Cooling, desiccative,resolvent against 
chronic rheumatism, &c. &c. ; and 
as a proper application to superficial 
ulcers, when inflamed. 

Cera'tum resi'n^. Ceratum re- 
■una? Jlava?. Ceratum citrinum. Re- 
sin cerate. Digestive. 

Cera'tum sabi'nje. Savine cerate. 
To keep up a discharge from blis- 
tered surfaces. 

Cera'tum sapo'nis. Soap cerate. 
Resolvent ; against scrofulous tu- 
mours, &c. It is a convenient appli- 
cation to fractures, and may be used 
as an external dressing for ulcers. 

Cera'tum si'mplex. Ceratum. Sim- 
ple cerate. Take of olive oil, four 
fluid - ounces ; yellow wax, four 
ounces ; having melted the wax, 
mix the oil with it. 

Cera'tum spe'rmatis ce'ti. See 
Ceratum cetacei. 

Ce'rberus. (Kep&poc). A fanci- 
ful name given to the compound 
powder of scammony ; because, like 
the dog Cerberus, it has three heads, 
or principal ingredients, each of which 
is eminently active. 

Cerchna'leum. (From nepx^j to 
make a noise) . A wheezing, or bub- 
bling noise made by the trachea in 
breathing. 

Ce'rciinos. (From *fp%w, to 
wheeze) . Wheezing. 

Cerchno'des. (From nep^io, to 
wheeze). One who labours under a 
dense breathing, accompanied with 
a wheezing noise. 

Cercho'des. The same as cerch- 
nodes. 



Ce'rcis. (K«pxi£, from xspxw, to 
shriek; literally, the spoke of a 
wheel, and has its name from the 
noise which wheels often make). 
Anat, The radius, a bone supposed 
to be like a spoke. Also a pestle* 
from its shape. 

Cerco'sis. (From xtpttog, a tail). 
A polypus of the uterus. It is some- 
times applied to an enlarged clitoris. 

Ce'rea. (From cera, wax). The 
cerumen aurium, or wax of the ear. 

Cerea'lia. (Solemn feasts to the 
goddess Ceres). All sorts of corn, 
of which bread or any nutritious 
substance is made, come under the 
head of cerealia, which term is ap- 
plied by bromatologists as a genus. 

Cerebe'lla uri'na. Paracelsus 
thus distinguishes urine which is 
whitish, of the colour of the brain, 
and from which he pretended to 
judge of some of its distempers. 

Cerebe'llum. (Dim. of cerebrum). 
The little brain. A somewhat round 
viscus, of the same use as the brain ; 
and, like it, composed of a corti- 
cal and medullary substance* divided 
by a septum into a right and left 
lobe ; and situated under the tento- 
rium, in the inferior occipital fossae. 

*** In the cerebellum are to be 

observed the crura cerebelli; the 

fourth ventricle ; the valvula magna 

cerebri; and the protubcrantia? vermi- 

formes. 

Ce'rebrum. (Quasi carebrum; 
from aapa, the head) . The brain. A 
large round viscus, divided superi- 
orly into a right and left hemisphere, 
and inferiorly into six lobes, two an- 
terior, two middle, and two poste- 
rior ; situated within the cranium, 
and surrounded by the dura and pia 
mater, and tunica arachnoides. It 
is composed of a cortical or external 
substance; and a medullary , or in- 
ternal. It has three cavities, called 
ventricles; two anterior, or lateral, 
which are divided from each other 
by the septum lucidum, and in each 
of which is the choroid plexus, 
formed of blood-vessels ; the third 
ventricle is a space between the 
thalami nervorum opticorum. The 
principal prominences of tUe brain 



CER 



135 



CES 



are, the corpus callosum, a medul- 
lary eminence, conspicuous upon 
laving aside the hemispheres of the 
brain ; the corpora striata, two stri- 
ated protuberances, one in the ante- 
rior part of each lateral ventricle ; 
the thalami nervorum opticorum, two 
whitish eminences behind the former, 
which terminate in the optic nerves ; 
the corpora quadrigemina, four me- 
-dullary projections, called by the 
ancients nates and testes; a little ce- 
rebrine tubercle lying upon the nates, 
called the pineal gland \ and, lastly, 
the crura cerebri, two medullary co- 
lumns which proceed from the basis 
of the brain to the medulla oblongata. 
The cerebral arteries are branches 
of the carotid and vertebral arteries. 
The veins terminate in sinusses, 
which return their blood into the 
internal jugulars. 

* # * The use of the brain is to 
give off nine pairs of nerves, and the 
spinal marrow, from which thirty- 
one more pairs proceed, through 
whose means the various senses are 
performed, and muscular motion ex- 
cited. It is also considered as the 
organ of the intellectual functions. 

Ce'rebrum ELONciA'n m. The me- 
dulla oblongata. 

Cerefo'lium. A corruption of 
chaerophyllum. See Standix. 

Cerefo'lium hispa'niclm. The 
plant called by us sweet-cicely. 

Cerefo'lium sylve'stre. See 
Ch(T rop hy Uu m . 

Ce'rei medica'ti. Medicated bou- 
gies. See Bougie. 

Cerela'um. (From nrjpog, wax, 
and eXaLov). A cerate, or liniment, 
composed of wax and oil. Also oil 
tar. 

Cerevi'si;e ferme'ntum. Yeast. 

Cerevi'sia. (From ceres, corn, of 
which it is made) . Ale. Beer. Any 
liquor made from corn. 

Cerevi'sia catapla'sma. Cata- 
plasm of ale or strong-beer grounds, 
thickened with oatmeal. This is 
sometimes employed as a stimulant 
and antiseptic to mortified parts. 
^ Ce'ria. (From cereus, soft, pliant) . 
Ceria?. The flat worms which breed 
in the intestines. 



Ce'rion. (From Ktjpiov, a honey- 
comb). A kind of achor. 

Cero'ma. (From kvooq, wax). 
Ceronium. Terms used by the an- 
cient physicians for an unguent, or 
cerate, though originally applied to 
a particular composition which the 
wrestlers used in their exercises. 

Ceropi'ssus. (From Krjpog, wax, 
and mwaa, pitch). A plaster com- 
posed of pitch and wax. 

Cero'tum. (KspojTov). A cerate. 

Ceru'meN Al/RIUM. (Cerumen; 
dim. of cera, wax). Cerea. Aurium 
sordes, &c. The waxy ceruminous 
secretion of the ears, in the meatus 
auditorius externus. 

Ceru'ssa. (Arab). Cerusse, or 
white lead. See Plumbi subcarbonas. 

Ceru'ssa aceta'ta. See Plumbi 
superacetas. 

Ce'rvi SPl'NA. See Rhamnus ca- 
thartic?^. 

Cervi'cal, -alis, n. (From cervix, 
the neck). Belonging to the neck; 
as cervical nerves, cervical muscles, 
&c. 

Cervi'cal a'rteries. Arteries a » - 
vicnlt.s. Branches of the subclavians. 

Cervi'cal ve'rtebra. The seven 
uppermost of the vertebrae, which 
form the spine. See Vertebra^. 

Cervica'ria. (From cervix, the 
neck; so named, because it was sup- 
posed to be efficacious in disorders 
and ailments of thethroaland neck). 
The herb throat-wort. 

Ce'rvi x, -vicis, f. (Quasi cerchri 
via; as being the channel of the spi- 
nal marrow). The neck. That part 
of the body which is between the 
head and shoulders. The cervix 
uteri is the neck of the womb ; or 
that part of it which is immediately 
above or beyond the os tincae. Ap- 
plied also to other parts, as cervix 
vesicae, cervix ossis, &c. 

Cestri'tes. (From xscrpov, be- 
tony). Wine impregnated with be- 
tony. 

Ce'strum. (From xtapa, a dart ; 
so called from the shape of its flow- 
ers, which resemble a dart ; or be- 
cause it was used to extract the 
broken ends of darts from wounds). 
The herb betony. 
N2 



CHA 



136 



CHA 



Ceta'ceum. See Physeter. 

Ce'terach. This word, accord- 
ing to Blanchard, is corrupted from 
pteryga, 'srlepv^,, q. v. as peteryga, 
ceteryga, and ceterach). Scolopen- 
dria vera. Spleenwort. Miltwaste. 
This small bushy plant, Asplenium 
ceterach; frondibus pinnatifidis, lobis 
alternis confiuentibm obtusis of Lin- 
naeus, grows upon old walls and 
rocks. It has an herbaceous, muci- 
laginous, roughish taste, and is re- 
commended as a pectoral : given, in 
Spain, in nephritic and calculous 
complaints. 

Cevadi'lla. (Dim. of ceveda, bar- 
ley. Spanish). Cevadilla Hispano- 
rum, Sevadilla. Sabadilla. Hor- 
deum causticum, Canis interfector . 
Indian caustic barley. The plant 
whose seeds are thus denominated, 
is a species of veratrum: they are 
powerfully caustic, and are admi- 
nistered with very great success as a 
vermifuge. They are also diuretic 
and emetic. The dose to a child 
from two to four years old, is two 
grains ; from hence to eight, five 
grains ; from eight to twelve, ten 
grains. 

Ceyenne pepper. See Capsicum. 

Cha'a. A Chinese name for tea. 

Chacari'll.^ co'rtex. See Cro- 
to?i Cascarilla. 

Ch^rofo'lium. See Scandix. 

ChjEROPHy'llum. XaipocpvWov : 
from x ai P i0 > to rejoice, and (pvXXov, 
a leaf ; so called from the abundance 
of its leaves) . Chervil. — 1 . The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Pentandria; Order, 
jbigynia. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of some plants. See Scandix, 
and Chterophyllum sylvestre, 

Ch/erophy'llum sylve'stre. Ci- 
cutaria. Bastard hemlock. This 
plant, Cha-ropht/llum sylvestre; caule 
Iccvi striata ; geniculis tumidiusculis, 
of Linnaeus, is often mistaken for 
the true hemlock. 

Cha'ta. (From x fl0 > t0 Dc dif- 
fused). The human hair. 

Ciiai.a'sis. (From %a\aw, to re- 
lax). Relaxation. 

CHALA'STICA. (From ^«\rto>, to 
i lax), Medicines which relax. 



Chalazion. (From x^a^a, a 
hail-stone). Chataza. Chalazium, 
Grando. An indolent, moveable 
tubercle on the margin of the eye- 
lid, like a hail-stone. A species of 
hordeolum, or that well-known af- 
fection of the eye, called a stye, or 
stian. It is white, hard, and en- 
cysted, and differs from the crttke, 
another species, only in being move- 
able. 

*** Writers mention a division of 
Chalazion into schirrous, cancerous, 
cystic, and earthy. 

Cha'lbane. (XaXtavrj). Gal- 
banum. 

Chalc'anthum. (From x«^*oc 
brass, and avOog, a flower). Vi- 
triol ; or rather, vitriol calcined red. 
The flowers of brass. 

Chalcei'on. A species of pimpi- 
nella. 

Chalcoi'deum os. The os cunei- 
formc of the tarsus. 

Chalk. See Creta. 

Chalk-stones. Gouty concre- 
tions in the hands and feet resemb- 
ling chalk, though chymically dif- 
ferent. 

Chali'cratum. (From x«\ic, an 
old word that signifies pure wine, 
and Kepavvvfiiy to mix). Wine mixed 
with water. 

Ciiali'nos. Chalinus. That part 
of the cheeks, which, on each side, 
is contiguous to the angles of the 
mouth. 

Chaly'beate. Chalybeata. (From 
chalybs, iron or steel). Of, or be- 
longing to, iron. A term given to 
any medicine into which iron enters ; 
e. g. chalybeate mixture, pills, wa- 
ters, &c. 

Chaly'beate wa'ters. Any mi- 
neral water containing iron ; as the 
waters of Tunbridge, Spa, Pyrmont, 
Cheltenham, Scarborough, andHart- 
fel, &c. 

Cha'lybis Rubi'go pr/epara'ta". 
See Fcrri subcarbonas. 

Cha'lyes. (From Chalybes, a 
people in Pontus, who dug iron out 
of the earth), sides. Steel. The 
best, hardest, finest, and closest- 
grained forged iron. As a medicine, 
steel differs not from iron, 



CHA 



CHA 



Cha'lYBS TARTAR1 ZA'TUS. The 

ferrum tartarizatum. 

Cham^eba'lanus. (From xotftat, 
on the ground, and f3a\avog, a 
nut). Wood peas. Earth nuts. 

Cham.ebu'xus. (From %ajuai, on 
the ground, and mv^og, the box- 
tree) . The dwarf box-tree. 

Cham/ece'drus. (From x a /* at > 
on the ground, and xedpog, the 
cedar-tree). Charncecedrys. A spe- 
cies of dwarf southernwood. 

Chamjeci'ssus. (From x"/* ' 1 * on 
the ground, and Kiaaog, ivy). 
Ground-ivy. 

Chamacle'ma. (From x^ 01 * on 
the ground, and n\i/fia f ivy). The 
ground-ivy. 

Cham;e'drys. '(From x a ^ ai y on 
the ground, and lpv<7, the oak ; so 
called from its leaves resembling 
those of the oak) . See Teucriurn, 

CHAMiE'DRYS INCA'NA MARl'TIMA. 

The marum syriacum. 

Chaiyie/drys frute'scens. A 
name for Teucriurn. 

Cham/e'drys palu'stris. A name 
given to scordium. 

Chame'drys spu'ria. A name 
given to veronica. 

Cham;ele'a. (From x a M at > on 
the ground, and tXaia, the olive- 
tree). See Daphne alpina. 

Cham;el;ea'gnus. (From xa/*«i> 
on the ground, and tXaiayvog y the 
wild-olive). The myrtus brabantica. 

Cham.e'leon. (From x rt /* at > on 
the ground, and Xewv, a lion, i, e. 
dwarf lion). The chamaeleon. Also 
the name of many thistles, so named 
from the variety and uncertainty of 
their colours. 

Chameleon a'lbum. See Car- 
Una acaulis. 

Chamje'leon ve'rum. The distaff 
thistle. 

Cham;eleu'ce. (From x a /* at > ( » 
the ground, and Xivktj, the herb 
colt's foot). Tussilago, or colt's foot. 

Cham-eli'num. (From x a t JLai y on 
the ground, and Xivov, flax). Linum 
catharticum, or purging flax. 

Chamaeme'lum. (From xct/*at, on 
the ground, and /n/j\ov, an apple ; 
because it grows upon the ground, 
and has the smell of an apple) . Com- 



mon chamomile. See Anthemis no* 
bilts, 

Chamjsme'lum canarie'nse. The 
Chrysanthemum frutescens. Linnaeus . 

Cham^me'lum chrysa'nthemum. 
The bupthalmum germanicum. 

Cham^eme'lum fce'tidum. The 
Anthemis cotula. Linn. 

Cham;eme'lum flo're ple'no. 
Cham&melum nobile Jiore multipiici. 
Double chamomile. A variety of 
the anthemis nobilis ; which see. 

Cham.eme'lum no'bile. See An- 
themis nobilis, 

Chamxme'lum vulga're. See 
Matricaria chamomilla, 

Cham.e'morus. (xafxai^ioptay 
from x a l JLai i on tne ground, and 
fiopecty the mulberry-tree). See 
Rubies. 

Cham.epeu'ce. (From x a M ai > on 
the ground, and mevxrj, the pine- 
tree). Stinking ground-pine, for- 
merly said to be antirheumatic. 

Cijam.e'pitys. (From x«j"« l > on the 
ground, and mirvg, the pine-tree). 
See Teucriurn, 

Cham^e'pitys moscha'ta. See7Vt<- 
crium Iva. 

Ciiamje'plion. Erysimum, or 
hedge mustard. Oribasius. 

ChaMjERa v phanum. The upper 
part of the root of the apium. Paul. 
JEgineta, 

Cham£Ra'phanus. (From x a P ai » 
on the ground, and patyavog, the 
radish). The upper part of the root; 
of apium. JEgineta. Smallage, or 
parsley. Also dwarf radish. 

Cham;e'riphes. Thcpalma minor. 

Cham^rodode'ndron. (From 

Xctjiai, on the ground, and pooo- 

Ssvopov, the rose laurel). The 

Azel&a pontica of Linnaeus. 

Chamje'rubus. (From x a L un > on 
the ground, and rubus, the bramble). 
The chamaemorus. 

Chamjespa'rtium. From xanai, 
on the ground, and Gnapriov, Spa- 
nish brown). The genista tinetoria. 

Chambers. The space between 
the capsule of the chrystalline lens 
and the cornea of the eye, is divided 
by the iris into two spaces, called 
chambers ; the space before the iris 
is termed the anterior chamber 5 and 
N3 



CHE 



138 



CHE 



that behind it, the posterior. They 
are filled with an aqueous fluid. 

Chamomi'lla no'stras. See Ma- 
tricaria Chamomilla, 

Chamomi'lla roma'na. See An- 
themis. 

Cha'ncre. (Fr. From napHivog, 
cancer). A sore which arises from 
the direct application of the venereal 
poison to any part of the body. Oc- 
curring mostly on the genitals. 

Chaoma'ntia si'gna. So Paracel- 
sus calls those prognostics that are 
taken from observations of the air ; 
and the skill of doing this, the same 
author calls Chaomancia. 

Chao'sda. Epithet for the plague. 
Paracelsus. 

Ciia'rabe. (Arab.) a name given 
to amber ; which see. 

Cha'radra. (From ^apacraio, to 
excavate). The bowels, or sink of 
the bodv. 

Charama'is. Purging hazel-nut. 

Chara'ntia. The momordica ela- 
terium. 

Charcoal. See Carbon. 

Cha'rdone. The Cinara spinosa. 

Charistolo'chia. (From %ajoic, 
joy, and \oy/a, the flux of women 
after child-birth ; so named from its 
supposed usefulness to women in 
child-birth). The plant mugwort, 
or artemisia. 

Cha'rme. (From x ai P 0) > to re- 
joice). Charmis. A cordial antidote 
mentioned by Galen. 

Cha'rpie. (Fr.) Caddice. Scraped 
linen, or lint. 

Cha'rta. (Chald.) Paper. The 
amnios, or interior fcetal membrane 
was called the chart a virginea, from 
its resemblance to a piece of fine 
paper. 

Cha'rtreux, pou'dke de. (In- 
vented by some friars of the Carthu- 
sian order) . A name of the kermes 
mineral. 

Ciia'sm. (From x aLV °h to gape). 
Chasmus. Oscitation. Gaping. 

Chaste tree. The a gnus castas. 

C'ha'te. The cucumis /Egyptia. 

Cheek-bone, See Jugale as. 

CHEESE. Caseus. The coagulum 
Ik. When prepared from rich 

k, and well made, it is very nu- 



tritious in small quantities ; but 
mostly indigestible when hard and 
ill prepared, especially to weak sto- 
machs. 

Cheiloca'ce. (From x aAo e> a 
lip, and x,a/,ov, an evil). The lip- 
evil. A swelling of the lips, or can- 
cer in the mouth. 

Cheime'lton. (From x E H Aa i win- 
ter). Chilblains. 

Cheira'nthus. (From x ei P> a 
hand, and avOog, a flower ; from 
the likeness of its blossoms to the 
fingers of the hand). A genus of 
plants in the Linnsean system : Class, 
Tetr adynamia; Order, Siliauosa. The 
wall-flower. 

Cheira'nthus chei'ki. The sys- 
tematic name of the wall-flower. 
Leucoinm luteum. Viola lutea. Com- 
mon yellow wall-flower. The flow- 
ers of this plant, Chciranthus cheiri ; 
foliis lanceolatiSy acutis , glabris ; rami* 
angulatis ; caale fruticoso, of Lin- 
naeus, are recommended as possess- 
ing nervine and deobstruent virtues. 
Smell moderately strong and plea- 
sant, taste nauseous, bitter, and 
somewhat pungent. 

Cheira'psia. (From x H P> tne 

| hand, and aTrrojucu, to touch). The 

act of scratching ; particularly the 

scratching one hand with another, 

as in the itch. 

Chei'ri. {Cheiri, Arab.) See 
Cheiranthus. 

Cheiri a'ter. (From x ei P> tno 
hand, and lalpog, a physician). A 
surgeon whose office it is to remove 
maladies by manual operations. 

Cheiri'sma. (From xaoi^o/zat, 
to labour with the hand). Handling. 
Also a manual operation. 

Cheiri'xis. (From ^api^o/tai, to 
labour with the hand) . The art of 
surgery. 

Cheirono'mia. (From x^povofxeix), 
to exercise with the hands) . An ex- 
ercise which consisted of gesticula- 
tions with the. hands, like our dumb- 
hells. Hipp. 

Ciie'la. (x*A^> forceps; from 
X*o>, to take). A forked probe for 
extracting a polypus from the nose. 
Fissures in the feet, or other places. 

Ciie'la cancro'rum. See Cancer, 



CHE 



13<* 



Che'lidon. The bend of the arm. 

Chelido'mum. (From ^sXi^wv, 
the swallow. It is so called from the 
opinion, that it was pointed out as 
useful for the eyes by swallows, 
who are said to open the eyes of 
their young by it ; or because it 
blossoms about the time when swal- 
lows appear). Celandine. A genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Polyandria; Order, Mono- 
gynza, There is only one species 
used in medicine, and that rarely. 

Chelido'mum ma'jls. Papaver 
corniculutum, htteum. Tetterwort, 
and great celandine. The herb and 
rootof this plant, Chelidonmm ma jus ; 

kineulu umbellatis, of Linnaeus, 
have a faint, unpleasant smell, and a 
bitter, acrid, durable taste, which is 
stronger in the roots than the leaves, 
which are aperient and diuretic, and 
recommended in jaundice, when not 
accompanied with inflammatory 
symptoms. It should lie adminis- 
tered with caution, as it is liable to 
irritate the Btomach and bowels. 

Ciielido'nrm mi'nls. See Ra- 
mi n cu las fie a ria . 

Chelo'ne. (x^ojv))). The tor- 
toise. An instrument for extending 
a limb, and so called, because, in it> 
slow motions, it represents a tor- 
toise, (hcibanus, 

Chelo'nioi*. Prom x* Aw *"/> the 
tortoise ; so called from its resem- 
blance to the shell of a tortoise). A 
hump, or gibbosity in the back. 

Cheltenham water. One of the 
most celebrated purging waters in 
England, p<> ing both saline and 

chalybeate principles. When first 
drawn, it is clear and colourless, but 
somewhat brisk ; has a saline, bit- 
terish, chalybeate taste. It does not 
keep, nor bear transporting to any 
distance ; the chalybeate part being 
lost by participation of the iron, and 
in the open air it even turns foetid. 
The salts, however, remain. Its 
heat, in summer, was from 50° to 
bb° or 59°, when the medium heat of 
the atmosphere was nearly 15° higher. 

%*" The sensible effects produced 
by this water, are generally, on first 
taking it, a degree of drowsiness, and 



sometimes head-ache, but which soon: 
go oif spontaneously, even previous 
to the operation on the bowels. A 
moderate dose acts powerfully, and 
speedily, as a cathartic, without oc- 
casioning griping, or leaving that 
faintness and languor which often 
follow the action of the rougher ca- 
thartics. It is principally on this 
account, but partly too from the sa- 
lutary operation of the chalybeate, 
and perhaps the carbonic acid, that 
the Cheltenham water may be, in 
most cases, persevered in, for a con- 
siderable length of time, uninterrupt- 
edly, without producing any incon- 
venience to the body ; and during 
its use, the appetite will be improved, 
the digestive organs strengthened, 
and the whole constitution invigo- 
rated. A dose of this water, too 
small to operate directly on the 
bowels, will generally determine 
pretty powerfully on the kidneys, 
\s a purge) this water is drank from 
one to three pints; in general, from 
half a pint to a quart is sufficient. 
Persons who have injured their bi- 
liary organs* by a long residence in 
hot climates, and who are suffering 
under the symptoms, either of excess 
of bile or deficiency of bile, and an 
irregularity in its secretion, or ob- 
struction of the liver, receive re- 
markable benefit from a course of 
this water, judiciously exhibited. The 
fittest season for drinking the Chel- 
tenham water, is during the whole 
of the summer months. 

Che'lvs. f^tAi's, a shell). The 
breast is so called, as resembling in 
shape and office the shell of some 
fish- 

Chely'scion. (From x^c> the 
breast). A dry, hort cough, in 
which the muscles of the breast are 
very sore. 

Che'ma. A measure mentioned 
by the Greek physicians, supposed 
to contain two small spoonfuls. 

Che'mia. Chymistry ; which see. 

Che'mical appara'tls. A gene- 
ral term expressive of the instru- 
ments, vessels, machinery, furniture,, 
and utensils of a laboratory. 

Chemistry, or Chvmistry. fop* 



CHE 



140 



CHE 



/iia, and sometimes \r)pia\ chamia, 
from chama, to burn, Arab, this sci- 
ence being the examination of all sub- 
stances by fire). C hernia. Chimia. Chy- 
mia. The learned are not yet agreed 
as to the most proper definition of 
chymistry. Boerhaave seems to have 
ranked it among the arts. According 
to Macquer, it is a science, the object 
of which is to discover the nature and 
properties of all bodies by analysis 
and combination. According to Dr. 
Black, it is a science which teaches, 
by experiments, the effects of heat 
and mixture on bodies ; and Four- 
croy defines it a science which 
teaches the mutual actions of all 
natural bodies on each other. " Chy- 
mistry," says Jacquin, " is that 
branch of natural philosophy which 
unfolds the nature of all material 
bodies, determines the number and 
properties of their component parts, 
and teaches us how those parts are 
united, and by what means they may 
be separated and recombined." Mr. 
Heron defines it, " That science 
which investigates and explains the 
laws of that attraction which takes 
place between the minute component 
particles of natural bodies." The 
objects to which the attention of 
chymists is directed, comprehend 
the whole of the substances com- 
posing the globe. 

Chemo'sis. (From xaivw, to 
gape ; because it gives the appear- 
ance of a gap, or aperture). In- 
flammation of the tuonica conjunc- 
tiva, in which the white of the eye 
is distended with blood, and elevated 
above the margin of the transparent 
cornea. In Cullen's Nosology, it is 
a variety of the ophthalmia membra- 
narmn. See Scarpa, IVare^and others. 

Chenopodio-mo'rus. From che- 
nopodium and morus, the mulberry ; 
so called, because it is a sort of che- 
nopodium, with leaves like a mul- 
berry). The herb mulberry-blight, 
or strawberry-spinach. 

Chenopo'dium. (From x*l v > a 
goose, and movg y a foot; so called 
from its supposed resemblance to a 
goose's foot). The herb chenopody, 
goose's foot. A genus of plants in 



the Linnaean system : Class, Pentan~ 
dria : Order, Digynia. 

Chenopo'dium ambrosioi'des. The 
systematic name of the Mexican tea- 
plant. Botrys Mexicana, &c. Mex- 
ico tea. Spanish tea and Artemisian 
botrys. A decoction of this plant, 
Chenopodium ambrosioides ; foliis Ian- 
ceolatis dentatis, racemis foliatis si?n- 
plicibusy is recommended in para- 
lytic cases. The infusion was for- 
merly drunk instead of Chinese tea. 

Chenopo'dium anthelmi'nticum. 
The seeds of this plant, Chenopodium 
anthelminthum ; foliis ovato-oblongis 
dentals, racemis aphyllis, of Lin- 
naeus, though in great esteem in 
America for the cure of worms, are 
never exhibited in this country. 

Chenopo'dium Bo'trys. The sys- 
tematic name of the Jerusalem oak. 
Botrys vulgaris. &c. Jerusalem oak. 
The Chenopodium botrys ; foliis oblon- 
gis sinualis, racemis mulis multifdis, 
of Linnaeus. 

Chenopo'dium bo'nus Henri'cus. 
The systematic name of the English 
mercury. The Chenopodimn bonus 
Henricus; foliis triangularis agittatis , 
integerrimiSy spicis compositis aphyl- 
lis axillaribus, of Linnaeus. It is a 
native of this countrv, and common 
in waste grounds from June to Au- 
gust. The leaves are accounted 
emollient, and with this intention 
have been made an ingredient in de- 
coctions for clysters. They are ap- 
plied by the common people to flesh 
wounds and sores, under the notion 
of drawing and healing. 

Chenopo'dium fgz'tidum. Sec 
Chen opodium vulvaria . 

Chenopo'dium vulva'ria. The 
systematic name for the stinking 
orach. The very foetid smell of this 
plant, Chenopodium ; foliis integerri- 
mis rhombco-ovatis , floribus conglome- 
rate axillaribus, of Linnaeus, induced 
physicians to exhibit it in hysterical 
diseases, but it is now superseded by 
more active preparations. 

Che'ras. (Frarn ^cw, to pour out). 
Struma, or scrofula. 

Cnerefo'lium. See Scandix cere* 
folium. 

Che'rmes. (Arab.) A small 



CHI 



141 



CHI 



berry, full of insects like worms ; 
the juice of which was formerly 
made into a confection, called con- 
fectio alkermes, which has been long 
disused. Also the worm itself. 

Che'rmes minera'lis. Hydro-sul- 
phuret of antimony. 

Cherni'bium. Chernibion. In 
Hippocrates it signifies an urinal. 

Chero'nia. (From Xetpujv, the 
Centaur). See Chironia centaurium. 

Cherry. See Cerasa nigra and Ce- 
rasa rubra. 

Cherry, bay. The Lauro-cerasus. 

Cherry, laurel. The Lauro-cerasus. 

Cherry, winter. The Alkekengi. 

Chervi'lllm. See Scaudix cere- 
folium. 

Chesnut, horse. See JEsculus Hip- 
pocastajium. 

Cheu'sis. (From x fa> > to pour 
out). Liquidation. Infusion. 

Ciieva'ster or ciieva'stre. A 
double-headed roller, applied by its 
middle below the chin ; then run- 
ning on eacli side, it is crossed on 
the top of the head ; then passing to 
the nape of the neck, is there cross- 
ed : it then passes under the chin, 
where crossing, it is carried to the 
top of the head, &c. until it is all 
exhausted . 

Chezana'nce. (From %6(w, to 
go to stool, and avaytzr), necessity). 
It signifies any thing that stimulates 
to a necessity of going to stool ; but, 
according to P. /Egineta, it is the 
name of an ointment, with which 
the anus is to be rubbed, for pro- 
moting stools. 

Ciii'a. (From Xcoe, an island 
where they were formerly propa- 
gated). A sweet fig of the island of 
Chio, or Scio. Also an earth from 
that island, formerly used in fe- 
vers. 

Chi'acls. (From Xioc, the island 
of Scio). A collyrium, whose chief 
ingredient was wine of Chios. 

Ciiia'dus. In Paracelsus it signi- 
fies the same as furunculus. 
Chian pepper. See Capsicum. 
Chian Turpentine. See Pistacia 
Tercbinthus. 

Ciii'asmus. (From x ia l L °i t0 form 
like the letter X i chi). The name 



of a bandage, whose shape is like 
the Greek letter X, chi. 

Chia'stos. The name of a crucial 
bandage in Oribasius ; from its re- 
semblance to the letter X, chi. 

Chia'stre. A bandage for stop- 
ping hemorrhage from the temporal 
artery. It is a double-headed roller, 
the middle of which is applied to the 
side of the head, opposite to that in 
which the artery is opened, and, 
when brought round to the part af- 
fected, it is crossed upon the com- 
press that is laid upon the wound, 
and then, the continuation is over the 
coronal suture, and under the chin ; 
then crossing on the compress, the 
course is, as at the first, round the 
head, &c. till the whole roller is 
taken up. 

Chi'bou. A spurious species of 
gum elemi, spoken of by the faculty 
of Paris, but not known in England. 

Chi'bur. Sulphur. 

Chichi'na. Abbreviation of Chi- 
na chinae. Sec Cinchona. 

Chi'chos. Chirces. Distemper of 
black cattle. 

Chicken pox. See Varicella. 

Cldchiuced. See Alsine media. 

Chigre. (Fr.) A kind of small 
sand-Hea, very troublesome in the 
West Indies, by insinuating itself 
into the soft and tender parts of the 
fingers and toes, more usually than 
into any other parts of the body, 
particularly under the nails, where it 
continues to increase in size, caus- 
ing no further pain than a disagree- 
able itching and heat. 

*** In very inveterate cases, 
where, from neglect, either the 
hands or feet are much beset with 
these vermin, it is sometimes neces- 
sary, after the several cysts in which 
they are contained, are extracted, to 
wash the parts with a strong decoc- 
tion of tobacco, or a solution of the 
sulphate of copper; or, which is 
found equally, if not more efficacious, 
to rub in a little liquid tar. 

Chi'lblain. Pernio. An inflam- 
mation of the extreme parts of the 
body, from the application of cold ; 
attended with a violent itching, and 
soon forming a gangrenous ulcer.. 



CHI 



142 



CHI 



See Dr. J. Thompson on Inflamma- 
tion ; — Rees's Cyclopaedia, p. 638 ; — 
Pearson s Principles of Surgery, 
p. 153, (Sec. 

Chi'li, Ba'lsamum de. Salmon 
speaks, but without any proof, of 
its being brought from Chili. The 
Barbadoes tar, in which are mixed a 
few drops of the oil of aniseed, is 
usually sold for it. 

Chiliody'namon. (From %ikioi, 
a thousand, and Svvap.ig, virtue). 
An epithet of the herb Polemonium. 
In Dioscorides this name is given on 
account of its many virtues. 

Chi'lon. (Xeikwv) An inflamed 
and swelled lip. 

Chilpela'gua. A variety of cap- 
sicum. 

Ckitter pin. A species of capsicum. 

Chime'thlon. A chilblain. 

Chi'mia. See Chymistry. 

Chimia'ter. (From \v\na, chy- 
mistry, and tarpog, a physician) . A 
physician who makes the science of 
chymistry subservient to the pur- 
poses of medicine. 

Chimney-sweeper's cancer. Can- 
cer Scroti. See Scrotum, cancer of. 

Chimo'lea la'xa. Paracelsus 
means, by this word, the sublimed 
powder which is separated from the 
flowers of saline ores. 

Chi'na. (So named from the 
country of China, from whence it 
was brought) . See Smilax China. 

Chi'na chi'NjE. A name given to 
the Peruvian bark. 

Chi'na occidenta'lis. China spu- 
ria nodosa. Smilax pseudo-China. 
Smilax Indica spinosa. American or 
West- Indian China, chiefly brought 
from Jamaica, in large round pieces, 
full of knots. Useful in scrofula. 

Chi'na suppo'sita. See Senecio. 

Chin chi'na. See Chinchona. 

Chinchi'na Carib;e'a. See Chin- 
chona Cariboea. 

Chinchi'na de Sa'nta Fe. There 
are several pieces of bark sent from 
Santa F6 ; but neither their particu- 
lar natures, nor the trees which af- 
ford them, are yet accurately deter- 
mined. 

Chinchi'na Jamaice'nsis. See 
Chinthona Carib&a. 



Chinchi'na ru'bra. See Chin- 
chona oblongifolia. 

Chinchi'na de St. Lu'cia. St. 
Lucia bark. See Cinchona flori- 
bunda. 

Chincough. See Pertussis. 

Chine'nse. The aurantium si- 
nense, or Chinese orange. 

Chinese smilax. See Smilax 
China. 

Chi'o turpentine. See Pistacia 
Terebinthus. 

Chi'oli. In the work of Para- 
celsus it is synonymous with furun- 
culus. 

Chi'oues. A name for the worms 
which get into the toes of the ne- 
groes, and which are destroyed by 
the oil which flows out of the cashew 
nut-shell. 

Chira'gra. (From \up, the hand, 
and aypa, a seizure). The gout in 
the joints of the hand. See Ar- 
thritis. 

Chiro'nes. (From y/m, the hand). 
Small pustules on the hand and feet, 
inclosed in which is a troublesome 
worm. 

Chiro'nia. (From Chiron, the 
Centaur who discovered its use).-— 

1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Pen- 
tandria; Order, Monogyuia. — 

2. (From x«p, the hand). An affec- 
tion of the hand, where it is troubled 
with chirones. 

Chiro'nia Centau'rium. Centau* 
rium minus vulgare. Centaurium 
parvum. Centaurium minus. Cen- 
taury. Chironia ; corollis quinque- 
fldis infimdibuliformibus, cauledicho- 
tomo, pistillo simplici, of Linnaeus. 

%* This plant is justly esteemed 
to be the most efficacious bitter of 
all the medicinal plants indigenous 
to this country. It has been recom- 
mended by Cullen as a substitute for 
gentian, and by several is thought 
to be a more useful medicine. The 
tops of the centaury plant are di- 
rected for use by the colleges of 
Lond. and Edin. and are most com- 
monly given in infusion ; but they 
may also be taken in powder, or 
prepared into an extract. 

Chiro'nium. (From Xeipwv, the 



CHO 



143 



CHO 



Centaur). A malignant ulcer, with 
callous edges, and difficult to cure. 

Chirothe'ca. (From x a P> tne 
hand, and riOnfii, to put) . A glove of 
the scarf-skin, with the nails, which 
is brought off from the dead sub- 
ject, after the cuticle is loosened by 
putrefaction, from the subjacent 
parts. 

Chiru'rgia. (From x a P> ^ e 
hand, and tpyov, a work ; because 
surgical operations are performed 
by the hand;. Chirurgery, or sur- 



gery. 



or 



Chi'ton. (Xirwv). A coat, 
membrane. 

Chi'um. (From Xloq, the island 
where it was produced) . An epithet 
of a wine made at Scio. 

Chlia'sma. (From ^Xtat^w, to 
make warm) . A warm fomentation, 
called also thermasma. 

Chlora'sma. (From ^Xwpoc, 
green). Chlorosis, which see. 

Chlo'rine. See Oxymuriatic acid. 

Chloro'sis. (From ^\a>po^, green, 
pale ; from the yellow-grueiiiah look 
those have who are affected with 
it). Ftbris alba. Febris amatoria. 
Icterus albus. The green sickness. 
A genus of disease in the Class Ca- 
chexia, and Order Impetig-ines, of 
Cullen. 

Chnus. (From x vavijJ , to grind, 
or rasp). Chaff. Bran. Also fine 
wool, or lint, which is, as it were, 
rasped from lint. 

Choke damp. The name given by 
miners to a noxious air, occasion- 
ally found in the bottom of mines 
and pits. It is heavier than com- 
mon air, therefore lies chiefly at the 
bottom of the pits ; it extinguishes 
flame, and is noxious to animals. It 
is probably carbonic acid. See Car- 
bonic acid. 

Cho'ana. (Frdm x SU) , to pour 
out). It is properly a funnel, but is 
used to signify the infundibulum of 
the kidney and brain. 

Cho'anus. (x oava i a funnel). 
A furnace made like a funnel, for 
melting metals. 

Cho'colate. (According to Dr. 
Alston, this word is compounded of 
two Indian words: choco, sound, and 



atte, water ; because of the noise 
made in its preparation). An article 
of diet prepared from the cocoa-nut ; 
highly nourishing, particularly when 
boiled with milk and eggs : fre- 
quently recommended as a restora- 
tive in cases of emaciation and con- 
sumption. 

Choz'nicis. The trephine, so called 
by Galen and P. jEgineta, from 
XOLVuag, the nave of a wheel. 

Chge'rades. (From x ot P°£j a 
swine). The same as scrofula. 

CHOERADOLE'THRON^From xOLpOQ, 

a swine, and oXeOpog, destruction ; 
so named from its being dangerous 
if eaten by hogs). Hogbane. A 
name in Aetius for the Xanthium, 
or louse-bur. 

Choi'ras. (From x ot P°C> a swine ; 
so called, because hogs are diseased 
with it) . The scrofula. 

Cho'lades. (From x°^ ? J> tne 
bile). So the smaller intestines are 
called, because they contain bile. 

Chola'go. The same as cholas. 

Cholago'ga. (From x° A */> bile, 
and ayio, to evacuate). Cholegon. 
By cholagogues, the ancients meant 
only such purging medicines as 
expelled the internal faeces, which 
resembled the cystic bile in their 
yellow colour, and other proper- 
ties. 

Cho'las. (From x oA *?> the bile). 
All the cavity of the hypochondrium 
and part of the ilium is so called, 
because it contains the liver, which 
is the strainer of the gall. 

Cho'le. (x oA */)' The bile. 

Chole'dochus du'ctus. (Choledo- 
chus : from xo^tj, bile, and Stxofiai, 
to receive ; receiving or retaining 
the gall) . Ductus communis choledo' 
chus. The common biliary duct, 
which conveys both cystic and hepa- 
tic bile into the duodenum. 

Chole'gon. The same as chola- 
goga. 

Cho'lera. (From x oA? ?> bile). 
Diarrhoea cholerica. Fellijlua passio, 
A genus of disease arranged by Cul- 
len in the Class Neuroses, and Order 
Spasmi. It is a purging and vomiting 
of bile, with anxiety, painful grip- 
ings, spasms of the abdominal mus- 



CHO 



144 



CHO 



cles, and those of the calves of the 
legs. There are two species of this 
genus: 1. Cholera spontanea, which 
happens, in hot seasons, without any 
manifest cause. — 2. Cholera acciden- 
talisy which occurs after the use 
of food that digests slowly, and irri- 
tates. 

Chole'rica. (From x^epa, the 
cholera). Medicines which relieve 
the cholera. Also a bilious flux of 
the bowels, without pain or fever. 

Cholice'le. (From %o\t;, bile, 
and x^Xjj, a tumour). A swelling 
formed by the bile morbidly accu- 
mulated in the gall-bladder. 

Cholo'ma. (From %oAoc, lame, 
or maimed). Galen says that, in 
Hippocrates, it signifies any distor- 
tion of a limb. In a particular sense, 
it is taken for a halting, or lameness 
in the leg. 

Chondroglo'ssus. (From xovdpog, 
a cartilage, and yXwacn, the tongue) . 
A muscle so named from its in- 
sertion, which is in the basis or car- 
tilaginous part of the tongue. See 
Hyoglossvj. 

Chondro'logy. Chondrologia. 
(From x°v£po£, a cartilage, and 
Xoyoy, a discourse) . A discourse or 
treatise on cartilages. 

Chondro-pharyng^'us. (From 
Xovopog, a cartilage, and QapvyZ, 
the upper part of the fauces). A 
muscle so called, because it rises in 
the cartilaginous part of the tongue, 
and is inserted in the pharynx, 

Cho'ndros. (Xovdpog). A food 
of the ancients, the same as alica. 
Also any grumous concretion, and a 
cartilage. 

Chondrosynde'smus. (From %ov- 

onoc, a cartilage, and avvdtio, to tie 

together) . A cartilaginous ligament. 

Cho'ndrus. Sec Chondros. 

Cho'se, (Xuvn). The infundi- 

bulum. 

Cho'ra. (Xo)pa). A region. Galen, 
in his book l)e Usu Partium, ex- 
presses by it particularly the cavities 
of the eyes ; but, in others of his 
writings, he intimates by it any void 
space. 

Cho'rda. A cord. A tendon. A 
painful tension of the penis in the 



venereal disease. See Chordee. Some- 
times the intestines are called chordae. 
Cho'rda ma'gna. A name of the 
tendo Achillis. 

Cho'rda ty'mpani. A branch of 
the seventh pair of nerves passing 
through the tympanum. 

Cho'rda tendi'nes. The ten- 
dinous and cord-like substances con- 
necting the carneas columnar of the 
ventricles of the heart to the auricular 
valves. 

Cho'rda: willi'sii. The small 
fibres crossing the sinuses of the dura 
mater ; so termed, because Willis 
first described them. 

Chord a'psus. (From x°P^7> a 
cord, and clttIlo, to knit). A sort of 
painful colic, where the intestines 
appear to be twisted into knots. 

Chordee'. (From x°p8y> a cord). 
An inflammatory or spasmodic con- 
traction of the penis, that sometimes 
attends gonorrhoea ; and not unfre- 
quently followed by a hemorrhage. 

*** When inflammation is not 
confined merely to the surface of the 
urethra, but affects the corpus spon- 
giosum, it produces in it an extrava- 
sation of coagulable lymph, as in the 
adhesive inflammation, which, unit- 
ing the cells together, destroys the 
power of distension of the corpus 
spongiosum urethrae, and makes it 
unequal in this respect to the cor- 
pora cavernosa penis, and therefore a 
curvature is the consequence, at the 
time of an erection, at the lower 
part of the penis, which is called a 
chordee. When the chordee is vio- 
lent, the inner membrane of the 
urethrals so much upon the stretch, 
that it may be torn, and a profuse 
hemorrhage excited from the ure- 
thra, often relieving the patient, and 
not unfrequently effecting a cure. 
The chordee, however, may be con- 
tinued after all inflammation has ter- 
minated. See Hunter on Ven. Z)u, 
Second edition. 

Cho'rfa sa'ncti vi'ti. {Chorea, 
Xoptia: from x°P°G> a chorus, which 
of old accompanied dancing. It is 
called St. Vitus's dance, because 
some devotees of St. Vitus exercised 
themselves so long in dancing, that 



CHO 



145 



CHR 



their intellects became disordered, 
and could only be restored by dancing 
again at the anniversary of St. Vitus) . 
St. Virus's dance. Convulsive mo- 
tions of the limbs, as if the person 
were dancing. A genus of disease 
in the Class Neuroses, and Order 
Spasmi, of Cullen. These convulsive 
motions, most generally, are con- 
fined to one side, and affect princi- 
pally the arm and leg. When any 
motion is attempted to be made, 
various fibres of other muscles act 
which ought not; and thus a con- 
trary effect is produced from what 
the patient intended. It is chiefly 
incident to young persons of both 
sexes, and makes its attack be- 
tween the age of ten and fifteen, 
occurring but seldom after that of 
puberty. 

Cho'rion. (From ^wpew, to escape; 
because it always escapes from the 
uterus with the foetus). Shaggy cho- 
rion. The external membrane of the 
fcetus in utero. 

Ceio'roid me'mbrane. (Membrana 
choroidea; from \opiov, the chorion, 
and eidog, resemblance) . The second 
tunic of the eye, lying immediately 
under the sclerotica, to which it is 
connected by vessels. 

f # * The true knowledge of this 
membrane is necessary to a perfect 
idea of the iris and uvea. The tunica 
choroidea commences at the optic 
nerve, and passes forwards, with the 
sclerotic coat, to the beginning of 
the cornea transparens, where it 
adheres very firmly to the sclerotic 
coat, by means of cellular mem- 
brane, in the form of a white fringe, 
called the ciliary circle. Then, re- 
ceding from the sclerotica and cornea 
and ciliary circle, directly downwards 
and inwards, it forms a round and 
variously coloured disk, hence blue, 
black eyes, &c. This coloured por- 
tion, reflected inwards, is termed 
the iris, and its posterior surface is 
termed uvea. The choroid mem- 
brane is highly vascular, and its 
external vessels are disposed like 
stars, and termed vasa vorticosa. 
The internal surface of this mem- 
brane is covered with a black pig- 



ment, called the pigment of the 
choroid membrane. 

Cho'roid ple'xus. Plexus cko- 
roideus. A plexus of blood vessels, 
situated in the lateral ventricles of 
the brain. 

Cho'roid tu'nic. See Choroid 
membrane. 

Chri'sis. (From ^pio>,to anoint). An 

inunction, or anointing of any part. 

Christmas rose. See Helleborus niger. 

Chri'stum. (From xpiw, to anoint). 

An unguent, or ointment of any kind. 

Chro'mas. A chromate, or salt, 
formed by the union of earthy, me- 
tallic, or alkaline bases, with chromic 
acid ; as chromate of lead, &c. 

Chromati'smus. (From xp(*>/ja]t£u>, 
to colour). The morbid discolora- 
tion of any of the secretions, c. g. of 
the urine, or blood. 

Chrome. (From xpujuia, colour; 
because it is remarkable for giving 
colour to its combinations). An 
extremely scarce metal, existing only 
in combination with oxygen, &c. 
discovered by Vauquelin. He found 
it in an ore called red-lead ore of 
Siberia, (chromate of lead). It has 
likewise been found in combination 
with oxygen, iron, alumine, and 
silex, (chromate of iron and alumine) , 
in the department of Var, in France. 
It is met with in irregular masses. 
Its colour is brown, it has very little 
metallic lustre. Pontier has lately 
found chrome combined with oxygen 
and iron, (chromate of iron), in a 
quarry near Gussin, in the road to 
Cavalaire. It sometimes forms large 
masses. The emerald of Peru and 
spinel ruby owe their colours to this 
metal. For its properties and methods 
if obtaining it, consult Ure's Diet. 
of Chym. 

Chro'mic a'cid. Obtained by de- 
composing the chromate of lead by- 
potash, and treating the chromate of 
potash with nitric or muriatic acid. 
It is of an orange-red colour, and a 
pungent metallic taste ; very soluble 
in water, and crystallizes by gentle 
evaporation. 

Chro'nic. (From \qovoq, time). 
A term applied to diseases which are 
of long continuance, and mostly 

O 



CHR 



146 



CHY 



without fever. It is used in opposi- 
tion to the term acute ; which see. 

Chru'psia. (From xP oa f colour, 
and o'i|/(c, sight). Visus coloratas. 
A disease of the eyes, in which the 
person perceives objects of a colour 
different from their natural one. 

Chrysa'nthemum. (From \pv- 
croc, gold, and avdepov, a flower). 
— 1. A genus of plants in the Lin- 
nsean system: Class, Si/ agenesia ; 
Order, Polygamia. Sun-flower, or 
mangold. — 2. Many herbs are so 
called, whose flowers are of a bright 
yellow colour. 

Chrysa'nthemum leuca'nthe- 
mlm. The systematic name of the 
great ox-eye daisy. Oarfus bovis. 
Ox-eye daisy. Maudlin wort. The 
Chrysanthemum leu cant hemum ; foliis 
amplcxicaulihus, oblongis, supernc 
serratis, infernv dtntatis, of Linn. 

Ciiry'se. (From x9 v(y 0Q, gold). 
The name of a yellow piaster. 

Chrysele'ctrum. (From XP V<T °G> 
gold, and tiXsKlpcv, amber). Amber, 
of a golden yellow colour. 

Chrysi'ppea. (From Chrysippus, 
its discoverer). An herb enumerated 
by Pliny. 

Ciirysi'tis. (From xpwog, gold) . 
Litharge. The yellow foam of lead. 
Mo the herb yarrow, from the gol- 
den colour of its flower. 

Chrysoba'lanus. (From xP V(F0 €j 
gold, and paXavog, a nut; so named 
because of its colour, which, before 
it is dried, is yellow) . The nutmeg. 

Crrysoco'lla. (From ^pi/coc, 
gold, and /coXX?;, cementj. Gold 
solder. Borax. 

Chrysoco'ma. (From x9 V(TCi -> 
gold, and /cc/xr;, hair ; so called from 
its golden, hair-like appearance). 
The herb milfoil, or yarrow. 

Chrysoco'ma. (From xP v(T0 G> 
gold, and yivouat, to become). The 
tincture of gold. 

Chrysola'ciianon. (From x9 v ~ 
coe, gold, and X«x«)>oi', a pot-herb; 
so named iVom its having a yellow 
leaf). The herb orach, or atriplcx. 

Ciikysomi i.'mlm. (From xP v ~ 
doc, gold, and aGTrXijviov, spleen- 
v.-ort). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Lhmaean system s Class, 



Decandria; Order, Digynia. Golden 
saxifrage. 

Chrysu'lcus. (From xP v &oq, gold, 
and eXkio, to take away) . The aqua 
regia is so called, as having the pro- 
perty of dissolving gold. 

Chyla'ria. (From x^Xoc, chyle). 
A discharge of a whitish mucous 
urine, of the colour and consistence 
of chyle. 

Chyle. (Xt»Xoc- Chylus). The 
milk-like liquor observed some hours 
after eating, in the lacteal vessels of 
the mesentery, and in the thoracic 
duct. It is separated by digestion 
from the chvme, and is that fluid 
substance from which the blood is 
formed. 

Chylifica'tion. (From chylus, 
and fieri, to become). Chylif actio, 
A process carried on in the small in- 
testines, principally in the duode- 
num, by which the chyle is sepa- 
rated from the chyme. 

Chyli'sma. (From x^Xoc, juice). 
An expressed juice. 

Chylopoe'tic. (Chylopoetieus; from 
%vXo£, chyle, and 'xrc-ieio, to make). 
Chylopoetic. Connected with the 1 
formation of chyle ; e . g. chylopoe- 
tic Yiseera, chylopoetic vessels, &c. 

Ceiylo'sis. (From x l ' Ao C> juice 
Chylification, or the changing the 
food into chyle. 

Chylosta'gma. (From x*Ao£, juice, 
and ^a(io, to distil) . Distillation or 
expression of any juice, or humid 
part, from the rest. 

Chylosta'gma diaphore'ticum 
mindere'ri. Distillation of Venice 
treacle and mithridate. 

Chyme. Chyvws. (From yj'juoc, 
which signifies humour or juice). 
The indigested mass of food that 
passes from the stomach into the 
duodenum, and from which the chyle 
is prepared in the small intestines by 
the admixture of bile, &c. 

Ciiy'mia. See Chymtitrj. 

Chymia'ter. A chymical physi- 
cian. See (Jiimiater. 

Ciiymia'tria. (From \vpia y chv- 
mistry, and laopat, to heal). The art. 
of curing diseases by the application 
of chvmistry to the uses of medicine. 

Chymistry. See Chanistry. 



CIC 



147 



CIC 



Chymo'sis. Sec Chemosis. 

Chy'nlev ra'dix. A cylindrical 
root, of the thickness of a goose- 
quill, brought from China. It has 
a bitterish taste, and imparts a yel- 
low tinge to the saliva. By the Chi- 
nese it is held in great estimation as 
a stomachic, infused in wine. 

Ciiy'sis. (From %uoj, to pour out). 
Fusion, or the reduction of solid bo- 
dies into fluid forms by heat. 

Cn y'tlon. (From x v( *>> to pour out) . 
An anointing with oil and water. 

Ciba'lis fi'stula. The oesopha- 
gus. Obs. 

Ciba'tio. (From cibare, to feed, to 
nourish). In chymistry, it means in- 
corporation: also the taking of food. 

Ci'ijur. Sulphur. Obs. 

Cicatrisa'ntia. (From cicatri- 
cmre t to skin over). Applications 
which dispose wounds and ulcers to 
dry up and heal, and to be covered 
with skin. 

Cicatrisation. The process by 
which wounds and sores heal. 

%* After granulations are form- 
ed, Nature's next object is to cover 
them over with skin. The parts 
which, by their natural elasticity, 
had receded in consequence of I 
breach made in them, now beerin to 
be brought together bv th" contrac- 
tion of the granulations. The con- 
traction takes place at every point, 
but particularly from edge to edge, 
which brings the circumference of 
the sore towards the centre, so that 
the sore becomes smaller and smaller, 

n though little or no new skin is 
formed. When granulations are 
formed on a fixed surface, their con- 
traction is mechanically impeded ; 
e. g; on the skull, shin, &c. In 
all operations, therefore, on such 
parts, as much skin as possible 
should be saved. See Hunter on the 
Bhod, Inflammation, &c ; — also 
Thompson's lectures on Inftainma- 
fion, p. 399. 

CiCA / TRIX.(From ricatricare.to heal 
up or skin over) . A seam or scar on 
Skin, after the healing of a sore. 

Ci'cek. (The Cicerones had their 
name from this pulse, as the Pisones 
had from the pisum or pea, and the 



Lentuli from the lens or lentil) . — 
1. A genus of plants in the Linnasan 
system : Class, Diadelphia ; Order, 
IJecandria. The vetch. — 2. The phar- 
macopceial name of the common 
cich or eiches. 

Ci'cer arie'tinum. The svste- 
matic name of the cicer plant. Ere- 
bintkus. Cicer arictinum; foliis ser- 
ratis, of Linnsus. The seeds have 
been employed medicinally, but are 
now fallen into disuse. 

Ci'cera. (From cicer, the vetch). 
A small pill of the size of a vetch. 

Ci'cera ta'rtari. Small pills 
composed of turpentine and cream 
of tartar, of the size of a vetch. 

Cicho'rilm. (Originally, accord- 
ing to Pliny, an Egyptian name, and 
adopted by the Greeks. It is written 
sometimes Ki^oneiov : whence Ho- 
race has cichorece, levesquc malvcc : 
sometimes xixooiov, or xi^wpio?^. It 
is supposed by some to have this 
name, wapa to <. ict rtov ^jQiuiv y.iuv, 
from its creeping through the fields. 
Others derive it from juy^w, invenio, 
on account of its being so readily 
found, or so common). Succory. — 

1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Synge- 

'i; Order, Polysomia cnqualis. — 

2. The phan ..acopceial name of the 
wild cichory. See Cickorium intybus* 

Ciciio'rium endi'via. The syste- 
matic name of the endive. Endivia. 
Endiva. Endive. This plant, Cicko- 
rium endivia; floribus solitariis, pc- 
dniculatis ; foliis integris, erenatis, 
of Linnaeus, is an extremely whole- 
some salad, possessing bitter and 
anodyne qualities. 

Ciciio'rium i'stybus. The syste- 
matic name of the wild succory. CY- 
ch-irium. Succory. This plant, called 
also Cickorcum, Cickorium sylvestrt 
vel officinarum, is the Cickorium in- 
ly bus ; floribus geminis, sessilibus ; fo- 
liis runcinatis, of Linn. 

Cickory. See Cickorium intybus. 

Cichory, wild. See Cickorium in- 
tybus. 

Cicinde'la. (A dim. of candela; 

i. e. a little candle ; so called from 

its light) . The glow-worm. Some 

think them anodyne, others lithon- 

02 



CIL 



148 



CIN 



triptic ; probably neither the one 
nor the other. 

Cici'num oleum. (From xou, the 
ricinus). An oil, obtained by boiling 
the bruised seeds of the Jatropha 
curcas of Linnaeus. Somewhat simi- 
lar in its properties to castor-oil. 
See Rici?ms. 

Ci'cla. A name for the beta alba. 

Cicu'ta. (Quasi ccecuta, blind ; 
because it destroys the sight of 
those who use it. Cicuta signifies 
also the internode, or space between 
two joints of a reed ; or the hollow 
stem of any plant which the shep- 
herds used for making their rural 
pipes. Est mihi disparibus septan 
conjuncta cicutis Fistula. Virgil. — 
Hemlock. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnssan system : 
Class, Pentandria; Order, Digynia. 
— 2. The name, in most pharmaco- 
poeias, of the common hemlock. See 
Conium maculatum. 

Cicuta aqua'tica. See Cicuta 
virosa. 

Cicu'ta VIRo'sa. Cicuta aquatica. 
Cicutaria virosa. Sium majus alte- 
rum angustifolium. Sium erucce folio. 
Long -leaved water hemlock and 
cowbane. This plant, Cicuta virosa, 
umbellis oppositifoliis, petiolis margi- 
natis obticsis, of Linnaeus, is seldom 
employed medicinally in the present 
day. It is an active poison, and 
often eaten by mistake for the wild 
smallage, the Apium graveolens of 
Linnaeus ; when it produces tre- 
mors, vertigo, a violent burning at 
the stomach, epilepsy, convulsions, 
spasms of the jaw, a flowing of 
blood from the ears, tumefaction of 
the abdomen, and death. 

Cicuta'ria. (From cicuta, hem- 
lock). Bastard hemlock. See Chce- 
rophyllum syluestre. 

Cicuta'ria aoua'tica. The phel- 
landrium aquaticum, 

Cicuta'ria viro'sa. See Cicuta 

virosa. 

Cido'inTUM. Sec Pyrus cydonia. 

Ci'liary ligament. (From ci/tomj 

the eyelid;. Ligametitum ciHare. The 
circular portion that divides the cho- 
roid membrane from the iris, and 

which adheres to the sclerotic mem- 



brane. It appears like a white cir- 
cular ring. See Choroid membrane. 

Cilia're ligame'ntum. See Cho- 
roid membrane, 

Cilia'ris mu'sculus. That part 
of the musculus orbicularis palpe- 
brarum which lies nearest the cilia, 
considered by Riolan as a distinct 
muscle. 

Ci'lium, -i, n. The eyelid or eye- 
lash. 

Ci'liary processes. The white 
folds at the margin of the uvea in 
the eye, covered with a black matter, 
which proceed from the uvea to the 
crystalline lens, upon which they lie. 

Ci'llo. (From cilium, the eyelid). 
One who is affected with a spasm or 
trembling of the evelids. 

Cillo'sis. (From c?7t2i?/z,the eyelid). 
A spasmodic trembling of the eyelids. 

Cj'mex. (From Kupai, to inha- 
bit ; so called because they infest 
houses). The wall-louse, or bug. 
Cimex domesticus. 

Cimo'lia a'lba. (From K^toAoc, 
Cimolus, an island in the Cretan sea, 
where it is procured). Tobacco- 
pipe clay. Its virtues are similar 
to those of the bolar earths, though 
it is never administered medicinally. 

Cimo'lia purpure'scens. Fullers- 
earth. A bolar earth, of a greyish- 
brown colour. 

Ci'na ci'n^. See Cinchona. 

Ci'n#: se'men. See Artemisia san~ 
tonica. 

Ci'nara. (From Kivtio, to move ; 
quasi movet ad venei'em vel urinam) . 
Artichoke. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Syngenesia; Order, Polyga- 
mia cpqualis. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name for the common artichoke. 
See Cinara scolymus. 

Ci'nara sco'lymus. The syste- 
matic name of the artichoke, called 
in the pharmacopoeias Alcocalum. 
Articocalus. Arti.sc/iocas lavis, Costus 
nigra* Carduus sativus non sptnosus. 
Cmara hortensis. Scolymus sativus, 
Carduus domesticus cuyile majore. 
(arduus til (His. (in urn; j'oliis subspi- 
nosis pinnatis indwtsisoue 9 calytinis 
squamis ovatis, of Linnaeus. A native 
of the southern parts of Europe, but 



CIN 



149 



cm 



cultivated here for culinary pur- 
poses. 

Cincho'na. — 1. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Pentandria ; Order, Mo* 
nogynia. Cinchona, or Peruvian 
bark-tree. — 2. The pharmacopoeial 
name of several kinds of barks ; 
called also Cortex; cortex china, 
china, or chinchina; kina kina, or 
kina; and quina quina, or quin- 
quina. The trees affording- it, grow 
wild on the hilly parts of Peru; the 
bark is stripped from the branches, 
trunk, and root, and dried. Three 
kinds of it are now in use: e. g. 
Cortex cinchona? cordifolicr. The 
plant which affords this species, is 
the Cinchona cordi folia of Zea : the 
(ii.chona officinalis of Linnaeus: the 
CitichonA .nacrocarpa of Willdenow. 
Heart-leaved cinchona. — Cortfx 
cinehona j lancifolire. This species is 
obtained from the Cinchona lancifo- 
Vul of Zea. Lance-learcd cinchona, 
or quitted bark, which comes in 
small quilled twigs, breaking close 
and smooth, friable between the 
teeth, covered with a rough coat of 
h colour, internally smooth, 
and of a light brown ; its taste i 
bitter and slightly astring it; flavour 
slightly aromatic, with some degree 
of mustiness. — Cortex cinchona' ou- 
longifolicR. This kind is procured 
from the Cinchona oblongifolia of 
Zea. Oblong-leaved cinchona. This 
bark is the redbc-k: it is in large 
thick pieces, externally covered with 
a brown rugged coat, internally more 
smooth and compact, but fibrous ; 
of & dark red colour; taste and smell 
similar to that of the cinchona lan- 
i ifoUdb cortex, but the taste rather 
stronger. 

Cincho'na Carib.e'a. The svs- 
tematic name of the Caribsean bark- 
trce. It grows in Jamaica, where 
it is called the sea-side beech. 

%* The bark of this tree, accord- 
ing to Dr. Wright, is not less effica- 
cious than that of the cinchona of 
Tern, for which it will prove an 
useful substitute ; but by the experi- 
ments of Dr. Skete, it appears to 
have less astringent power. 



Cincho'na floribu'nda. The 
systematic name of the plant which, 
affords the Saint Lucie bark \—fiori- 
bus paniculatis glabris, capsulis tur~ 
binatis loevibus, foliis ellipticis acu- 
minatis glabris; it has an astringent, 
bitter taste, somewhat like gentian. 
It is recommended in intermittents, 
putrid dysentery, and dyspepsia : it 
should always be joined with some 
aromatic. Dr. Withering considers 
this bark as greatlv inferior to that 
of the other species of this genus. 
In its recent state it is considerably 
emetic and cathartic, properties 
which in some degree it retains on 
being dried ; so that the stomach 
does not bear this bark in large 
doses, and in small ones its effects 
are not such as to give it any pecu- 
liar recommendation. 

Cincho'na officinalis. The 
name of the officinal Peruvian bark. 
See Cinchona. 

Cincho'na Sa'nta Fe. Several 

species of cinchona have been later/ 

discovered at Santa Fe, yield 

barks both of the pale and red 

kind ; and which, from their sensible 

qualities, arc likely, upon trial, to 

become equally useful with those 

produced in the kingdom of Peru. 

Cinchona ru'bra. 1 c ,- i 

r, „ / . >beQCinchosia. 

C INC HO NA I LA \ A. J 

Cinchoni'ne. An alkali discovered 
by Dr. A. Duncan, jun. and found 
most abundantly in the grey Peru- 
vian bark, or cinchona condat 
though found in both the red and 
yellow. It is white, semi-transpa- 
rent, and crystallizes in needles. 
Dissolved in water, it has little taste, 
but is intensely bitter dissolved in 
alcohol or acids, but less so than 
genuine, as well as less powerful. 
It forms neutral salts with the acids. 

Cinci'nms. The hair on the tem- 
ples. See Capillus. 

Cincle'sis. (From y.iy/Xic]i<j, to 
move). Cinclismus. An involuntary 
nictitation or winking. Vogel. 

Cinera 'ril'M. (From cinis, ashes). 
The ash-hole of a chymical instru- 
ment. 

Ci'neres. (Flat, of cinis, ashes . 
Ashes. 

O 3 



CIR 



150 



CIR 



Ci'neres clavella'ti. (Clavella- 
1us; from claims, a wedge. The 
name of cineres ciavellati originated 
from the little wedges or billets into 
which the wood was cut to make 
potash). See Potassa. 

Ci'neres ru'ssici. See Potassa 
irnpura. 

Cineri'tious. (From tin /rehashes). 
Of the colour of ashes. A name ap- 
plied to the cortical substance of the 
brain, from its resemblance to an 
ash-colour. 

Cineri'tium. (Idem). Chym. A cu- 
pel or test ; so named from its being 
commonly made of the ashes of ve- 
getables or bones. 

Cins'rulam. A name for spo- 
dium. 

Cine'tus. An epithet formerly 
applied to the diaphragm. 

Cingula'ria. (From cingulum t 
a girdle ; because it grows in that 
shape). The lycopodium. 

O'ngulum, -i, n. (From ci?igo, to 
bind). A girdle or belt about the 
loin:;. 

Ci'ngulum :y]ercuria'le. A mer- 
curial girdle, called also cingulum 
sapienticz, and cingulum stultitia?, 
invented by Rulandus. 

CINGULUM SA'NCTI JoHA'NNIS. A 

name of the artemisia. 

Cinifica'tum. A name for cal- 
c malum . 

Ci'nnabar. 

Cjnna'baris fac- 



See Hydrar- 
gyri sulphu- 
retum ru- 
brum. 



TITIA. 

Cinna'baris na 

Tl'vA. 

Cinna'baris Grjeco'rlm The 
sanguis draconis and cinnabar. 

Cinnamo'mum, -iy n. (From ki- 
namon, Arab.) Cinnamon. See 
/.earns Cinnamomum, 

Cintmefoil. See Potentilla reptans. 

Ci'on. (Klojv, a column, from 
nuoy to go). The uvula was for- 

rly so named, from its pyramidal 

ipe j also an enlargement of the 
Hat 

Cio'nis. (From xiuv, the uvula) . 
"Diseased enlargement and painful 

ellingoftl ula. 

CiRCX'a. (From Circe, the en- 
chantress ; so named from the opi- 



nion that it was used by Circe in her 
enchanted preparations). Enchant- 
er's nightshade. — 1. A genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Diandria; Order, Monogynxa. — 2. 
The name in some pharmacopoeias 
for the Circcea lutetiana, which is 
now fallen wholly into disuse. 

Circoce'le, orCiRSocE'LE. (From 
mpcog, variXy and x^A.?/, a tumour). 
Varicocele. A varicose distension 
and enlargement of the spermatic 
vein ; and whether considered on 
account of the pain, or on account 
of the wasting of the testicle, which 
now and then follows, it may truly 
be called a disease. It is frequently 
mistaken for a descent of a small 
portion of omentum. The uneasi- 
ness which it occasions, is a kind of 
pain in the back, generally relieved 
by suspension of the scrotum. It 
has been resembled to a collection of 
earthworms. It is most frequently 
confined to that part of the sperma- 
tic process which is below the open- 
ing in the abdominal tendon ; and 
the vessels generally become rather 
larger as they approach the testes. 
There is one sure method of distin- 
guishing between a circoccle and 
omental hernia ; viz. place the pa- 
tient in an horizontal posture, and 
empty the swelling by pressure upon 
the scrotum ; then put the fingers 
firmly upon the upper part of the 
abdominal ring, and desire the pa- 
tient to rise ; if it be hernia, the 

long 
the 



tumour cannot re-appear as 
as the pressure is continued at 
ring ; but if a circocele, the swelling 
returns with increased size, on ac- 



count of the return of blood into the 
abdomen being prevented by the 
pressure. 

* # * Mr. Pott never knew any 
good from external applications of 
any kind ; and he has also seen the 
testicle so wasted, as scarcely to be 
discernible. See Pott's Works, vol. ii. 
— Sir A. Cooper on Inguinal Hernia. 
— Gooctis Chirurgical Works y &.C. 

CiRCornniA'LiviiA. (From japcoc, 
a varix, and o(p0a\pog). A general 
varicose affection of the blood-ves- 
sels of the eye. 



C1R 



151 



CIS 



Ci'rcos. (From kioxoq, a circle). 
A ring. It is sometimes used for the 
sphincter muscle, which is round 
like a ring. 

Circula'tion. Circulatio, -onis, f. 
(From circular e, to compass about). 
A vital action performed by the 
heart in the following manner : the 
blood is received from the arteries 
by the veins, and returned by the 
superior and inferior venae cavae to 
the right auricle of the heart, which, 
becoming distended, contracts and 
empties its blood into the right ven- 
tricle. The right ventricle in its turn 
contracts, and propels the blood 
through the pulmonary artery into 
the lungs, there to undergo a pecu- 
liar change, and to be conveyed by 
the four pulmonary veins into the 
left auricle. The left auricle being 
now distended, evacuates its blood 
into the left ventricle. The left ven- 
tricle propels the blood through the 
aorta, to be circulated by the ar- 
teries, and again to be returned by 
the veins to the heart. See Heart. 

%* In the foetal circulation, the 
blood passes from the umbilical rein, 
partly into the vena ports, and partly 
through the canalis venosus, into 
the ascending cava. The lungs being 
contracted, a very small quantity 
circulates through them, and the 
greater part flows through the fora- 
men ovale, and canalis arteriosus, to 
the left side of the heart, and into 
the aorta, and is carried back by the 
Umbilical arteries to the placenta. 

Circula'tor. (From circulare, to 
compass about). A wandering prac- 
tiser in medicine. A quack. A 
mountebank, 

Circclato'rium. (From circulo, 
to move round). A chymical digest- 
ing vessel, in which the fluid per- 
forms a circulatory motion. 

Ci'rculus, -i, m. (Dim. of circus, 
a circle). A circle or ring. Any part 
of the body which is round or annu- 
lar, as circulus oculi. The name of 
an old round chymical and chirurgi- 
cal instrument, sometimes called ab- 
brcviatorium by the old chymists. 

Ci'rculus arteriosus i'ridis. 
The artery which runs round the 



iris, and forms a circle, is thus 
termed. 

Ci'rculus quadru'plex. A band- 
age. 

Circumcaula'lis. A name ot the 
adnata of the eye. 

Circumci'sion. Circumcisio, -onis r 
f. (From circumcidere, to cut about) . 
The cutting off the prepuce from the 
glans penis ; an ancient custom, still 
practised amongst the Jews, and 
sometimes practised in cases of phy- 
mosis : which see. 

C I rc u N fle'x u s . (Circumjle.v-us, 
sc. musculus). Tensor paint i of In- 
nes. Circumjlexus paluti mollis of 
Albinus. Spheno-salpingo-staphilinus, 
seu staphilinus externus of Winslow. 
Musculus tuba' nova; of Valsalva. 
PalatascUpingeus of Douglas. Ptt- 
rigo-staphylinus of Cowper; and 
Petrosalpingo-staphilin of Dumas. 

Circumgyra'tio. (From circum- 
gyrare i to turn round). Circumgy- 
ration, or the act of turning a limb 
round. 

ClRCUMLl'no. (From circumlinert , 
to anoint all over). A medicine 
used as a general unction or liniment 
to the part. 

Circumossa'lis, (From circum i 
about, and os, a bone). Surround- 
ing a bone, as the periosteum ; or 
surrounded by a bone, as the mar- 
row. 

Ci'rcus. (Kiohoc'. from carka, to 
surround. Chald.) A circle or ring. 
A circular bandage ; called also 
plinthius laqueus. 

Cirne'sis. (From Hipvau, to mix). 
An union of separate things. 

Ci'rsium arye'nse. (From xip- 
(joc, a vein, or swelling of a vein, 
which this herb was supposed to 
heal). The carduus hsemorrhoidalis. 

Cirsoce'le. See Circocele. 

Cirsoi'des. (From xipffoc, a va- 
rix, and siloq, likeness). Resembling 
a varix : an epithet applied by Rufus 
Ephesius to the upper part of the 
brain. 

Ci'rsos. (Kipffoc : from xiocrcw, 
to dilate) . A varix, or preternatural 
dilatation of any part of a vein. 

Ci'ssa. (From xhjgci, a voracious, 
bird) . A depraved appetite, proceed- 



CIS 



152 



CIT 



ing from previous gluttony and vo- 
racity. 

Cissa'mpelos. (From xicrccc, ivy, 
and ap-rrekoQ, the vine). A genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Dioecia; Order, Monadelpkia. The 
wild vine, with leaves like ivy. 

Cissa'mpelos parei'ra. The svs- 
tematic name of the pareira brava, 
&c. The root of this plant (Cissam- 
pelns pareira ; foliis pellatis cordatis 
emarginatis, of Linnaeus; a native of 
South America and the West Indies) . 
The facts on the utility of the radix 
pareira? bravo? in nephritic and cal- 
culous complaints, are principally 
adduced by foreigners. 

Cissa'rus. See Cistus Creticus. 

Cissi'num. (From kkjgoq, ivy). 
The name of a piaster mentioned by 
P. iCgmeta. 

Ci'sTA. (From xsificu, to lie). A 
cyst, or bag. 

Ciste'rna. (From cista, a cyst). 
The fourth ventricle of the brain is 
so called, from its cavity; also the 
lacteals in women. 

Cr'STHORUS. See Cistus Creticus. 

Ci'stus. (KlcHgq, the derivation 
of which is uncertain ; perhaps from 
his, Heb.) The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Pcluandria; Order, Monogyuia. The 
Cistus. 

Ci'stus cre'ticus. Cistus lada- 
nifera, &c. The systematic name 
of the plant from which the lada- 
nnm of the shops is obtained ; called 
also Labdanum. This resinous juice 
exudes upon the leaves of the Cistus 
creticus; arborescens e.rtipulatus , Jo- 
liis spalulato-ovatis petiolatis enerviis 
scabriS) calt/cinis lanccolatis, of Lio- 
naeus, in Candia, where the inhabi- 
tants collect it by lightly rubbing 
the leaves with leather, and after- 
wards scraping it off, and forming 
it into irregular masses for expor- 
tation. It was formerly much em- 
ployed internally as a pectoral and 
astringent in catarrhal affections, 
dysenteries, and several other dis- 
eases ; it is now, however, wholly 
confined to external use, and is an 
Ingredient in the stomachic plaster — 
tmplaslrum ladani. 



Ci'stus hu'milis. A name of par- 
nassia, or white liverwort. 

Ci'stus ladani'fera. See Cistus 
Creticus. 

Ci'stus le'don. A name of Le- 
dum palustre. See Rosmarinus. 

Ci'tharus. (From xiGrtpa, a harp). 
The breast is sometimes so named, 
from its shape. 

Citra'go. (From citrus, a citron, 
so called from its citron-like smell). 
Citraria. Melissa, or balm. 

Ci'tras, -atis, f. (From citrus, 
the lemon) . A citrate. A salt formed 
by the union of the citric acid, or 
acid of lemons, with different bases; 
as citrate of ammonia, citrate of pot- 
ash. 

Ci'trea. See Citrus medica. 

Ci'treum. (From citrus). The 
citron-tree. See Citrus medica. 

(i'tric a'cid. Acid am citricum. 
The acid of lemons. The citric acid 
may be obtained pure in concrete 
crystals, as follows : Saturate boiling- 
lemon-juice with pulverized chalk 
The acid forms with lime a salt that 
is scarcely soluble, and the mucila- 
ginous and extractive substances re- 
main dissolved in the supernatant 
liquor ; the precipitate is to be well 
washed with lukewarm water ; then 
to be treated with as much sulphuric 
acid as would have been requisite to 
saturate the chalk, dilutee! in ten 
parts of water ; and this mixture is 
to be boiled for a few minutes ; it 
must then be cooled and filtered ; 
the sulphate of lime remains on the 
filter, and the liquor affords a crys- 
tallized acid by evaporation. 

Citrina'tio. Complete digestion, 

Citri'nula. (A dim. of citrus). 
A small citron. 

Citron. See Citrus medica. 

Citrul, Sicilian.') Sec Cucurbit a ci- 

Citru'llus. J trullus. 

Citrus. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Pohj add phia ; Order, lcosan- 
dria. — 2. The name of the lemon. 
See Citrus medica, 

Ci'trus aura'nyii m. The sys- 
tematic name of the orangc-trce. 
star and am. Aurantium H'npalense, 
dc. Seville orange. This plant is 



CIT 



153 



CIA 



the Citrus aurantium petiolis alatis, 
foliis acuminatis, of Linnaeus. The 
China and Seville oranges are both 
only varieties of the same species ; the 
latter is specified in our pharmaco- 
poeias ; and the flowers, leaves, yel- 
low rind, and juice, are made use of 
for different medical purposes. 

* # * The flowers ffiores naphce) are 
highly odoriferous, and are used as 
a perfume. — The leaves have a bit- 
terish taste, and vield, bv distilla- 
tion, an essential oil. — The yellow 
rind of the fruit, freed from the 
white fungous part, has a grateful 
aromatic flavour, and a warm, bit- 
terish taste. Infused in boiling wa- 
ter, it gives out nearly all its smell 
and taste ; cold water extracts the 
bitter, but very little of the flavour. 
In distillation, a light, fragrant, es- 
sential oil rises, without the bitter. 
Its qualities are those of an aromatic 
and bitter. 

Ci'trls ml'dica. The systematic 
name of the lemon-tree, Limon. 
Limonia mala. Mahis medica, &c. 
The tree which affords the lemon, i- 
the Citrut medica petiolis linearibus 
of Linnaeus : a native of the upper 
part of Asia, but cultivated in Spain, 
Portugal, and France. The juice, 
which is much more acid than that 
of the orange, possesses similar vir- 
tues. Whytt found the juice of le- 
mons to allay hysterical palpitations 
of the heart, after various other me- 
dicines had been i xperienced ineffec- 
tual ; and this juice, or that of 
oranges, taken to the 
four or six ounces in 
sometimes been found 
the jaundice. 

*** The citron-tree 
sidered as belonging to 
species — the Citrus medica of Lin- 
naeus. Its fruit is called Cedr&mela, 
which is larger and less succulent 
than the lemon ; but in all other 
respects the citron and lemon-trees 
e. The Citrus nulla rosa of 
Linnaeus. It was produced, at first, 

Bally, by an Italian's grafting a 
citron on a stock of a bergamot 
pear-tree ; whence the fruit produced 
by this union, participated both of 



quantity of 
a day i has 

a remedy in 



is 



also con- 
the same 



the citron-tree and the pear-tree. 

The essence prepared from this fruit 
is called essence of bergamote, and 
essentia de cedra. 

Ci'tta. A voracious appetite. 

ClTTo'siS. See Chlorosis. 

Civet-cat, See Zibethum. 

Cive'tta. (From sebet, Arab.) 
Civet, an unctuous odoriferous drug, 
now only used by perfumers. 

Clap. See Gonorrhoea. 

Cla'ret. (Claretum ; from dare re, 
to be clear;. A French wine, that 
may be given with great advantage, 
as a tonic and antiseptic, where red 
port disagrees with the patient ; and 
in typhoid fevers of children and de- 
licate females, it is much preferable, 
as a common drink. 

Clare'tum. See Claret. Also a 
wine impregnated with spices and 
sugar, called by some f'inum Hippo- 
craticum. 

Clarifica'tio, -ojus, f. The de- 
puration of any thi 

Clary. A name for the horminui. 

Clasis. (From x\«w, to break). 
Clasma. A fracture. 

Clal'strum. (From vlaudere, to 
shut, and ostium, a door). Cleiihrum 
gutturis. Any aperture which has a 
power of contracting itself, or closing 
its orifice by any means, as the pas- 
sage of the throat. 

Cla'istrim WUGIMTv'tis. The 
hymen. 

Clalsl'ra. (From cluudere, to 
shut . The imperforation of any 
canal or cavity in the body. Thus 
clau.sura uteri is a preternatural im- 
perforation of the uterus ; clausura 
tubarum FaUopiarunt, a morbid im- 
perforation of the Fallopian tubes, 
mentioned by Ruysch as one cause 
of barrenness. 

Clava'tio. (From clava, a club). 
A sort of articulation without mo- 
tion, where the parts are, as it were, 
driven in with a hammer, like the 
teeth in the sockets. See Goniphosis. 

Clavella'tls. (From clatous, a 
wedge). Potash was called cineriN 
clavellati, from the little wedges, or 
billets, into which the wood was tut 
to make it. 

Cla'vicle. (Dim. of clovis; sc* 



CLE 



154 



CLI 



called from its resemblance to an 
ancient key). The collar-bone. The 
clavicle is placed at the root of the 
neck, and at the upper part of the 
breast ; extending across, from the 
tip of the shoulder to the upper part 
of the sternum. It is a cylindrical 
bone flattened a little towards the 
end, which joins the scapula. It is 
curved like an Italic S, having one 
curve turned out towards the breast, 
it is useful as an arch, supporting 
the shoulders, preventing them from 
falling forwards upon the breast, and 
making- the hands strong" antagonists 
to each other; which, without this 
steadying, they could not have been. 

Claris, -t*, f. A key, because it 
locks or fastens the shoulder and 
sternum. The same as clavicle. 

Cla'vus, -i, m. (A nail). A fixed 
pain in the forehead, which may be 
covered by one's thumb, giving a 
sensation like as if a nail were driven 
into the part : and when connected 
with hysterics, it is called claims 
hystericus. It is also applied to corns , 
from their resemblance to the head 
of a nail ; and to an artificial palate, 
or diseased uterus. 

Cla'vus hvste'ricus. See Claims. 

Cla'vus oculo'ku.m. A staphy- 
loma, or tumour on the eyelids. 

Clay. See Alumine. 

Cleavers. See Galium Aparine. 

Clei'dion. Clidio/i. The epithet 
of a pastil, described by Galen and 
Paulus iEgineta ; and it is the name 
also of an epithet described by 
Aetius. 

Cieido'ma. (From xXetCio, to 
close). A pastil, or troch. Also 
the clavicule. 

Cleido-mastoide'us. (From xXeig, 
the clavicle, and pa f :oeiCrjg, the 
•mastoid process). See Sterno-cleido- 
•musi(. ulcus. 

Clf.isa'gka. (From vXng, the 
clavicle, and ttypa, a prey). The 
gout in the articulation of the 
cluvich 8. 

Clei'tnhon. (From kXuCco, to 
it . See CUmatrwm* 

Cle'.ymtis. (From xX>;/'rr, a ten- 
dril ; so named from its climbing up 
trees, or any thing it can fasten upon 



with its tendrils). The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnsean sys- 
tem : Class, Pcluandria; Order, Po- 
lygynio. 

Cle'matis re'cta. The systematic 
name of the upright virgin' s-bower. 
Flammula Juvis. Clematis; foliis 
pi?uiatis, foliolis ovato lanceolatis iu- 
tegerrimis, caule erecto, floribus pe?i- 
tapetalis tetrapetalisque of Linnaeus. 
The powdered leaves are sometimes 
applied externally to ulcers, as an 
escharotic ; and by foreign physicians 
esteemed anti-venereal. 

Cle'matis yita'lba. The sys- 
tematic name of the traveller's-joy. 
Vitalba. This plant is common in 
I our hedges, and is the Clematis , foliis 
pinnatis , foliolis cordatis scandentibus, 
of Linnaeus. When fresh, its leaves 
produce a warmth on the tongue, 
and if the chewing be contiuued, 
blisters arise. The same effect fol- 
lows if they be rubbed on the skin. 

* # * This plant has been adminis- 
tered internally to cure lues venerea, 
scrofula, and rheumatism. In France, 
she young sprouts are eaten, when 
boiled, as hoptops are in this country. 

Clemati'tis. The same as cle- 
matis. 

Cleo'ms colly'rium. The name 
of an eye-water described by Celsus. 

Cleo'ms glu'ten. An astringent 
formula of myrrh, frankincense, and 
white of egg. 

Cle'psydka. (From kXstttio, to 
conceal, and vcojp, water) . Properly, 
an instrument to measure time, by 
water dropping through a hole, from 

one vessel into another : a chvmical 

» 

vessel, perforated in the same man- 
ner. Also an instrument contrived 
to convey suffumigations to the uterus 
in hysterical cases. Paracelsus. 

Cli'banus. (Quasi xctX&civoc : 
from xaXurrlw, to conceal). — Chytn. 
A portable furnace, or still, in which 
the materials to be wrought on ire 
shut up. 

ClIMA'CTBRIC. (From x\/;««{(J, to 
proceed uradually). The progression 
of the life of man. It is usually 
divined into periods of seven years. 

Ci i'max. [From gXiurfto, to pro- 
ceed). The name of some unti- 



CLO 



155 



dotes, which, in regular proportion, 
increased or diminished the ingre- 
dients of which it was composed, e, g. 
Jc Chamcedryos Jjiij. Centaurii ~ij. 
Hyperici 5J. 

Climbing birthwort. See^m- 
tolochia clematitis . 

Cli'mcal. (Clinicus; from xXivr], 
a bed). Any thing concerning a 
bed: thus clinical lectures, notes, a 
clinical physician, &c. ; which mean 
lectures given at the bed-side ; ob- 
servations taken from patients when 
in bed ; a physician who visits his 
patients in their bed, &c. 

Cli'noid. (Clinoideus; fromxXiv^, 
a bed, and acoc, resemblance). Re- 
sembling a bed. The four processes 
surrounding the sella turcica of the 
sphenoid bone are so called, of 
which two are anterior, and two 
posterior. 

Clino-mastoide'us. A corruption 
of cleido-mastoideus. 

Ci.f-- 1 *. A cliyinical term de- 
noting mineral compound spirits ; 
but antimony is considered as the 
basis clyssi. Sec Clyssus. 

C'LITO'rIDIS Ml'sCLLUS. See 

Erector clitoridis. 

Cli'toris. (From xXhoj, to en- 
close, or fride ; because it is hidden 
by the labia puric ndorum). Columella. 
A small glandiform body, like a 
small penis, and, like it, covered 
with a prsepuce, or fore-skin ; situated 
above the nymphs, and before the 
aperture of the urinary passage of 
women. Anatomy has discovered, 
that the clitoris is composed, like 
the penis, of a cavernous substance, 
and of a glans, which has no per- 
foration, but, like that of the peni>, 
exquisitely sensible. The clitoris is 
the principal seat of pleasure : during 
coition it is distended with blood, and 
after the venereal orgasm it becomes 
flaccid and falls. 

Clitori'smus. (From aXeOopig). 
A morbid enlargement of the clitoris. 

Clo'mc. (From xXoveio, to move 
to and fro). Sec CorwuUion. 

Cloxo'des. (From hXoveo>, to 
agitate). A strong unequal pulse. 

Clove bark. See JMyrtus c 
phyllata. 



:aryo- 



Clove gilh flower. 1 — .. j7 

m r 7 jj V ^ ee E/iautkus 

Clove July flower. > „ . „ 

Clove pint: ) Car y"Pkyllus. 

Clove. See Eugenia Caryophyllata. 

Clune'sia. (From dunes, the but- 
tocks) . Proctalgia. Inflammation 
of the buttocks. 

Cll'pea alo'sa. The Linnaean 
name for the shad, or chad, com- 
mended by some as a restorative. 

Clu'sia. (So called in memory of 
Charles Clusius, an eminent botanist). 
A genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, Polygamia; Order, 
JSLmoecia. Balsam-tree. 

Clu'tia. (Named after Cluyt, and 
sometimes spelled cluyt ia) . A genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Dioecia; Order, Gynandria. 

Clu'tia eluthe'ria. The syste- 
matic name of the tree which is 
by some supposed to produce the 
casearilla bark. 

Cluy'tia. See Clutia. 

Cly'don. (KXucW). A sense 
of fluctuation and flatulency in the 
stomach. 

Ci.vi'Ea'lis. (From clypeus, a 
shield). Formed like a shield. 

Cly'smus. Clysma. (From *\i/£oj, 
to wash). A cly>t» r. 

Ci.^'sxls. Clissus. A term for- 
merly used by the chymists for me- 
dicines made by the re-union of dif- 
ferent principles, as oil, salt, and 
spirit, by long digestion. Both the 
a and the practice are now almost 
lost. 

Cly'ssus antimo'nii. Clyss-us mi- 
ncralis. A weak acid of sulphur. 

Cly'ste'R. Clystcrium. (From 
h\v(u), to cleanse). A clyster. 

Cne'mia. Any part connected 
with the tibia. 

Cnemodactylte'is. (Fromxv?7^?7, 
the tibia, and caxlvXoQ, a finger, 
or toe). A muscle originating in 
the tibia, and inserted in the toes. 
Its office is to elevate the toes. See 
Extensor longus digitorum pedis. 

Cne'sis. (From avaio, to scratch). 
Cnesma. Cnesmos. A painful itch- 
ing. 

Cnicil/e'on. (From vlvvaoq,* cni- 
cus, and tXawv, oil). Oil extracted 
from the seeds of cnicus. Its virtues 



COA 



156 



COB 



are the same as those of the ricinus, 
although in an inferior degree. 
" Cni'cus. (From avaio, to scratch). 
The plant used by Hippocrates by 
this name, is supposed to be the 
carthamus ; but modern botanists 
exclude it from the species of this 
plant. 

Cni'cus sylve'stris. The Cen- 
taur e a benedict a. 

Cni'dii co'cci. 1 See Daphne 

Cni'dia gra'na. J Mezereum. 

Cnido'sis. (From avidrj, the net- 
tle) . An itching sensation, such as 
is perceived from the nettle. A dry 
ophthalmy. 

Cnipo'tes. An itching. 

Cni'smos. See Cnesis. 

Cny'ma. (From tcvau), to scrape, 
or grate). A rasure, puncture, or 
vellication : also the same as cnesmos, 
or cnesis. Hipp. 

Coagula'ntia. (From coagulare, 
to incrassate, or curdle) . Coagulants. 
Such medicines as coagulate the 
blood, and the juices flowing from 
it. 

Coa'gulable lymph. Lympha 
coagulabilis. Called alsofibrine, being 
a principal constituent of muscular 
fibres. It is a component part of the 
blood, and may be obtained in con- 
siderable quantities, by stirring the 
blood about with a stick, when it 
adheres to its sides. In certain dis- 
eased actions it is separated from the 
blood, and is often found in very 
considerable quantities in the cir- 
cumscribed cavities of the body. It 
has neither taste nor smell ; it al- 
ways possesses a white €.nd opake 
colour ; is of a glutinous consistence, 
and, if dried by a gentle heat, be- 
comes horny. The same name has 
also been given to that part of the 
serum which coagulates when heated, 
and which is of an albuminous na- 
ture. See Albumen. 

Coagula'tiov. Coagulatio, -onisyf. 
(From con 9 and agere, to bring toge- 
ther) . The separation of the glutinous 
or viscid particles, contained in any 
fluid, from the more thin and not 
coagulable particles : thus, when 
milk curdles, the coagulable parti- 
i -les form the curd j and when acids 



are thrown into any fluid containing 
coagulable particles, they form what 
is called a coagulum. 

Coa'gulum. Applied frequently 
to blood and other fluids, when they 
assume the consistence of a jelly. 

Coa'gulum ali/minis. Made by 
beating the white of eggs with a little 
alum, until a coagulum is formed. 
It is recommended as an efficacious 
application to relaxations of the con- 
junctive membrane of the eye. 

Coalte'rn;e fe'bres. (From con, 
and altermis, alternate). Febrile 
diseases mentioned by Bellini, which 
he describes as two fevers affecting 
the same patient, and the paroxysm 
of one approaching, as that of the 
other subsides. 

Coarcta'tio. (From coarctarc y 
to make strait. The contraction or 
diminution of any thing. Applied 
to the pulse, it means a lessening in 
number. 

Coarticula'tio. (From con, and 
articulatioy an articulation). That 
sort of articulation which has evi- 
dent motion. 

Co'balt. Cadmia metallica. A 
metal that has never been found pure 
in nature. It is almost always met 
with either in the state of an oxyde, 
alloyed with other metals, in the 
form of a sulphuret, or combined 
with an acid. 

* # * In the state of an oxyde, it 
forms the black cobalt ore. There 
are several varieties of this ore. 
Alloyed with other metals, it forms 
the dull white cobalt ore, which occurs 
either amorphous or crystallized, 
and is united to iron and arsenic. 
United to sulphur, it forms the white 
cobalt ore. It is met with in masses, 
or crystallized in cubes, dodecahe- 
dra, and octahedra. Its colour is a 
tin-white, sometimes reddish -yellow. 
In the state of oxyde, combined with 
arsenic, acid forms the red cobalt 
ore, arseniate of cobalt. It is found 
in masses of various shapes. Its 
colour is red, inclining to orange. 
When in a pure state, cobalt is of a 
steel-grey colour, with a tinge of 
red, and a fine close grain. Nitrate 
of potash oxydizes cobalt readily. It 



coc 



157 



COC 



detonates by the blow of a hammer 
when mixed with oxygenated mu- 
riate of potash. It produces fine 
colours in porcelain, enamels, artifi- 
cial gems, &c. 

Co'bham waters. Weak saline 
purging waters. 

Co'bra de cape'llo. (From cohra, 
the head, or covering, Span.) Cro- 
talus horridus of Linnaeus. The rat- 
tle-snake ; the stone out of whose 
head, is said to be an antidote to 
the poison of venomous animals. 

Co'cca cnt'dia. See Daphne me- 
zcreum. 

Cocca'rium. (From xoxkoc, a 
berry). A very small pill. 

Coccinf/lla. (Dim. from coccus, 
a berry ; from its resemblance to a 
berry). See Coccus cacti. 

Cocco-ba'lsamlm. The fruit of 
the true balsam. 

Coccogm'dia. Granacnidia. Cocci 
cnidii. The seeds of the Daphne me- 
zerc.um are so termed. They are vio- 
lently purgative. See Daphne me- 
zereum. 

Co'ccos. See Daphne, mezereum. 

Co'ccuu I'ndi aroma'tici. The 
Jamaica pepper. 

Co'cculus I'NDICUS. (Dim. of 
xokzoq, a berry). See Mcnupermum 
cocculus. 

Co'ccum ba'puicum. A name for 
chermes. 

Co'ccus. The name, in entomo- 
logy, of a tribe of insects. 

Co'ccus ca'cti. The systematic 
name of the cochineal insect. Coc- 
cinclla. Cocvinilla. Ficus India? gra- 
na. Scarabcpolus hemisph&ricus. Co- 
chinelifera cochinilla. Coccus Ameri- 
can us. Cochinelle. Coccus Indicus 
tinctorius. Cochineal. The female 
of a species of insect called Coccus 
cacti, found on, and collected in, 
South America, from the Opuntia, 
or Indian fig-tree. It possesses sti- 
mulating qualities, and is ordered by 
the College in the tinctura cardamo- 
mi ccrmposita, and tinctura cincho- 
na compoiita; but, most probably, 
merely on account of the beautiful 
red colour which it imparts to them. 

Coccyge'us. (From hohhvZ ; be- 
cause it is inserted into the coccyx) . 



Ischio-cocigien of Dumas. A muscle 
of the os coccygis, situated within 
the pelvis. 

Co'ccygis, os. (From koxkv%, the 
cuckoo, whose bill it is said to re- 
present) . Cauda. Ossis sacri acu- 
men. Coccyx. This bone is a small 
appendage to the point of the sacrum, 
terminating this inverted column 
with an acute point, and found in 
very different conditions in the seve- 
ral stages of life. 

Co'ccvx. (From hohkv%, the 
cuckoo). See Coccygis os. Also 
the part in which the os coccygis is 
placed. 

Co'chia. (From xoxaio, to turn 
or make round). An ancient name 
of some officinal pills. 

Co'chineal. See Coccus cacti. 
Co'chlea. (From noxa^o), to 
turn round). A cavity of the inter- 
nal ear, resembling the shell of a 
snail, in which are observed, the 
modiolus, or nucleus, extending from 
its basis to the apex; the scala tym- 
pani, scala vestibuli, and spiral la- 
mina. 
Co'chlea terre'stris. See Lima*. 
Cochlea're and Cochlear, -aris, 
n. (From cochlea, a cockle, whose 
shell its bowl represents). A spoon- 
ful. In prescriptions it is sometimes 
abbreviated thus : cochl. Cochleare 
mngninn, is a table-spoonful ; coch- 
leare medium, a dessert or pap-spoon- 
ful ; and cochleare minimum, a tea- 
spoonful. 

Cochlea'ria. (From cochleare, a 
spoon ; so called from its resem- 
blance). A genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Tetradyna- 
mia ; Order, Siliculosa. 

Cochlea'ria armora'cia. The 
systematic name of the horse-radish. 
Raphanus rusticanus. Armor acta. 
Raphanus marinus. Rapha?ius syl- 
vestris. Horse-radish. The plant 
which affords this root is the Coch- 
learia armor acia ; foliis radicalibus 
lanceolatis crenatis, caufaiis incisis, 
of Linnaeus. 

%* The root of this plant only is 
employed ; and it affords one of the 
most acrid substances of this order 
(SiliquoseJ, and therefore proves a 



coc 



158 



CCEL 



powerful stimulant, whether exter- 
nally or internally employed. Ex- 
ternally, it readily inflames the skin, 
and proves a rubefacient that may 
be employed with advantage in 
palsy and rheumatism ; and if its 
application be long continued, it 
produces blisters. Taken internally, 
it may be so managed as to relieve 
hoarseness, by acting on the fauces. 
Received into the stomach, it stimu- 
lates this, and promotes digestion ; 
and therefore is properly employed 
as a condiment with our animal 
food. If it be infused in water, and 
a portion of this infusion be taken 
with a large draught of warm water, 
it readily proves emetic, and may 
either be employed by itself to excite 
vomiting, or to assist the operation 
of other emetics. Infused in water, 
and taken into the stomach, it 
proves stimulating to the nervous 
system, and is thereby useful in 
palsy, and, if employed in large 
quantity, it proves heating to the 
whole body ; and thereby it proves 
often useful in chronic rheumatism, 
whether arising from scurvy or other 
causes. See Culleris Mat. Med, 

Cochlea'ria horte'nsis. Lemon 
scurvy- grass. 

Cochlea'ria officinalis. The 
systematic name of the lemon scurvy- 
grass. Cochlearia hortcnxis. This 
indigenous plant, Cochlearia officina- 
lis ; foliis radicalisms cordato subro- 
tioidis, caulinis oblojigis subsiimatis 9 
of Linnaeus, is cultivated in gardens 
for its medicinal qualities. Its ex- 
pressed juice has been long consi- 
dered as the most effectual of the 
scorbutic plants. 

Cocho'Ke. (From koxcko, to 
turn round) . The juncture of the 
ischium, near the seat or breech ; 
whence all the adjacent parts about 
the seat are called by the same name. 
Galen. — The part of the spine which is 
adjacent to the os sacrum. Ifesychius. 

Co'cos. (So called from the Por- 
tuguese coco 9 or coqueh) the three 
holes at the end of the cocoa-nut 
shell, giving it the resemblance of a 
monkey's head) . The cocoa-nut tree. 
A genus 6f plants in the Linnaean 



system : Class, Monoecia; Order, 
Hexajidria, 

Co'cos nucife'ra. The systema- 
tic name of the plant, the fruit of 
which is the cocoa-nut. 

Co'cos butyra'cea. The syste- 
matic name of the plant which 
affords the palm-oil, Oleum pahn<e> 
produced chiefly from the fruit of 
the Cocos butyracea; biennis , frondi- 
bus pennatis; foliolis simplicibus, of 
Linnaeus, by bruising and dissolving 
the kernels of the fruit in water, 
without the aid of heat, by which 
means the oil is separated, and rises 
to the surface ; and on being washed 
two or three times, is rendered fit 
for use. 

%* The use of palm-oil is confined 
to external applications in pains, tu- 
mours, and sprains ; but it appears 
to possess very little, if any, advan- 
tage over other bland oils. 

Co'ction. (From coquere, to boil). 
Concoction. Digestion. 

*** % In a medical sense, coction 
signifies that alteration, whatever it 
be, or however occasioned, which is 
made in the crude matter of a dis- 
temper, whereby it is either fitted 
for a discharge, or rendered harm- 
less to the body. This is often 
brought about by nature ; that is, 
by the vis vita?, or the disposition or 
natural tendency of the matter itself, 
or else by proper remedies, which 
may so alter its bulk, figure, cohe- 
sion, or give it a particular determi- 
nation, so as to prevent any farther 
ill effects, or drive it quite out of 
the body ; and that time of a dis- 
ease wherein this action is perform- 
ing, is called its state of coction. 
Bocrhaave. 

Cocu'stu. The name for cour- 
baril. 

Codocf/le. (From xu>dia, a bulb, 
and ytjjXrjy a tumour). A bubo. 

Coda'ga pa'la. Sec N&rtum anti- 
dysentcn'vh'm. 

Ccfxa'us. (From caecum, the blind 
gut, through which it runs). A vein, 
Being a branch from the concave 
side of the vena mesaraica. 

Coz'la. (From aotkoc, hollow). 
The hollow pits above,- and 1 some- 



COF 



159 



COH 



times below the eyes. The hollow 
parts at the bottom of the feet. 

Cos'lia. (From xoiXog, hollow). 
A cavity in any part of the body. 
The belly. The womb. 

Cge/uac a'rtery. (Cceliacus, be- 
longing to the belly ; from KOiXut, 
the belly). Arteria cosliaca. The first 
branch given off from the aorta, in 
the cavity of the abdomen. It sends 
branches to the diaphragm, stomach, 
liver, pylorus, duodenum, omentum, 
and spleen. 

Cge'liac I'a'ssion. (Coeliacus, be- 
longing to the belly ; from noiXia, 
the belly) . Cwlica chylosa. Cwlica 
lac tea. 

*** There are great differences 
among physicians concerning the 
nature of this disease. Sauvagcs 
s it is a chronic flux, in which 
the aliment is discharged half di- 
gested. Dr. Cullen considers it as a 
species of diarrhoea, and mentions it 
in his third and fourth species, un- 
der the terms mucosa, chylosa, lacta; 
making the purulcnta only sympto- 
matic. See Diarrhoea. 

Ccelo'ma. (From kolXoq, hollow). 
An ulcer in the tunica cornea of the 
eye. 

Ccelosto'mia. (From hoiXoq, hol- 
low, and TOjita, the mouth). A de- 
fect of utterance, when a person's 
speech is obscured by sounding as if 
his voice issued from a cavern. 

CaiNOLo'oiA. (From xoivog, com- 
mon, and Xoyog, discourse). A con- 
sultation of a disease, by two or 
more physicians. 

Cceno'tes. (From aoivoc, com- 
mon). The physicians of the metho- 
dic sect asserted that all diseases 
arose from relaxation, stricture, or 
a mixture of both. These were 
called camotcs, i. e. what diseases 
have in common. 

Co2Ru'leus la'pis. The sulphate 
of copper. See Cupri sulphas. 

Cce'te, (From xa/xcu, to lie 
down). A bed, or couch, for a sick 
person. 

Co'ffea. (From hofuah, a mix- 
ing together, Hebr. ; so called from 
the pleasant potation which is made 
from its berry. Others assert that 



the true name is caffe, from Caff a 9 
a province in South America, where 
the tree grows spontaneously in great 
abundance). The coffee-tree. The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Pentandria; 
Order, Monogynia. 

Co'ffea Ara'bica. The plant 
which affords coffee. JasminumAra- 
bicum. Choava. Coffee is the seeds 
of the Coffea; floribus quinquefidis y 
dispermis, of Linnaeus. 

*** The coffee-tree is cultivated 
in Arabia, Persia, the East Indies, 
the Isle of Bourbon, and several 
parts of America. Good Turkey 
coffee is by far the most salutary of 
all liquors drunk at meal-time. It 
possesses nervine and astringent 
qualities, and may be taken with 
advantage at all times, except when 
there is bile in the stomach. It is 
said to be a good antidote against an 
over-dose of opium, and to relieve 
obstinate spasmodic asthmas. If cof- 
fee be drunk warm within an hour 
after dinner, it is of singular use to 
those who are troubled witli head- 
ache, from weakness in the stomach, 
contracted by sedentary habits, close 
attention, or accidental debauch, &c. 

Coffee is often imitated, by roast- 
ing rye witli a few almonds. 

Cohe'sion. (From con, and ha?* 
rere, to stick together). Vis coha?- 
rionis. Vis adha:sionis. Vis attraction 
nis. That force in the particles of 
matter by which they are connected 
in such a way that they resist any 
attempt towards their removal or 
separation. A species of attraction. 
See Attraction, 

Cohoba'tion. (A term invented 
by Paracelsus) . Cohobatio. Cohobium. 
Cohoph. 

* # * The ancient chymists used this 
term to signify the distillation of a 
fluid poured at Vesh upon a substance 
of the same kind as that upon which 
it was before distilled, and repeating 
the operation several times, to ren- 
der it more efficacious. For this 
purpose, the vessel called pelican 
was employed. 

Co'hol. (Cohol, Heb.) Castellus 
says this word is used in Avicenna. 
P2 



COL 



160 



COL 



to express dry collyria for the eyes, 
in line powder. 

Coi'lima. (From xoiXia, the bow- 
els). Tympany. A sudden swell- 
ing of the belly from wind. 

Coilosto'mia. (Trom xoiXoc, hol- 
low, and <ro/ia, the mouth). A de- 
fect of speaking, from the palate, or 
through the nose. 

Coindica'ntia. (From con, and 
indicare, to indicate) . Signs, or symp- 
toms, are called coindicant, when, 
besides the usual incidental appear- 
ances, there occur others, as age, 
habit, season, &c. 

Coi'ra. A name for catechu. 

Co'itus. (From coire, to go to- 
gether;. The conjunction of the 
male and female in the act of pro- 
creation. 

Co'la. (From xwXov, a joint). 
The joints. 

Colato'ria la'ctea. According 
to Astruc, they were formerly called 
glands, and are situated in the 
third and internal tunic of the 
uterus, and are vesiculo-vascular 
bodies. 

Colato'rium. From colore, to 
strain). A sieve or strainer of any 
kind. 

Colatu'ra. (Ibid.) Any filtered 
or strained liquor. 

Colcaouahui'tl. An American 
plant, commended in palsies and ute- 
rine disorders. Ray. 

Colcestre'nsis a 'qua. Colchester 
water. A mineral water of the 
bitter purging kind, similar to that 
of Epsom, but not so strong. 

Co'lciiiclm. (From Colchis, a 
city of Armenia, where this plant is 
supposed to have been common). — 
1 . The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Hex- 
andria; Order, Trygynia. Meadow- 
saffron. — 2. The pharmacopoeial 
name of the meadow-saffron. See 
Co Ich u am a ut it m n ale. 

Co'lciiicum autumna'le. The 
rematic name of the common 
meadow-saffron. Colehieum ; foliis 
plants luiiccolati.s t ii ( tis, of Linmpus. 
A native of England. The sensible 
qualities of the fresh root are very 
v.irious. According to the place of 



growth and season of the year. In 
autumn it is almost inert, but in the 
beginning of summer highly acrid : 
hence some have found it to be a 
corrosive poison, whilst others have 
eaten it in considerable quantity, 
without experiencing any effect. 

Co'lchicum illy'ricum. The 
plant supposed to afford the hernia- 
dactyls. See Hermodactylus. 

Co'lchicum Zeyla'nicum. See 
Zedoaria. 

Co'LCOTHAR VITRl'OLI. Chalcitis. 

The remains of calcined martial 
vitriol. 

Cold. The absence of heat. It 
is nothing positive, but somewhat of 
the negative kind. Also a popular 
name for a catarrh. See Catarrhus. 

*** The human body contains 
within itself, as long as it is living, a 
principle of warmth : if any other 
body, being in contact with it, ab- 
stracts the heat with unusual ra- 
pidity, it is said to be cold ; but if 
it carries off the heat more slowly 
than usual, or even communicates 
heat to our body, it is said to be 
hot. 

Cold affusion. A process lately 
introduced bv Dr. Currie, of Liver- 
pool, in the treatment of typhus 
fever, and which appears to possess 
an uniformity of success, which is 
looked for in vain in almost any 
other branch of medical practice. It 
consists merely in placing the patient 
in a bathing-tub, or other convenient 
vessel, and pouring a pailful of cold 
water upon his body ; after which 
he is wiped dry, and again put to 
bed. It should be noted, 1. That it 
is the low contagious fever in which 
the cold affusion is to be employed. 
— 2. That it is in the early stage of 
the disease we must employ the re- 
medy ; and generally W the state of 
the greatest heat and e.racerbation. — 
3. It is ajf'i/sif)n, not immersion , that 
must be employed. 

%* Since the first publication of 
Or. Currie's work, the practice of 
affusion bas been extended throughout 
England ; and its efficacy lias been 
established in some stages of the 
disease, from which the author had 



col 



161 



COL 



originally proscribed the practice of 
it. One of the cautionary injunc- 
tions which had been given for the 
affusion of cold water in fever, was, 
never to employ it in cases where the 
patient had a sense of chill ness upon 
him, even if the thermometer, ap- 
plied to the trunk of the body, indi- 
cated a preternatural degree of heat. 
In his last edition of Reports, how- 
ever, Dr. Currie has given the par- 
ticulars of a case of this description, 
in which the cold affusion was so ma- 
naged as to produce a successful 
result. 

The efficacy of affusion in the 
raging fevers of hot countries, has 
•n attested and confirmed by nu- 
merous communications from va- 
rious practitioners, in the West and 
East Indies, in Egypt and America. 
Co'les. (From xavXog, a stalk). 
Colts. The penis. 

Colewort. See Brassica. 
Co'li de'xtrlm ligame'nTum. 
Where the mesentery changes its 
name for that of mesocolon, (near 
the extremity of the ileum) , the par- 
ticular lamina, which is turned to 
the right side, forms a small trans- 
verse fold, which is thus named. 

Co'li sini'sthum ligame'nti m. A 
contraction of the mesocolon, a little 
below the left kidney. 

Co'lica. (From kuXov, colon, 
the name of one of the intestines). 
The colic. 

%* The name of colic is usually 
given to all pains in the abdomen, 
almost indiscriminately ; but, from 
the different causes and circum- 
stances of this disorder, it is va- 
riously denominated : e. g. when 
the pain is accompanied with the 
vomiting of bile, or with obstinate 
costiveness, it is called a bilious colic; 
if flatus causes the pain, that is, if 
attended with temporary distension, 
relieved by the discharge of wind, it 
takes the name of flatulent or windy 
colic ; when accompanied with heat 
and inflammation, it takes the name 
of inflammatory colic, or enttritis. 
%* When this disease arises to a 
violent height, and is attended with 
obstinate costiveness, and an evacua- 



tion of faeces by the mouth, it is 
called passio iliaca, or iliac passion. 
This genus of disease is placed by 
Cullen in the Class Neuroses, and 
Order Spasmi ; and he defines it pain 
of the abdomen, particularly round 
the umbilicus, attended with vomit- 
ing and costiveness. He enumerates 
seven species, although more are laid 
down by others. 

Co'lica accidenta'lis. Colic 
from crudities in the bowels. 

Co'lica arte'ria sini'stra. The 
lower mesenteric artery. 

Co'lica ar'teria superior. The 
upper mesenteric artery. 

Co'lica bilio'sa. Colic from ex- 
cess of bile. 

Co'lica calculous a. Colic from 
stony matters in the intestines. 

Co'lica callo'sa. Colic from 
hardened and obstinate strictures. 

Co'lica Damnonio'rum. Colic pe- 
culiar to Devonshire. 

Co'lica febrico'sa. Colic with 
fever. 

Co'lica tlatlle'nta. Colic from 
wind. 

Co'lica gravida'rum. Colic in 
pregnant women. 

Co'lica iivste'rica. Hysteric 
colic. 

Co'lica lacta'ntium. Colic pe- 
culiar to nurses. 

Co'lica Lappo'nica. Colic pecu- 
liar to Laplanders. 

Co'lica meconia'lis. Colic from 
meconium in infants. 

Co'lica mesente'rica. Colic from 
diseased mesentery. 

Co'lica nervo'sa. The nervous 
colic. 

Co'lica pancrea'tica. Colic from 
diseased pancreas. 

Co'lica phlogi'stica. Colic with 
inflammation. 

Co'lica pi'ctonum. See Co- 
Ilea. 

Co'lica pitlito'sa. The spasmo- 
dic colic. 

Co'lica pletho'rica. The in- 
flammatory colic. 

Co'lica plumbario'rum. The 
colic of lead-workers. 

Co'lica pulsa'tilis. The inflam- 
matory colic. 
P 3 



COL 



162 



COL 



Co'lica saturni'na. The Devon- 
shire colic. See Colica. 

Co'lica scirrhoma. The colic 
from schirrous tumours. 

Co'lica spasmo'dica. The spas- 
modic colic. 

Co'lica sterco'rea. Colic from 
retained faeces. 

Co'lica ve'na. A branch of the 
upper mesenteric vein. 

Co'lica ve'na re'cta. The vein 
of the colon. 

Co'lica vermino'sa. The colic 
from worms. 

Co'lice. The colic. 

Colifo'rmis. (Fromcofa, a strain- 
er, and forma, a likeness ; so called 
from its having many perforations, 
like a strainer). Coliforme os. A 
name formerly given to the os cri- 
brosum. 

Coli'phiim. (From aioXov, a 
limb, and 1^1, strongly). A kind of 
bread given to wrestlers. It was 
made of flour and bran together, 
and was thought to make men ath- 
letic. 

Colla'psus. (From collahi, to 
shrink down). Wasting or shrinking 
of the body, or strength. 

Collate'* na. A specific vulne- 
rary. 

Collatera'les. So Spigelius calls 
the erectores penis, from their col- 
1 iteral order of fibres. 

Colle'tica. (From xoXAa, glue). 
Conglutinating medicines. 

Colli'ci/e. (From colligere, to 
collect). The union of the ducts, 
which convey the humours of the 
eyes from the puncta lachrymalia in- 
to the cavity of the nose. 

Colli'cllum. (Dim. of collis, a 
hill). The nympha, or prominency. 
External to the vagina of women. 

Colliga'men. (From colligare, to 
tie together) . A ligament. 

Colliouame'ntum. (From colli- 
qucre, to melt) . A term first used by 
Dr. Harvey, in his application of it 
to the first rudiments of an embryo 
in generation. 

Colliquative. (From coUhpiere, 
to melt). Any excessive evacuation 
which melts down, as it were, the 
Strength of the body : hence colli- 



quative perspiration, colliquative 
diarrhoea, &c. 

Colli'sio. (From collidere, to 
beat together) . A contusion. 

Co'llix. (From xoXov, food). A 
troch, or lozenge. 

Collobo'ma. (From xoXXau, to 
glue together). Growing together of 
the eye -lids. 

Collo'des. (From xoXXa, glue). 
Glutinous. 

Co'llum, -t, n. (From kioXov, a 
member, as being one of the chief ; 
or dim. of columns, as being the 
pillar and support of the head). The 
neck. 

Colluto'rium. (From colluere, to 
wash). A gargle or wash for the 
mouth. 

Collu'vies,-*?/, f. (From colluere, 
to cleanse). Filth. Excrement. The 
discharge from an old ulcer, &c. 

Co'llyris. (KoXXvpig, a little 
round cake ; so called from its like- 
ness to a cake) . A bump, or knob, 
which rises after a blow. 

Colly'kium, -/, n. (From kojXvcj, 
to check, and povg, a defluxion ; be- 
cause it stops the defluxion) . An eye 
salve ; a pessary ; a clyster, &c. Any 
medicine was formerly so called, 
which was applied with that inten- 
tion. The term is now only given to 
fluid applications for the eyes, or 
eye- waters. 

Colobo'ma. (From KoXXau), to 
glue together) . The growing toge- 
ther of the eye-lids : also the want 
of a particular member of the 
body. 

Colobo'mata. In Celsus this 
word is expressed by curta ; both, 
however, signify a deficiency in 
some part of the body, particu- 
larly the ears, lips, or alae of the 
nostrils. 

Coloca'sja. (From koXov, food, 
and Ka(co, to adorn ; so called from 
its use as a food, and the custom of 
wearing its flowers in wreaths) . The 
faba JEgyptiR. 

CoLOcv'Nnns, -idis, f. (From 
KioXot', the colon, and Kivit), to 
move ; became of its great purging 
powers). A kind of wild gourd, the 
apple of which is called coloquiutida. 



COL 



163 



COM 



or hitter apple. See Cucwnis colo- 
cynthis. 

Colo'mbo. See Calumba, 

Co'lon, -//, n. * (KioXov, quasi 
koi\oi> , from kolXoq, hollow ; so 
called from its capacity, or from its 
generally being found empty, and 
full of wind in dissection). The 
greater portion of the large intes- 
tine is so called. It proceeds towards 
the liver by the name of the ascend- 
ing portion of the colon ; and having 
reached the liver, forms a transverse 
arch across to the other side. The 
colon then descends, forming what 
is termed its sigmoid flexure, into 
the pelvis, where the gut is called 
rectum. See Intestines. 

Colopho'ma. (Ko\o(jHt)via, the 
city from whence it was first brought) . 
Resina nigra. The black resin which 
remains in the retort, after distilling 
the common resin with a strong 
tire. 

Colo'strlm. (From koXov, food, 
or KoWtjfiai, to agglutinate ; so 
called, either because it is the first 
food of the young, or from its being 
at that time peculiarly glutinous;. 
The first milk in the breasts after 
delivery, according to some authors ; 
but Bartholine applies it to an emul- 
sion made by the union of turpentine 
with the yolk of an egg. 

CoLOTOl'DES. (From KojXajrrjr, 
a lizard, and el^oc, likeness). \ a- 
riegated like the skin of a lizard. 
\pplied by Hippocrates to the ex- 
crements. 

Coloqui'ntida. See Cucumis colo- 
ri/jttkis. 

Golpocb'le. (From koXttoq, the 
vagina, and kj]Xi), a tumour). A 
tumour or hernia in the vagina. 

Colpopto'sis. (From coXirog, the 
ragina, and ^lttto), to fall down). 
A bearing down of the vagina. See 
Vagi iui , prolapsus of. 

Colt's-Jbot. See Tuss-ilago. 

Co'luber, -bri, TO. (Quod colit 
umbretm, because it courts the shade) . 
A genus of animals in the Linnaean 
arrangement, of which there are 
many species. 

Co'liber be'rus. The systematic 
name of the viper. Vipera. This vi- 



| viperous reptile, Coluber berus jof 
| Linnaeus, possesses the power of 
! forming a poisonous fluid in little 
I bags near its teeth. 

Colubri'na virginia'na. See 
Aristolochia Serpen taria, 

Colubri'num li'gxum. (Colubri' 
nus, from coluber; so called, from 
the snake-like contortions of its 
roots). This species of snake-wood 
is brought from America. It is 
solid, ponderous, acrid, extremely 
bitter, and inodorous ; its bark is of 
a ferruginous colour, covered with 
cineritious spots. 

Co 'lumbine. See Aquilegia, 

Co'lumba. See Calumba. 

Columbo'be. See Calumba. 

Colume'lla. (Dim. of columns 9 
a column). See Uvula, and Clitoris. 

Colu.mella'ris. (From columella, 
a little column) . A name of the 
dens caninus. 

Colu'mna, -(P, f. A column or 
pillar. Many parts of the bodv, 
which in their shape or office resem- 
ble columns, are so named; e.g. co- 
lumnae carneae, <xc. 

Coll'm\ \ na'si. The lowest and 
fleshy part of the nose, which forms 
a part of the septum. 

Colu'mna o'ris. A name for the 
uvula. 

Colu'mn.e ca'rne.e. Columnse 
cordis. See Heart. 

Colu'rium. (II7:pa to xoXXyv top 
povv : because it prevents a deflux- 
ionj . A tent to thrust into a sore, 
to prevent a defluxion of humours. 

Co'ma. (From huj, or koo, to lie 
down). A propensity to sleep ; a 
lethargic drowsiness. 

*** The coma vigil is a disease 
where the patients are continually 
inclined to sleep, but cannot. 

Co'ma somnolf/ntum. Is when 
the patient continues in a profound 
sleep ; and, when roused, imme- 
diately relapses, without being able 
to keep open his eyes. 

Co'mata. (Kwpara: from com a). 
A diminution of the powers of vo- 
luntary motion, with sleep, or the 
senses impaired. It is an Order of 
the Class Neuroses of Cullen's Noso- 
logy. 



COM 



184 



COM 



Coma'tose. Having a strong pro- 
pensity to sleep. 

Combustion. (From comburere, 
burn). The act of burning. A burn, 
or scald. Among the various opera- 
tions of chymistry, none acts a more 
conspicuous part than combustion ; 
and in proportion to its utility in the 
science, the necessity of thoroughly 
investigating its nature and mode of 
action, becomes more obvious to the 
philosophical chymist. 

*** Lavoisier's theory of com- 
bustion is founded upon the absorp- 
tion of oxygen by a combustible 
body. 

According to Dr. Thompson's the- 
ory, all the bodies concerned in 
combustion, are either combustibles, 
supporters of combustibles, or inco?n- 
bustibles. 

Comedo'nes. (From comedo, a 
glutton). A sort of worms which 
eat into the skin and devour the 
flesh . 

Comfrey. See Symphytum. 

Comi'sdi. The gum, Acacia. 

Comi'ste. The epilepsy. This 
name arose from the frequency of 
persons being seized with this disor- 
der, while in the assemblies called 
Comitia. 

Comiti'ssa. A countess. Some 
preparations are distinguished by 
this name, as pulvis Comitissae de 
Cantia, the Countess of Kent's pow- 
der. Also the Cinchona was called 
Pulvis Comitissae. 

Com m age'n u m . (From Commagene, 
a place in Syria, whence it was 
brought). Syrian ointment. Galen. 

Commanouca'tio,-ow'.?, f. (From 
( ommanducare, to eat). The act of 
mastication, or chewing. 

Comm'ansum. (From comedere, 
to e*it). A masticatory. A medicine 
put into the mouth and chewed, to 
promote a discharge of phlegm, or 
saliva. 

Commendato'rius. (From com- 
vutulare, to recommend). An epithet 
of the traumatic balsam. Tinctura 
JBcnzoes composita, from its singu- 
lar virtues and usefulness. 

Com'mi. Gum. When alone it sig- 
nifies gum arabic. The noppi \ivkov 



mentioned by Hippocrates, De A/orb, 
Mulieb. is gum arabic. 

Commissu'ra, -ce, f. (From com- 
mittere, to join together or close) . A 
suture, juncture, or joint. — Anat. To 
the corner of the lips,where they meet 
together ; and also to certain parts 
of the brain which go across and 
join one hemisphere to the other. 

Commissu'ra ante'rior ce'rebri. 
The white nerve -like substance 
which crosses the anterior part of 
the third ventricle of the brain, im- 
mediately above the infundibulum, 
and between the anterior crura of 
the fornix ; uniting one hemisphere 
of the brain with the other. 

Commissu'ra ma'gna ce'rebri. 
The corpus callosum of the brain is 
thus termed by some writers. 

Commissu'ra poste'rior ce'rebri. 
A white nerve -like substance, which 
passes from one hemisphere of the 
brain across to the other, imme- 
diately over the opening of the aque- 
duct of Sylvius, in the posterior part 
of the third ventricle of the brain, 
and above the corpora quadrigemina. 

Commu'nicant. (From communis 
care, to make partake) . Fevers of 
two kinds afflicting the same person, 
wherein as one goes off the other 
immediately succeeds. Bellini. 

Compa'ges. (From compingere, to 
put together) . A suture, or joint. A 
commissure. 

Comparative ana'tomy. Anato- 
mia comparativa. Zootomy. The 
dissection of brute animals and 
fishes, to compare them with the 
human body. 

Compe'ba. See Piper Cubeba. 

Comfle'tion. A term used by 
the ancient writers in various accep- 
tations, equivalent to Plethora. 

Comple'xus. (Compkwus, sc. 
muse, from complccti, to comprise). 
Complexus seu biventer cervicis of Al- 
binus. Dorso trachelon occipital of 
Dumas. A muscle situated on the 
back part of the neck, that draws 
the head backwards and to one side ; 
and when both act, they draw the 
head directly backward. 

Comple'xus mi'nor, See Tra~ 
chelo-masto ideu*% 



CON 



165 



CON 



Compression. (From comprimere, 

to press together). By this word, 
surgeons express a deranged state of 
the bodily and mental functions in 
consequence of pressure upon the 
brain. It should be distinguished 
from concussion and inflammation. 
When the brain is compressed either 
by bone, extravasated blood, or any 
other fluid, there is a general insen- 
sibility, the eyes are half open, the 
pupils dilated and' motionless, even 
when a candle is brought near to the 
eye ; the retina is insensible : the 
limbs relaxed ; the breathing ster- 
torous ; the pulse slow ; and, ac- 
cording to Mr. Abernethy, less sub- 
ject to intermission than in cases of 
concussion. Nor is the patient ever 
sick, when the pressure on the 
brain, and the general insensibility, 
are considerable ; for the very ac- 
tion of vomiting betrays an irrita- 
bility in the stomach and oesopha- 
gus. The symptoms of severe pres- 
sure on the brain are subject to con- 
siderable variations. See Pott on 
Injuries of the Head from exter- 
nal violence. — Abcrnethtf s Surgical 
TVorks, vol. i. ; also the Jf'orks of 
Le Draft, Dcssault, Petit, Bichat, 
Dease, llalloran, Schmucker, Larrty, 
Dr. Thompson's Reports, Sir A. 
Cooper 's Lectures, &c. vol. i. 1824. 

Compressor na'ris. (Compres- 
sor; from comprimcre, to press toge- 
ther) . Rina-us vel nasalis of Douglas. 
Transvcrsalis vcl myrtiformis of 
Winslow. Dilatores alarum nasi of 
Cowper ; and MttsiUo normal of 
Dumas. A muscle of the nose, that 
compresses the alae towards the sep- 
tum nasi, particularly when we want 
to smell acutely. It also corrugates 
the nose, and assists in expressing 
certain passions. 

Compu'nciio. (From compungere, 
to prick). A puncture. 

Cona'rium. (Fromxwyoc, a cone). 
A name given to the pineal gland, 
from its conical shape. See Pineal 
gland. 

Concau'sa. (From con, with, 
and causa, a cause) . A cause co-ope- 
rating with another in the produc- 
tion of a disease. 



Concentra'ntia. (From conecn- 
trare, to concentrate) . Absorbents 
of acids are so called, because they 
remove the obstructions which keep 
asunder the affinities between the 
two powers. 

Concentration. The evapora- 
tion of part of the water of fluids, to 
improve their strength. The mat- 
ter, therefore, to be concentrated, 
must be of superior fixity to water. 

Conception. (From concipere, to 
conceive,). The impregnation of the 
ovum in the ovarium, by the subtile 
prolific aura of the semen verile. 

Co'ncha. (From xoy\ri, a liquid 
measure amongst the Athenians). 
A term used by anatomists to several 
parts of the body, as the hollow of 
the ear, the spongy bones of the 
nose, &c. 

. Co'ncha auri'cil.e. See Auri- 
cula. 

Co'ncha ai/ris. The hollow part 
of the cartilage of the outer ear. 

Co'ncii/E na'riim. (Concha, a 
shell). The turbinated portion of 
the ethmoid bone, and the inferior 
spongy bones of the nose, covered 
by the Schneiderian membrane. 

Co'ncijls. (From toyx*], a shell ; 
so named from their likeness to a 
shell;. The cranium, and the cavity 
of the eye. 

I »>\( idt/ntia. (From concidere, 
to decayj. Diminution of bulk in 
the whole or any part of the body) . 
Decrease of a tumour. 

Concoaglla'tion. (From con, 
and coagulare, to coagulate together). 
The coagulation of fluids, as the 
blood ; or crystallization of different 
salts, first dissolved together in the 
same fluid. 

Conco'ction. (From concoquere y 
to digest) . Digestion. That opera- 
tion of nature upon morbid matter, 
which renders it fit to be separated 
from the healthy fluids. 

Concrema'tio. (From con, and 
cremare, to burn together). The 
same as calcination. 

Concre'tion. (From conerescere, 
to grow together). — I. The growing 
together of parts which, in a natural 
state, are separate. — 2. The conden- 



CON 



1GG 



CON 



sation of any fluid substance into a 
more solid consistence. 

Conci'rsis. (From concun-erc, 
to meet together). The symptoms, 
taken in the aggregate, which con- 
stitute and distinguish the particular 
disease. 

Conci/ssion. (From concutcre, 
to shake together) . Concussion of 
the brain. 

" Various alarming symptoms, 
followed sometimes by the most 
ratal consequences, art? found to at- 
tend great violence offered to the 
head ; and upon the strictest exa- 
mination, both of the living and the 
dead, neither fissure, fracture, nor 
extravasation of any kind can be 
discovered. The same symptoms and 
the same events are met with, when 
the head has received no injury at 
all ab externa, but has only been 
violently shaken; nay, when only 
the body, or general frame, has 
seemed to have sustained the vio- 
lence. The symptoms attending a 
concussion, are generally in propor- 
tion to the degree of violence which 
the brain itself has sustained, and 
which, indeed, is cognizable only by 
the symptoms. If the concussion 
be very great, all sense and power 
of motion are immediately abolished, 
and death follows soon ; but be- 
tween this degree and that slight 
confusion (or stunning, as it is call- 
ed) which attends most violences 
done to the head, there are many 
-Pott. 

The symptoms of concussion are 
described as follows by Mr. Aber- 
nethy, who is of opinion they maybe 
properly divided into three stages : 

" The first is that state of insen- 
sibility and derangement of the bo- 
dily powers which immediately suc- 
ceeds the accident. While it lasts, 
the patient scarcely feels any injury 
that may be inflicted on him. His 
breathing is difficult, but in gene- 
ral without stertor ; his pulse in- 
termitting, and his extremities cold. 
Hut such a state cannot last long ; 
it goes off gradually, and is suc- 
ceeded by another, which is con- 
sidered as the second stage of con- 



stages. 



cussion. In this, the pulse and 
respiration become better, and, 
though not regularly performed, are 
sufficient to maintain life, and to 
diffuse warmth over the extreme 
parts of the body. The feeling of 
the patient is now so far restored, 
that he is sensible of his skin being- 
pinched ; but he lies stupid and in- 
attentive to slight external impres- 
sions. As the effects of concussion 
diminish, he becomes capable of re- 
plying to questions put to him in a 
loud tone of voice, especially when 
they refer to his chief suffering at 
the time, as pain in the head, »xc. ; 
otherwise he answers incoherently, 
and as if his attention was occupied 
by something else. As long as the 
stupor remains, the inflammation of 
the brain seems to be moderate ; 
but as the former abates, the latter 
seldom fails to increase ; and this 
constitutes the third stage, which is 
the most important of the series of 
effects proceeding from a concus- 
sion. 

" These several stages vary con- 
siderably in their degree and dura- 
tion ; but more or less of each will 
be found to take place in every in- 
stance where the brain lias been 
violently shaken. Whether they bear 
any certain proportion to each other 
or not, is not known ; indeed this 
Mill depend upon such a variety of 
circumstances in the constitution, 
the injury, and the after-treatment, 
that it must be difficult to deter- 
mine. 

" To distinguish between an ex- 
travasation and a concussion, by the 
symptoms only, Mr. Pott says, is 
frequently a very difficult matter ; 
sometimes an impossible one. The 
similarity of the effects in some 
cases, and the very small space of 
time which may intervene between 
the going off of the one and the ac- 
cession of the other, render this a 
very nice exercise of the judgment, 
The first stunning, or deprivation of 
sense, whether total or partial, may 
be from either, and no man can tell 
from whiph ; but when these first 
symptoms have been removed, or 



CON 



107 



CON 



have spontaneously disappeared, if 
such patient is again oppressed with 
drowsiness, or stupidity, or total or 
partial loss of sense, it then hecomes 
probable that the first complaints 
were from concussion, and that the 
latter are from extravasation ; and 
the greater the distance of time be- 
tween the two, the greater is the 
probability not only that an extra- 
vasation is the cause, but that the 
extravasation is of the limpid kind, 
made gradatim, and within the 

brain." 

Mr. Aberncthy observes, that in 
cases of simple concussion, the in- 
sensibility is not so great ; as where 
compression exists, the pupils arc 
more contracted, the muscles less 
relaxed, little or no stertor attends, 
but the pulse is generally very Inter- 
mitting, and in slight cases there is 
often considerable sickness. 

As regards the treatment of con- 
cussion of the brain, Mr. Abernethy 
considers, that in the first Stage lit- 
tle should be done ; that the stimu- 
lants often employed may be even 
injurious; but more especially so in 
the second stage, increasing the ten- 
dency to Inflammation ; and where 
this has come on, that the antiphlo- 
gistic plan must be actively pursued. 
However, a moderate abstraction of 
blood, general or topical, will be 
commonly proper at first, where the 
habit will allow it, as congestion 
may be suspected, and to obviate 
inflammation, especially where the 
person was intoxicated at the time 
of the accident ; and the effect of 
this measure may influence the sub- 
sequent treatment. If the pulse rose 
after it, and the patient became more 
sensible, we should be led to pursue 
the evacuating plan, taking perhaps 
more blood, exhibiting active ca- 
thartics, as the bowels will be found 
very torpid, applying cold lotions to 
the head, &c These means, how- 
ever, will be especially called for, 
when marks of inflammation appear. 
Sometimes brisk emetics have been 
very beneficial, as sulphate of zinc, 
&c. ; they are particularly recom- 
mended where the person was under 



the influence of anger ; or the sto- 
mach full, when the accident hap- 
pened ; but they are liable to objec- 
tion, where there are marks of con- 
gestion, or increased action in the 
vessels of the head. If bleeding 
should lower the pulse, and render 
the patient worse, evacuations must 
not be pursued ; it may be better 
generally to wait the gradual return 
of sensibility, unless the torpor be 
alarming, like a state of syncope ; 
in which case, or if it continue very 
long, stimulants appear justified, as 

transient 



ammonia, or others of a 
operation, with a blister to the 
head, to restore some degree of sen- 
sibility. If in the sequel, marks of 
irritation appear, as spasms or con- 
vulsions, opium joined with anti- 
mony, or in the form of Dover's 
powder, will probably be useful, the 
necessary evacuations being premised, 
and the warm bath. In all cases the 
head should be kept quiet ; as the 
patient is convalescent, tonics and 
the shower-bath may be employed 
with advantage ; and it will be par- 
ticularly necessary to avoid great 
bodily exertion, stimulating liquors, 
&c. Should paralytic symptoms re- 
main, stimulants, general or local, 
may be required. Where alarming 
symptoms follow an injury to the 
head, extravasation may be suspect- 
ed ; and the operation of trepan- 
ning, skilfully performed, will do no 
harm to the patient, but may mate- 
rially relieve, even by the loss of 
blood attending. 

" When there is no reason to ap- 
prehend any other injury, and com- 
motion seems to be the sole disease, 
plentiful evacuation, by phlebotomy, 
and lenient cathartics, a dark room, 
the most perfect quietude, and a very 
low regimen, are the only means in 
our power, and are sometimes suc- 
cessful." — See the same Authors 
mentioned under Compression. 

Condensation. (From conden- 
sare, to make thick) . A contraction 
of the pofrcs of the skin, by means 
of astringent or cooling medicines. 
A thickening of any fluid. 

Condime'ntum. (From condire, 



CON 



168 



CON 



to preserve, or season) . A preserve, 
or sweetmeat. 

Codi/ctio. (From conducere, to 
draw along). It is a spasm, or con- 
vulsion, drawing the muscles out of 
their proper positions. Ccel. Aurel. 

Condu'ctor. (From conducere, 
to lead, or guide) . A surgical in- 
strument, whose use is to direct the 
knife in certain operations. It is 
"more commonly called a director. 

Co'ndyle. (From xov$v, an an- 
cient cup, shaped like a joint). A 
rounded eminence of a bone in any 
of the joints. 

Condylo'ma, -atis, n. (From 
kovCvXoq, a tubercle, or knot). Sar- 
coma. A soft, wart-like excrescence, 
that appears about the anus and pu- 
dendum of both sexes ; of which 
there are several species, according 
to their appearances ; &sjicus, crys- 
tal, thymus, &C 

Conei'on. Hemlock. Hipp. 

Cunessi bark. See Conessi cortex. 

Cone'ssi co'rtex. See Nerium 
antidysentericum. 

Confe'ctio, -onis, f. (From con- 
jicere, to make up). A confection. 
In general it means any thing made 
up with sugar. In the London Phar- 
macopoeia, those articles formerly 
called electuaries and conserves, come 
now under this term. 

Confe'ctio amygdala'rum. Con- 
fection of almonds. 

Confe'ctio aroma'tica. This 
preparation was formerly called Cok- 
fectio cardiaca. Confectio Raleigh- 
ana. It may be given in doses of 
10 gr. to a drachm. 

Confe'ctio aurantio'rum. Con- 
ferva corticis exterioris aurantii his- 
palensis. Conserva fiavedinis corti- 
cum aurantiorum. 

%* This is well calculated to form 
the basis of a tonic and stomachic 
confection, and may be given alone 
in doses of from two to five drachms, 
twice or three times a-day. 

Confe'ctio cardi'aca. See Con- 
fectio aromatica. 

Confe'ctio ca'ssije. Electuarium 
cassia'. Electuarium e cassia. Con- 
fection of cassia. 

%* This is a very elegant, plea- 



sant, and mild aperient for the fee- 
ble, and for children. Dose, from 
two drachms to an ounce. 

Confe'ctio o'pn. Confectio opiata. 
Philonium Londinense. Phi Ionium 
Romanum. Confection of opium. 

%* This very warm and stimu- 
lating confection is admirably calcu- 
lated to relieve diarrhoea, or spasms 
of the stomach and bowels, and is 
frequently ordered in doses of from 
10 grs. to half a drachm. About 
36 grs. contain one of opium. 

Confe'ctio ro'sa: cani'nje. Con- 
serva cynosbati. Conserva fructus 
cynosbati. Conserve of hips. Con- 
fection of dog-rose. 

*** This preparation is cooling 
and astringent ; it is seldom given 
alone, but mostly joined to some 
other medicine, in the form of linc- 
tus, or electuary. 

Confe'ctio ro'sje ga'llic^e. Con- 
serva rosa?. Conserva rosarum ru- 
brarum. Conserve of red rose. 

*** This is an excellent subas- 
tringent composition. Rubbed down 
with water, it forms an excellent 
drink, with some lemon-juice, m 
hemorrhagic complaints ; it may 
also be given with vitriolated zinc, 
in the form of electuary. 

Confe'ctio ru't;e. Electuarium 
e baccis lauri. Confection of rue. 
Its use is confined to clysters. 

Confe'ctio scammo'nex. Elec- 
tuarium scammonii. Electuarium c 
scammonio. Electuarium caryocosti- 
num. Confection of scammony. 

* # * This is a strong stimulating 
cathartic, and calculated to remove 
worms from the primae viae, with 
which view it is mostly exhibited. 
Dose, from 5ss to 5J. 

Confe'ctio se'nNjE. Electuarium 
senna?. Electuarium lenitivum. Con- 
fection of senna. 

* # * This is a mild and elegant 
aperient, well adapted for pregnant 
women, and those whose bowels are 
not easily moved. Dose, 5ss to ^ss. 

Confe'rva. (From confervere, to 
knit together). — 1. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Cryptogamia ; Order, 
Alga. — 2. A kind of moss ; named 



CON 



169 



CON 



from its use, formerly, in healing 
broken bones. 

Confe'rva helminthoco'rtos. 
See Corallina corsicana. 

Confe'rva riva'lis. This plant, 
Conferva ; filamentis simplicissimus 
cequalibus longissimus of Linnaeus, 
has been recommended in cases of 
spasmodic asthma, phthisis, &c. on 
account of the great quantity of vital 
air it contains. 

Confirma'ntia. (From con, and 
firmare, to strengthen). Restora- 
tives ; also medicines which fasten 
the teeth in their sockets. 

Confluent small-pox. See Variola. 

Conflu'xion. A term much used 
by Hippocrates, and his interpreter 
Galen, from a notion that parts at a 
distance have a mutual consent with 
one another, and that they are all 
perspirable by many subtle streams. 
Paracelsus expressed it by confede- 
ration. 

Conforma'tio. (From conformare, 
to shape or fashion). The natural 
shape and form of any thing ; also 
a description of some diseases which 
arise from a bad formation of parts. 

Conforta'ntia. (From confortare, 
to strengthen). Cordial medicines. 
Strengthened. 

Confortati'va. The same. 

Confu'sio. (From conf under e, to 
mix together). A confusion, or 
disorder in the eyes, proceeding 
from a rupture of the membranes, 
which include the humours, by 
which means they arc all confounded 
together. 

Congela'ti. (From congelare, to 
freeze). Persons afflicted with a ca- 
talepsy are so called, in which all 
sensation seems to be taken away. 

Congelation . (Ibid.) That 
change of liquid bodies which takes 
place when they pass from a fluid 
to a solid state. See Professor Les- 
lie's Mode by the Air-pump, recently 
perfected; — Transactions of Royal 
Society, \777, for Experiments by 
Mr. E. Nairne. 

Congelati'va. (From congelare, 
to congeal). Medicines that inspis- 
sate humours, and stop fluxions and 
rheums. Boerhaave. 



Co'ngener. (From con, and ge- 
nus, kind) . Of the samu kind ; con- 
curring in the same action. It is 
usually said of the muscles. 

Congestion. (From conger ere, to 
amass). A collection of blood or 
other fluid ; a swelling which rises 
gradually, and Hpens slowly, in op- 
position to that which is soon form- 
ed, and soon terminated. 

Congloba'te gland. (From con- 
globare, to gather into a ball) . Glan- 
dula conglohata. Lymphatic gland. 
Globate gland. A round gland form- 
ed of a contortion of lymphatic ves- 
sels, connected together by cellular 
structure, having neither a cavity 
nor any excretory duct : such are the 
mesenteric, inguinal, axillary glands, 
&c. See Gland. 

Conglomerate gland. (From 
conglomerate^ to heap upon one). 
Glandula con glonu rata. A gland 
composed of a number of glomer lie 
glands, whose excretory ducts all 
unite into one common duct : such 
are the salival, parotid glands, &c. 

Conglutina'ntia. (From conglu- 
tinarc, to glue together). Conglu- 
tinants. Healing medicines ; and such 
as unite parts disjoined by accident. 

Co'ms. (Kovic.) Dust, fine pow- 
der, ashes, a nit in the hair, scurf 
from the head ; and sometimes it 
signifies lime. 

Coni'um. (From aovia, dust, ac- 
cording to Linnajus, or from Kojvauj, 
circumagere, on account of its ine- 
briating and poisonous quality). 
Hemlock. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnsean system : 
Class, Pentundria; Order, Digynia. 
2. The pharmacopceial name of the 
officinal hemlock. See Conium ma~ 
culatum. 

ConTlm maclla'tum. The sys- 
tematic name for the cicala of the 
pharmacopoeias. Conium ; seminibus 
striatis, of Linnaeus. Conium of the 
last London Pharmacopoeia. Hem- 
lock is generally believed to be a 
very active poison. In very moderate 
doses it is apt to occasion sickness 
and vertigo ; in larger T quantity it 
produces anxiety, cardialgia, vomit - 
ing, convulsions, coma, and death. 

Q 



CON 



170 



CON 



Baron Stoerk was the first who 
brought hemlock into repute as a 
medicine of extraordinary efficacy: 
and although we have not in this 
country any direct facts, like those 
mentioned by Stoerk, proving that 
inveterate schirri cancers, ulcers, 
and many other diseases hitherto 
deemed irremediable, are to be com- 
pletely cured by the cicuta ; we have 
however the testimonies of several 
eminent physicians, shewing that 
some complaints which had resisted 
other powerful remedies, yielded to 
hemlock ; and that even some dis- 
orders, which if not really cancer- 
ous, were at least suspected to be of 
that tendency, were greatly bene- 
fited by this remedy. In chronic 
rheumatisms, some glandular swell- 
ings, and in various fixed and pe- 
riodical pains, the cicuta is now 
very generally employed ; and from 
daily experience, it appears in such 
cases to be a very efficacious remedy. 
Jt has also been of singular use in 
the hooping-cough. Nor is it less 
efficacious when applied externally ; 
a poultice made of oatmeal and the 
expressed juice, (or a decoction of 
the extract, when the other cannot 
be obtained), allays the most ex- 
cruciating pains of a cancer, and 
thus gives rest to the distracted 
patient. See Hoffman, on Hem- 
lock, 8vo. Lond. 1763 ; — Stoerck's, 
Libellus, &c. Editio Altera, 8vo., 
Vindoh. 1761 ; — Supplementum Nc- 
cessarium de Acuta, Bvo. Vindob. — 
J. Pearson, on various Articles of the 
Materia Medica, &c, second edition, 
8vo. London. 

Conjunctive membrane. Mem- 
brana conjunctiva. A thin, transpa- 
rent, delicate membrane lining the 
internal superficies of one eyelid, and 
reflected thence over the anterior 
part of the bulb, then again reflected 
to the edge of the other eyelid. That 
portion which covers the transparent 
cornea cannot, without much diffi- 
culty, be separated from it. Inflam- 
mation of this membrane constitutes 
ophthalmia. 

Conna'tus. (From con, and nasci, 
to grow together). Congenital, Used 



much by Hippocrates for what b 
born with a person. 

Connexion. See Articulation. 

Connutri'tus. (From con, and 
nutriri, to be nourished with) . This 
term implies something habitual to 
a person, as regards his particular 
nourishment ; or something breaking 
out into a disease in process of time, 
which gradually had its foundation 
in the first aliments, as the sucking 
a distempered nurse, &c. 

Conquassa'tio. Conquassation. 
Pharm. A species of comminution, 
or an operation whereby moist con- 
crete substances, as recent vegetables, 
fruits, the softer parts of animals, &c. 
are agitated and bruised, till, partly 
by their proper succulence, or by the 
affusion of some liquor, they are re- 
duced to a soft pulp. 

Consent of parts. See Sympathy. 

Conse'rva. (From conservare, to 
keep). A conserve. See Confectio. 

Conse'rva absi'nthii mari'timi. 
See Artemisia maritima. 

Conse'rva a'ri. This is occa- 
sionally exhibited as a stimulant and, 
diuretic. See Arum. 

Conse'rva aura'ntii hispale'nsjs. 
See Confectio aurantiorum. 

Conse'rva cyno'sbati. See Co??- 
fectio 7'osa? canina?. 

Conse'rva lu'jul^e. A prepara- 
tion of wood-sorrel, possessing acid, 
cooling, and antiseptic qualities. See 
Oxalis acetosella. 

Conse'rva men'thje. This pre- 
paration of mint is given occasionally 
as a stomachic, in sickness and weak- 
ness of the stomach. See Mentha 
viridis. 

Conse'rva pru'ni sylve'stris. 
Astringent virtues are ascribed to 
this medicine, which is now seldom 
used but in private formula;. 

Conse'rva ro'sje. This conserve, 
rubbed down with water, to which is 
added some lemon-juice, forms an 
excellent drink in hemorrhagic com- 
plaints. See Confectio rosw galliccs. 

Conse'rva sci'll*:. A prepara- 
tion of squills, affording an excellent 
basis for an electuary, and possessing 
expectorant and diuretic qualities, 

Consiste'ntia. (From comuterc> 



CON 



171 



CON 



to abide) . The state or acme of a 
disease. The appearance or state of 
the humours and excrements. 

Conso'lida. A name given to cora- 
frey, from its agglutinating properties. 

Conso'lida au'rea. Aurea cordis. 
A name of the chamaecistus. 

Conso'lida ma'jor. See Sym- 
phytum. 

Conso'lida me'dia. See Ajuga 
pyramidalis. 

Conso'lida mi'nor. See Prunella. 

Conso'lida rega'lis. See Del- 
phinium consolida. 

Conso'lida sarace'nica. See So- 
lidago virga aurea. 

Consound. See Symphytum. 

Consound middle. See Ajuga py- 
ramidalis. 

Constipation. (From constipare, 
to crowd together) . Obstipatio. A 
person is said to be costive when the 
alvine excrements are not regularly 
expelled, and when the faeces are so 
hardened as not to receive their form 
from the impression of the rectum 
upon them. 

CoNSTRiCTi'vA. (From constrin- 
gere, to bind together). Styptics. 

Constructor. (Ibid.) A name given 
to those muscles which contract any 
opening of the body. 

Constructor a'li na'si. See 
Depressor tabu tuperiofis al&fjuc nasi. 

Constructor a'ni. See Sphincter 
ani. 

Constructor i'sthmi fal'cilm. 
Glosso-staphilinus of Window, Dou- 
glas, and Cowper ; and Glosso-sta- 
philin of Dumas. A muscle situated 
at the side of the entry of the fauces, 
that draws the velum pendulum paint i 
towards the root of the tongue, 
which it raises at the same time, and 
with its fellow contracts the passage 
between the two arches, by which it 
shuts the opening of the fauces. 

Constructor labio'rum. See 
Orbicularis oris. 

Constructor mu'sculus. See 

buccinator. 

Constructor o'ris. See Orbicu- 
laris oris. 

Constructor palpebrarum. See 

Orbicularis palpebrarum . 

Constructor pharv'ngis infe'- 



RIOR. Crico-pharyngeus. Tkyro-pha- 
ryngeus of Douglas and Winslow. 
Crico-thyropharyngien of Dumas. A 
muscle situated on the posterior part 
of the pharynx. 

Constructor phary'ngis me'dius. 
Hyo-pharyngeus and cephalopharyji- 
geus of Douglas and Winslow. Chon- 
dro-pharyngeus of Douglas. Syndes- 
mopharyngeus of Winslow. Cephalo- 
pharyngeus of Winslow and Douglas. 
llyo-glosso bast phary ngien of Dumas. 
A muscle situated on the posterior 
part of the pharynx. 

Constructor phary'ngis su- 
Pe'rior. Glosso- pharyngeus. Mylo- 
pharyngcus. Pterygo-pharyngeus of 
Douglas and Winslow, and Pterigu 
syndesmo staphili pharyngien of Du- 
mas. A muscle situated on the pos- 
terior part of the pharynx. 

Constructor vesi'ce urina'ri.e. 
See Detrusor urina?, 

Constricto'res pharyngje'i. 
Muscles of the oesophagus. 

Constricto'rii. Diseases attended 
with constriction, or spasmodic dis- 
eases. 

Constringe'ntia. (From con- 
stringcre, to bind together). Astrin- 
gent medicines. 

Consumption. (From consumcre, 
to waste away). See Phthisis. 

Contabesce'ntia. (From conta- 
bescere, to pine or waste away). An 
atrophy, or nervous consumption. 

Contagion. (From eontingcre, to 
meet or touch each other). A poison 
generated by morbid animal secre- 
tion, possessing the power of in- 
ducing a like morbid action in healthy 
bodies, whereby it is reproduced and 
indefinitely modified. 

%* This contagion can only be 
known by its effect, and can only be 
divided into genera, by classifying 
the diseases it produces. The fol- 
lowing is Dr. Hossack's classifica- 
tion, adopted by Dr. Mather Smith, 
with some trifling modification. — 
Ge?ius 1. Contagion communicable 
exclusively by contact, its species 
being as follows : itch, syphilis, sib- 
beus, laanda of Africa, framb&sia 9 
elephantiasis, hydrophobia, vaccina. 
These diseases cannot be conveyed 
Q2 ' 



CON 



172 



CON 



through the medium of the air, but 
require actual contact; hence they 
are strictly contagious, in the ety- 
mological sense of the word. — Ge- 
nus 2. Contagion communicable both 
by contact and by the atmosphere. 
These are liable to become epidemic, 
in contradistinction to those of the 
first genus. As species, the second 
genus contains : small-pox, measles, 
chicken-jwx, scarlet fever, hooping- 
cough. To these Dr. Hosack adds 
influenza and cynanche maligna. 
" But the former," says Dr. Smith, 
and without proof, U is evidently not 
contagious, and the latter is either a 
modification of scarlatina, or an at- 
mospheric disease. " (See Elements 
of the Etiology and Philosophy of 
Ejndemics) . 

%* One of the laws which govern 
these contagions is, they are com- 
municable in every season : in the 
heat of summer as well as in the 
cold of winter ; in a pure as well as 
in an impure air. Another law is, 
general insusceptibility to future at- 
tacks of the same disease, but with 
exceptions. See Infection, 

Contf/nsio. (From continere, to 
restrain). Used sometimes to ex- 
press tension or stricture. 

Co'ntinens fe'bris. A continent 
fever, which proceeds uniformly with- 
out either exacerbation or remission. 
This,however, rarely, if ever, happens. 

Conti'nua fe'bris. (From con- 
tinuare, to persevere). A continued 
fever. See Fcbris conlinua. 

Conto'rsio, -onis, f. (From con- 
torquere, to twist about). A con- 
tortion, or screwing. Applied to 
the Iliac passion, to luxation of the 
vertebra?, head, &c. 

Contua-ai'EUTu'ra. (From con- 
Lra, against, txnd apcrirc, to open). 
A counter-opening. An opening 
made opposite to the one that exists. 

CONT8 ACT! I.1TY. — Pysiolog. The 
power, wl ieh muscular fibres possess 
of shortening themselves. — (hum. 
A property in bodies, ll.e effect of 
the cohesive power, by which their 
particles resume their former pro- 
pinqi.il, .Inn the force ceases which 
was applied to separate them. 



Contraction. (From contrahere, 
to draw together). Contracfio. A 
rigid contraction of the joints. A 
genus of disease in the Class Lo- 
cales, and Order Dyscinesia>, of 
Cullen, of which the species are— 
I. Contractura primaria, from a rigid 
contraction of the muscles ; called 
also obstipitas; a word that, with any 
other annexed, distinguishes the va- 
riety of the contraction. Of this 
species he forms four varieties : 1 . 
Contractura ab inflammatione , when 
it arises from inflammation ; 2. Con- 
tractura a spast?w, called also tonic 
spasm and cramp, when it depends 
upon spasm ; 3. Contractura ob an- 
tagonistas paraliticos, from the an- 
tagonist muscles losing their action ; 
4. Contractura ab acrimoniu irritante, 
which is induced by some irritating 
cause. — II. Contractura articularis, 
originating from a disease of the 
joint. 

Contrafissu'ra. (From contra, 
against, and finder c, to cleave). A 
crack or fissure in the skull, oppo- 
site to the part on which a blow is 
received. 

Contrahe'ntia. (From contrahere, 
to contract) . Medicines which shorten 
and strength en the fibres . Astringents 
are the only medicines of this nature. 

Contra-indication. Contra-indi- 
catio. (From contra, against, and 
indivare, to shew) . Symptoms which 
forbid the exhibition of a remedy 
which would otherwise be employed ; 
c. g. bark and acids are usually given 
in putrid fevers ; but if there be 
cough, difficulty of breathing, or 
inflammation of any viscus, their 
use, the former at least, is contra- 
indicated. 

Contra-luna'ris. (From contra, 
and lunu, the moon). Conception 
during the menstrual discharge. Dic- 
tcricus. 

Contra -semen. See Artemisia 
Santonica. 

CoNTRE cour. (Fr.) Fracture 
of the skull, which happens in the 
part opposite to where the blow was 
received. 

Conutayf/rvje ra'dix. See Dor* 
sten ia Con tray erva . 



CON 



173 



CON 



Contra ye'rv a. (From contra, | 
against, and yerva, poison. Span.) 
See Dorstenia, 

Contraye'rva a'lba. Contrayerva 
Germanorum, A name for asclepias. 

Contraye'rva no'va. Mexican 
contrayerva. The Psoralea penta- 
phylla of Linnaeus ; introduced into 
Europe after the former, and is 
brought from Guiana as well as 
from Mexico. It is but little if any 
thing inferior to contrayerva. 

Contraye'rva Virginia's a. See 
Aristolochia St, pent aria. 

Contri'tio. See Comminution. 

Contusion. (From contundere, j 
to knock together). A bruise, or 
contused wound. 

* # * In severe bruises, independent 
of the inflammation necessarily oc- 
casioned, there is an instantaneous 
extravasation, in consequence of the 
rupture of numerous small vessels ; 
which accounts for those very con- 
siderable tumours which frequently 
arise after injuries of this descrip- 
tion ; the black and livid appearance 
immediately following many contu- 
sions, can only be explained by the 
actual effusion of blood which hafl 
taken place from the rupture of mi- 
nute arteries and veins. Even large 
vessels are not unfrequently burst in 
this manner, and a considerable col- 
lection of extravasated blood is a 
consequence : e g. blows on the 
head often cause a large extravasa- 
tion of blood to accumulate under 
the scalp. 

Convalescence. From the de- 
parture of a disease, to the recovery 
of the strength lost by it, is termed 
the state of convalescence. 

Convalla'ria. (From cnnrallis, a 
valley ; named from its abounding 
in valleys and marshes) . The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system: Class, I lex and:- ia ; Order, 
jMonogynia. 

Convalla'ria maja'lfs. The sys- 
tematic name of the lily of the val- 
ley. Lilium convallium. Convaliaria. 
Maianthcmum. May-lily. The flow- 
ers of this plant, the scapo nudo of 
Linnaeus, have a penetrating, bitter 
taste, and are given in nervous and 



catarrhal disorders. The roots, in 
the form of tincture, or infusion, 
act as a sternutatory when snuffed 
up the nose, and as a laxative or 
purgative when taken internally. 

Convalla'ria POLYGONA'TUM.The 
systematic name of the Solomon's 
seal. Sigillum Salomonis. Convalla- 
ria polygo?iatum; foliis alternis am- 
plexicaulibus, cattle ancipiti, pedun- 
culis axillaribus subuniforis , of Lin- 
naeus. The roots, externally ap- 
plied, are astringent, &c. ; and are 
well known to the Fancy, for their 
efficacy as a discutient in that genteel 
species of ecchymosis, called a black 
eye. 

Convolu'ta superio'ra o'ssa. The 
superior turbinated bones of the 
nose. 

Convolu'ta inferio'ra o'ssa. The 
lower turbinated bones of the nose. 

Convo'ia i i \ s. (From convolvere, 
to roll together). — 1. A name for the 
Iliac pas-ion. — 2. A genus of plants 
in the Linnaean svstem : so called 
from their twisting round others : 
Class, Pent and ria; Order, Monogy- 
nia. It affords the jalap, mechoa- 
canna, turbith, and scammony. The 
whole genus consists of plants con- 
taining a milky juice strongly ca- 
thartic and caustic. 

Convo'lvulus America'nus. The 
jalap root. 

Convo'lvulus canta'brica. A 
name for the cantabrica. Convolvulus 
minimus spii-m foliis. Convolvulus Una- 
r ire folio. Lonvolrulus Cantabrica of 
Linnams. Lavender - leaved bind- 
weed. It is anthelmintic and actively 
cathartic. 

Convo'lvulus colubri'nus. The 
pariera brava. 

Convo'lvulus jala'fa. The sys- 
tematic name of the jalap plant. 
Jalapium. Mcchoacanna nigra. Ja- 
lap. The plant is thus described by 
Linnaeus: Convolvulus jalapa: caule 
volubili; foliis ovatis, subcordatis, ob- 
tusis, obsolete repandis, subtus villosls ; 
pedunculis unifloris. It is a native of 
South America. It has scarcely any 
smell, and very little taste ; but to 
the tongue, and to the throat, mani- 
fests a slight degree of pungency, 
Q3 



CON 



174 



CON 



The medicinal activity of jalap re- 
sides principally, if not wholly, in 
the resin, which, though given in 
small doses, occasions violent tor- 
mina. The powdered root is a very 
common, efficacious, and safe pur- 
gative ; but, in proportion as it con- 
tains more or less resin, so its effects 
must vary. In large doses, or when 
joined with calomel, * it is exhibited 
as an anthelmintic and hydragogue. 
It is ordered in the form of tincture 
and extract ; and the Edinburgh Col- 
lege directs it also in powder, with 
twice its weight of the supertartrate 
of potash. 

Convo'lvulus ma'jor a'lbus. See 
Convolvulus septum. 

Convo'lvulus mari'timus. The 
brassica maritima, or sea colewort. 

Convo'lvulus mechoacan. Me- 
choacannce radix. Jalapa alba. Rha- 
barbarum album. Mechoacan. The 
root of a species of convolvulus, 
Co?wolvulus Mechoacan , or Bryonia 
alba Peruviana, is brought from 
Mexico. It possesses aperient pro- 
perties, and was long used as the 
common purge of this country, but 
is now wholly superseded by jalap. 
: Convo'lvulus scammo'nia. The 
systematic name of the scammony 
plant. Scammonium. Convolvulus 
zyriacus. Scammonium syriacum. Uia- 
grydvim. Scammony. The plant 
which affords the concrete gummi- 
resinous juice termed scammony; 
the Convolvulus scammonia; foliis 
sagit talis postice truncatis, pedunculis 
teretibus subtifloris, of Linnaeus. It 
grows abundantly about Maraash, 
Antioch, Edlib, and towards Tripoli, 
in Syria. No part of the dried plant 
possesses any medicinal quality but 
the root, which Dr. Russel adminis- 
tered in decoction, and found it to 
be a pleasant and mild cathartic. It 
\* from the milky juice of the root 
that we obtain the officinal scam- 
mony, which is procured by the 
peasants, who collect it in the begin- 
ing of June. It is seldom given 
alone, but enters into several com- 
pounds, which are administered as 
purgatives. 

Convo'lvulus se'pium. Convolvu- 



lus major alb us. The juice of this 
plant, Convolvulus septum; foliis sa- 
gittatis postice truncatis pedunculis 
tetragonisy unifloris, of Linnaeus, is 
violently purgative, and given in 
dropsical affections. A poultice of 
the herb, made with oil, is recom- 
mended in white swellings of the 
knee joint. 

Convo'lvulus soldane'lla. The 
systematic name of the sea convol- 
vulus. Brassica 'marina. Kpaptt) 
SaXa&ffia. Co?wolvulus maritimus. 
Soldanella. Soldanella. This plant, 
Convolvulus soldanella; foliis renifor- 
mibus, pedunculis unifloris, of Lin- 
naeus, is a native of our coasts. The 
leaves are said to be a drastic purge. 
Rejected from the pharmacopoeias. 

Convo'lvulus Svri'acus. A name 
for the scammonium. 

Convo'lvulus turpe'thum. The 
systematic name of the turbith plant. 
Tarpethum. Its properties are pur- 
gative, liable, however, to much ir- 
regularity of action. 

Convu'lsion. (ConvulstOy -onis, f. ; 
from convellere, to pull together). 
Distentio nervorum, &c. Clonic 
spasm. A diseased action of mus- 
cular fibres, known by alternate re- 
laxations, with violent and involun- 
tary contractions of the muscular 
parts, without sleep. Cullen places 
convulsion in the Class Neuroses, 
and Order Spasmi. Convulsions are 
universal or partial, and have ob- 
tained different names, according to 
the parts affected, or the symptoms; 
as the risus sardonicus, when the 
muscles of the face are affected ; — 
St. Vitus's dance, when the muscles 
of the arm are thrown into involun- 
tary motions, with lameness and 
rotations. Hysterical epilepsy, or 
other epilepsies, arising from differ- 
ent causes, are convulsive diseases 
of the universal kind : the muscles 
of the globe of the eye, throwing 
the eye into involuntary distortions 
in defiance of the direction of the 
will, are instances of partial convul- 
sion. The muscles principally af- 
fected in all species of convulsion, 
are those immediately under the di- 
rection of the will j as those of the 



CON 



175 



COP 



eyelids, eye, face, jaws, neck, supe- 
rior and inferior extremities. The 
muscles of respiration, acting both 
voluntarily and involuntarily, are 
not un frequently convulsed ; as the 
diaphragm, intercostals, &c. All 
parts that have muscular fibres may 
be convulsed. The sensations of the 
mind most capable of producing con- 
vulsions, are timidity, horror, anger, 
great sensibility of the soul, &c. 

Convu'lsio abdominis. Convul- 
sion of the muscles of the belly. 

Convu'lsio cani'na. A wry mouth. 

Convu'lsio cerea'lis. (From Ce- 
res > corn). Cereal convulsion. A 
singular disorder of the spasmodic 
convulsive kind, not common to this 
country, but mentioned by Cartheu- 
ser under this title, from the pecu- 
liar tingling and formication per- 
ceived in the arms and legs. Motus 
spasmodicus of Hoffman. It is en- 
demial in some places in Germany ; 
and more frequent in country places 
than in large towns ; and said to 
arise from the use of spoiled corn. 

Convu'lsio clo'ntca. Convulsion 
with alternate relaxation. 

Convu'lsio gravida'rum. Con- 
vulsion of pregnant women. 

Convu'lsio iiabitua'lis. The cho- 
rea Sancti Viti. 

Convu'lsio iiemito'tonos. Con- 
vulsion approaching to tetanus. 

Convu'lsio ab inam'tione. Con- 
vulsion from inanition. 

Convu'lsio i'mjica. Tetanus. 

Convu'lsio intermittens. Con- 
vulsion occurring in paroxysms. 

Convu'lsio nepiiRa'lgica. Con- 
vulsion from stones in the kiduevs. 

Convu lsio ab onani'smo. Con- 
vulsion from onanism. 

Convu'lsio rapija'nia. Spasmo- 
dic painful disease of the joints. 

Convu'lsio to'nica. Common or 
permanent convulsion. 

Convu'lsio u'teri. Abortion. 

Cony'za. (From xoi>ic, dust) . The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Chiss, Syngenesia; 
Order, Polygamia superjlua. Its 
powder is sprinkled to kill fleas in 
places where they are troublesome . 

*** There is some difficulty in 



ascertaining the plants called conyza& 
by the older practitioners : they are 
either of the genus conyza, inula, 
gnaphalium, erigeron, or chryso- 
coma. 

Cony'za jEthio'pica. The plant 
so called is most probably the chry- 
socoma comaurea of Willdenow ; a 
shrub which grows wild about the 
Cape of Good Hope, and is culti- 
vated in our green-houses, because 
it flowers the greater part of the 
year. 

Cony'za cozru'lea. The Erigeron 
acre of Linnaeus answers to the de- 
scription of this plant. 

Cony'za ma'jor. Supposed to be 
the inula viscosa of Linnaeus. 

Cony'za me'dia. See Inula dy- 
scnt erica. 

Cony'za ma'jor vulga'ris. The 

Inula dyscnterica. 

Cony'za mi'nor. The Inula puli- 
caris of Linnaeus answers to the de- 
scription given of this plant in most 
books. Principally used to destroy 
fleas and gnats. 

Conyza minor fiore globoso. The 
Inula puli caris of Linnaeus. 

Cooperto'ria. (From cooper ire , to 
cover over). Cartilago thyroidea. 
Called also abicum. 

Coo'strum. The centre of the 
diaphragm. 

Copa'iba, -a?, f. (From copal , the 
American name for any odoriferous 
gum, and iba, or iva 9 a tree). The 
name given by the London College 
of Physicians to the balsam of co- 
paiva. A yellow resinous juice, of a 
moderately agreeable smell, and a 
bitterish biting taste, very perma- 
nent on the tongue. The tree which 
affords it is the Copaifera officinalis 
of Linnaeus. It unites with fixed 
and volatile oils, and with spirit of 
wine. It is given in all diseases of 
the urinary organs, when no in- 
flammation is present. In gleets, 
and in gonorrhoea, it was once a fa- 
vourite remedy, and is now again 
much used in these disorders, as 
well as in those of the kidneys ; and 
in haemorrhoids it is occasionally 
adopted. The dose is from twenty 
to thirty drops, twice or three times . 



COP 



176 



COP 



a. day, mixed with water, by means of 
the yolk of an egg, or any mucilage. 
Copaiva. See Copaiba. 
Copai'fera. (From Copaiva, the 
Indian name, and ferre, to bear). 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Decandria ; 
Order, Monogynia. 

Copai'fera officinalis. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant from which 
the Copaiva balsam is obtained. 

Copal. (The American name of all 
clear odoriferous gums. Gum copal. 
It is tasteless, and, while cold, ino- 
dorous. It is used, dissolved in rec- 
tified spirit of wine, in laxities of 
the gums, with the same intention 
as mastich. 

Cope'lla. See Cupel. 
Co'pher. A name for camphor. 
Co'phos. (Kco^oc, dumb.) Deaf or 
dumb. Also a bluntness of the senses. 
Copho'sis. (From Koxpog, deaf). A 
difficulty of hearing. It is often 
symptomatic of some disease. See 
JDysecoea. 

Copper. (Cuprum, -i, n. quasi ces 
Cyprium; so named from the island 
of Cyprus, whence it was formerly 
brought). A metal found in the 
earth, in various states. It is found 
native (native copper) , possessing the 
red colour, malleability, and many 
of its other properties; it is, how- 
ever, not quite pure, but generally 
mixed with a minute portion of gold 
or silver. 

Properties of copper. — Pure cop- 
per is of a rose-red colour, very 
sonorous, very tenacious, ductile, 
and malleable ; of considerable com- 
pactness ; moderately hard and elas- 
tic. Its texture is granulated, and 
subject to blisters. It crystallizes in 
quadrilateral pyramids. Its specific 
gravity is between 7.783 and 8.584. 
When rubbed, it emits a disagree- 
able odour. It melts at 27° of Wedg- 
wood's pyrometer. At a higher tem- 
perature, it burns with a beautiful 
green flame. It is a good conductor 
of caloric, of electricity, and of gal- 
vanism. Exposed to the air, it be- 
comes brown, and at last green, by 
absorbing carbonic acid. When heat- 
ed, it turns blue, yellow, violet, and 



brown. It readily fuses with phos- 
phorus, and unites to sulphur, when 
finely divided by mere trituration. It 
does not decompose water at the 
temperature of ignition. It is acted 
on by the greater number of the 
acids. Nitric acid acts on copper 
with great vehemence. Sulphuret of 
potash combines with it in the dry 
and in the humid way. It is capable of 
alloying with the greater number of 
the metals. With zinc it forms the 
compound metals called brass, pinch- 
beck, and others : with tin it forms 
bell-metal and bronze. It unites to 
the earths merely in vitrification. 
Liquid ammonia causes it to oxydize 
quickly when air is admitted. It 
decomposes muriate of ammonia, 
and red sulphuret of mercury, by 
heat. It is poisonous to the human 
constitution. 

Co'pperas. Blue, green, and white 
vitriol. 

Coprago'ga. (From xo7rpog, dung, 
and ayoj, to bring away). Copragc- 
gum. A gently purging electuary, 
mentioned by Rulandus. 

Coprie'mesis. (From noTpog, ex- 
crement, and efjLsoj, to vomit). Vo- 
miting of fseces. 

CopROCRi'riCA. (From noirpog, 
excrement, and xpivo>, to separate). 
Mild cathartic medicines. 

Copropho'ria. (From aoirpog, ex- 
crement, and (popewy to bring away). 
A purging. 

Co'pros. (Koirpog) . The faeces, or 
excrements. 

Coprosta'sia. (From KOTrpog, fae- 
ces, and i^rjfiif to remain). Costive- 
ness, or constriction of the belly. 

Copta'rioi. (KottIi), a small 
cake). Copt-jrium. A medicine in 
the shape of a very small cake, di- 
rected for disorders of the trachea 
and lungs, and for many other in- 
tentions, bv the ancients. 

CoVrE. (Kott7>/, a small cake). 
The form of a medicine used by the 
ancients ; also a cataplasm generally 
made of vegetable substances, and 
applied externally to the stomach ; 
and used internally on many occa- 
sions. 

Copula. (Quasi compula; from 



COR 



177 



COR 



compelkre, to restrain). A name 
for a ligament. 

Coqle'ntia. (From coquere, to di- 
gest) . Medicines which promote con- 
coction. 

Cor, -dis, n. — 1 . The heart ; which 
see. — 2. Gold. — 3. An intense tire. 

Coraci'ne. (From xopa.%, a crow; 
so named from its black colour). A 
name for a lozenge, quoted by Ga- 
len from Aselepiades. 

Coraco-brachia'lis. (From xo- 
/wz£, a crow, and fipaxiov, the arm). 
Coraco-humeral of Dumas. Choraco- 
brachiceus. A muscle; so called from 
its origin and insertion. It is situ- 
ated on the humerus, before the 
scapula. Its use is to raise the arm 
upwards and forwards. 

Coraco-hyoide'us. (Coraco-hyoi- 
dettSy sc. musculus, xopaxo-voicaiog : 
from xopaZ, a crow, and voeifrjc,, the 
bone called hyoides). See Omo- 
hy oidetts. 

Co'racoid. (Coracoidcus ; from xo- 
pa£, a crow, and sicoc, resemblance; 
because it is shaped like the beak of 
a crow). A name given to a pro- 
cess on the upper and anterior part 
of the scapula. 

Coral. See Corallium, 

Coralli'na. (Dim. of corallium; 
from xopn, a daughter, and a\e, the 
sea ; because it is generated in the 
sea). Musci/s maritimus. Coralli)ia 
officinalis. Corallina alba. Sea co- 
ralline, and white wormseed. A ma- 
rine production, resembling a small 
plant without leaves, consisting of 
numerous brittle cretaceous sub- 
stances, friable betwixt the fingers, 
and crackling between the teeth. It 
is administered to children as an an- 
thelmintic, in powder. 

Coralli'na Corsica'na. Corsican 
worm-seed. Fucus helmi ' ntho-corton 
of De la Tourrette. This plant has 
gained great repute in destroying all 
species of intestinal worms. 

Coralli'na melito-cq'rton. See 
Corallina Corsicana. 

Coralli'na ru'bra. See Corallina 
Corsicuna. 

Coralline. See Corallina. 
Coralline, Corsican, See Coral" 
Una Corsicana, 



Cora'llium a'lbum. White coral. 
A hard, white, calcareous, brittle 
substance : the nidus of the Madre- 
pora oculata: Class, Vermes; Order, 
Lithophyta. It is sometimes exhited 
as an absorbent earth. 

Cora'llium rl'brlm. (From 
xopjj, a daughter, and aXc, the sea ; 
so named, because it is generated in 
the sea). The red coral. It is 
mostly employed medicinally. It is 
a hard, brittle, calcareous substance,, 
resembling the stalk of a plant, and 
is the habitation of the Isis nobilis : 
Class, Vermes; Order, Zoophyta. 
As an absorbent it does not appear 
to claim any preference to common 
chalk. 

Corallode'ndron. (From xo- 
paWiov, coral, and Stvopov, a tree ^. 
resembling in hardness and colour a 
piece of coral). The coral-tree of 
America. Anti-venereal. 

Coralloi'des sep'tfoil. Tooth 
or coral-wort ; corroborant. 

Coralloi'des fl'ngus. (From 
xopa\\ioi>, coral, and tic'oc, like-. 
ness) , Krotylus. Clavnn'a coralloides 
of Linnaeus. It is said to be corro- 
borant and astringent. 

Co'rciioron. (From xnp-n> the 
pupil of the eye, and xoptio, to 
purge ; so called, because it was 
thought to purge away rheum from 
the eyes). The herb pimpernel, or 
duckweed* 

Co'rda. See Chordee. 

Co'rda ty'mpani. The cord of 
the tympanum. The portio dura of 
the seventh pair of nerves, having 
entered the tympanum, sends a small 
branch to the stapes, and another 
more considerable one, which runs 
across the tympanum from behind 
forwards, passes between the long 
leg of the incus and the handle of 
the malleus, then goes out at the 
same place where the tendon of the 
anterior muscle of the malleus en- 
ters. It is called corda tympani, 
because it crosses the tympanum as 
a cord crosses the bottom of a drum. 

%* Dr. Monro thinks that it is 
formed by the second branch of the 
fifth pair, as well as by the portio 
dura of the seventh. 



COR 



178 



COR 



Co'rD£ Willi'sii. " See Dura 
water* 

Cordials. Medicines are gene- 
rally so termed, which possess warm 
and stimulating properties, and that 
are given to raise the spirits. 

Co'rdia my'xa. Sebestina. The 
systematic name of the Sebesten 
plant. Sebesten. Sebsten. The dark 
black fruit of the cordia; foliis ovatis, 
supra glabris ; corymbis lateralibus; 
calycibus decemstriatis, of Linnaeus. 
It possesses demulcent and aperient 
qualities, and is exhibited in the form 
of decoction in various diseases of 
the chest, hoarseness, cough, diffi- 
cult respiration, &c. 

Cordine'ma. (From napci, the 
head, and diveto, to move about). 
Head-ache, attended with vertigo. 

Cordo'lium. (From cor, the heart, 
and dolor, pain) . Formerly applied 
to cardialgia, or heart-burn. 

Core. (Kop?;). The pupil of the eye. 

Core'mata. (From hoosm, to 
cleanse) . Medicines for purifying the 
skin. 

Coriander, See Coriandrum. 

Coria'ndrum, -*', n. Coriander. — 
1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Pen- 
tandria ; Order, Digynia. — 2. The 
pharmacopeeial name of the officinal 
coriander. See Coriandrum sativum. 

Cori'andrum sati'vum. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant called co- 
riandrum in the pharmacopoeias. 
Cassibor. Corianon. The Corian- 
drum fructibus globosis, of Linnaeus. 
It grows abundantly in the South of 
Europe. The coriander seeds, and 
most of those of the umbelliferous 
plants, possess a stomachic and car- 
minative power. They were directed 
in the infusum amarum, the infu- 
sum sennae tartarizatum, and some 
other compositions of the pharma- 
copoeias ; and, according to Dr. Cul- 
len, the principal use of these Beedfl 
is, " that infused along with senna, 
they more powerfully correct the 
odour and taste of this than any 
other aromatic that I have employed, 
and are, 1 believe, equally powerful 
in obviating the griping that senna 
is very ready to produce. 



•i 



Coria'non. See Coriandrum, 

Co'ris. (From atiou, to cleave, 
or cut ; so called, because it was 
said to heal wounds). The herb 
hypericum. 

Co'ris lu'tea. The hypericum 
saxatile, or bastard St. John's wort. 

Co'ris monspellie'nsis. An in- 
tensely bitter and nauseous plant, 
but apparently an active medicine, 
and employed, it is said, with suc- 
cess in syphilis. 

Cork. The bark of the Qucrcus 
suber of Linnaeus, formerly employed 
as an astringent, but now disused. 
It yields an acid. 

Corns. Clavi, spince pedum, calli, 
condylomata, &c. Hardened portions 
of cuticle, produced by long and 
continued pressure. 

* # * For the cure of corns many 
remedies have been proposed, all 
promising more or less a discutient 
property : the principal are green 
wax, soap, mercurial and hemlock 
plasters, green oil-skin, &c. applied 
to the corn, after paring or rasping 
it down, and renewed as often as ne- 
cessary. An infallible composition 
is said to be composed of gum am- 
moniacum and yellow wax, of each 
two ounces, and six drachms of verde- 
grise. Renewed after a fortnight, if 
the corn still remain. 

Mr. Wardrop has recommended 
the corn to be cut away as much as 
can possibly be done with safety, 
keeping it in warm water; and after the 
surrounding skin has been well dried, 
to rub the surface of the corn with 
the nitrate of quicksilver, or wetting 
it by means of a camel-hair pencil, 
with a solution of the oxymuriate of 
mercury in spirit of wine. Either 
of these applications, Mr. W. ob- 
serves, will mostly effect a cure. — 
fide Med. Chirurg. Trans, vol. V. 
p. 150. Also Calliscus* Syst. Chirurg. 
Hodicrnw, part ii. p. 200, where it will 
be found that the use of caustic ap- 
plications in the cure of corns, is not 
a new proposal, 

Cornaciii'm pi'i.yis. Scammony, 
antimony, and cream of tartar. 

Co'rnea opa'ca. The opaque cor- 
nea. The. sclerotic membrane of the 



COR 



179 



COR 



eye is so called, because it is of a 
horny consistence and opaque. See 
Sclerotic coat. 

Co'rnea TRANsrA'RENS. Trans- 
parent cornea. Sclerotica ceratoides. 
The transparent portion of the scle- 
rotic membrane, through which the 
rays of light pass, is so called, to 
distinguish it from that which is 
opaque. See Sclerotic coat. 

Corne'sta. Cht/m. A retort. 

Corn/lower, See Ccntaurca Cyanus. 

L'orm'cila. (From cornu, a 
hornj. A cupping instrument, made 
of horn. 

Cobmcl i.a'ris. (From comity a 
horn} . Shaped like a horn ; the co- 
racoid prooett. 

Corn -salad. The Valeriana lo- 
emta of Linnaeus. It is a very whole- 
some succulent plant, possessing 
antiscorbutic and gently aperient 
property 

Co'rnu AMMo'ms. Cor tin ay 
When the pes hippocampi of the 
human brain is cut U ' ailB f C tsely 
through, the cortical aubfltanOB is so 
disposed as to resemble a ram's 
horn. This is the true cornu ani- 
monis, though the name i> often ap- 
plied to the pes hippocampi. 

i o'rnu ari'etis. See Corm am- 

monis. 

Co'rnu. A horn. Cornu ccrvi. 
Hartshorn. The horns of several 
species of stag, as the ccrrus al 
cervus da ma, cervus clap hits, and 
cermu turantla, are used medicinally. 
Their chief use is for calcination, and 
to afford the liquor volatilis cornu 
1 ■ rvi and sub-carbonate of ammonia. 

Co'rnu ce'rm calcina'tum. See 
Cornu ustum. 

Co'rnu u'stum. Burnt hartshorn. 
It possesses absorbent, antacid, and 
astringent properties, and is given 
in the form of decoction, as a com- 
mon drink in diarrhoea, &c. &c. 

Co'rnua. Warts. Horny excres- 
cences, which mostly form on the 
joints of the toes. Similar diseased 
productions have been known to 
arise on the head, and other parts. 

Co'rnua uteri. Pkctcnce. In 
comparative anatomy, the horns of 
the womb ; the womb being in some 



animals triangular, and its angles re- 
sembling horns. 

Corm mi's a. (From Cormtmsc, 
Fr. A pair of bagpipes). A retort ; 
from its resemblance to this cele- 
brated Highland instrument. 

Co'rnus. 1. The name of a genu^ 
of plants in the Linnaean system i 
Class, Tetrandria ; Order, Mo**gy- 
nia. — 2. The pharmacopceial name 
of the cornel-tree. Cornus sanguinea 
of Linnaeus. The fruit is moderat 
cooling and astringent) 

Corm 'y\. (From cornu; from 
its resemblance to a horn). A retort. 
Coro'na CILIA'ms. The cilia 
ment. 
Coro'na c.la'sdis. The margin 
of the glans penis. 

Coro'na imperia'li-. A name 
for crown-imperial. The Turks use 
this plant as an emet&C. The whole 
plant is considered poisonous. 
CosoVa ki/j.ia. The melilotus. 
Coro'na so'lis. Sun-flower. Call- 
ed also chimalati. The FMitmthmi 
an n uus of Linnaeus. The seeds are 
made into bread. 

Coro'na ve'nf.ri-. Venereal 
blotches on the forehead are so 
termed. 

Coro'nal si'ture. (From co- 
rona, a crown, or garland ; so named, 
because the ancients wore their gar- 
lands in its direction . Satura coro- 
nalis. Suntra arcuali.,. The suture 
of the head, that extends from one 
temple across to the other, uniting 
the two parietal boiics with the 
frontal. 

Corona'rius stoma'ciucus. Part 
of the eighth pair of nerves. 

Coronary vessels. Vasco coro- 
naria. The arteries and veins of the 
heart ; also others belonging to the 
stomach. The term coronary is here 
given from corona, a crown, sur- 
rounding any part in the manner of 
a crown. 

Coronary ligaments. (From 
corona, a crown). Ligaments unit- 
ing the radius and ulna. The term 
ligamentum coronarium is also ap- 
plied to a ligament of the liver. 

Coro'ne. (Kooujvtj, a crow; so 
named from its supposed likeness to 



COR 



180 



COR 



a crow's bill) . The acute process of 
the lower jaw-bone. 

Coronoid) . Corojioideus ; from 
xopujvr), a crow, and udog, likeness). 
Processes of bones are so called, that 
have any resemblance to a crow's 
beak, as coronoides apophysis ulnse, 
coronoides apophysis maxillw. 

Corono'pus. (From vopuvrj, a 
carrion crow, and irovg, foot ; the 
plant being said to resemble a crow's 
foot). See Plantago. 

Co'rpora albica'ntia. Corpora 
albicantia Willisii. 

Co'rpora caverno'sa cuto'ridis. 
Two hollow crura, forming the cli- 
toris. 

Co'rpora caverno'sa pe'nis. Two 
spongy bodies arising, one from 
each ascending portion of the ischium, 
forming the whole bulk of the penis 
above the urethra, and terminating 
obtusely behind its glans. See Penis. 

Co'rpora fimbria'ta. The flat- 
tened terminations of the posterior 
crura of the fornix of the brain, 
which turn round into the inferior 
cavity of the lateral ventricle, and 
end in the pedes hippocampi. 

Co'rpora lobo'sa. Part of the 
cortical substance of the kidney. 

Co'rpora nerve'o - spongio'sa . 
The corpora cavernosa penis. 

Co'rpora nervo'sa. The corpora 
cavernosa clitoridis. 

Co'rpora oliva'ria. The two ex- 
ternal prominences of the medulla 
oblongata, shaped somewhat like an 
olive. 

Co'rpora pyramida'lia. Two in- 
ternal prominences of the medulla 
oblongata, which are more of a py- 
ramidal shape than the former. 

Co'rpora quadrige'mina. See 
Tubcrcula quadrigemina. 
Co'rpora stria'ta. So named from 
their appearance. See Cerebrum. 

Co'rpus annula're. A synonym 
of pons Varolii. See Potts Varolii. 

Co'rpus, -oris,n. The body. Many 
parts and substances are also distin- 
guished by this name : as corpus 
callosum, corpus luteum , &c. See Body . 
Co'rpus Callo'sum. Commissura 
magna cerebri. The white medullar}' 
part joining the two hemispheres of 



the brain, and coming into view 
under the falx of the dura mater 
when the hemispheres are drawn 
! from each other. On the surface of 
i the corpus callosum two lines are 
conspicuous, called the raphe. 

Co'rpus glandulo'sum. The pro- 
state gland. 

Co'rpus lu'teum. The granulous 
papillae found in that part of the 
ovarium of females, whence an ovum 
has proceeded ; hence their presence 
determines that the female has been 
impregnated ; and the number of 
corpora lutea corresponds with the 
number of impregnations. It is, how- 
ever, asserted by a modern writer, 
that corpora lutea have been detected 
in young virgins, where no impregna- 
tions could possibly have taken place. 

Cor'pus muco'sum. See Rete mu- 
cosum. 

Co'rpus pampinifo'rme. (Pam~ 
piniformis; from pampxnus, a ten- 
dril, and forma, likeness, resembling 
a tendril). Corpus pyramidale. Ap- 
plied to the spermatic chord, and 
thoracic duct ; also to the plexus of 
veins surrounding the spermatic ar- 
tery in the cavity of the abdomen. 

Cor'pus reticula're. See Rete 
mucosum. 

Co'rpus sesamoide'um. A little 
prominence at the entrance of the 
pulmonary artery. 

Co'rpus spongiosum ure'thr*:. 
Substantia spongiosa urethra?. Corpus 
spotigiosiwi penis. This substance 
originates before the prostate gland, 
surrounds the urethra, and forms 
the bulb ; then proceeds to the end of 
the corpora cavernosa, and termi- 
nates in the glans penis, which it 
forms. 

Co'rpus varico'sum. The sper- 
matic chord. 

Corra'go. (From cor, the heart ; 
it being supposed to have a good 
effect in comforting the heart). See 
If or ago. 

Co'rre. (From khqu), to shave) . 
The temples. That part of the jaws 
where the beard grows, and which it 
is usual to shave. 

Corroborants. (Corroborantia) . 
Medicines, or whatever gives strength 



COR 



181 



COR 



to the body, as bark, wine, beef, 
cold bath, &c. See Tonics. 

Corrosive sublimate* See Hydrar- 
gyri oxytnurias. 

Corrosives. Corrosiva. (From 
corrodere, to eat away) . See Escha- 
rotics. 

Corruga'tor superci'lii. (From 
corrugare, to wrinkle). Musculus 
swpercUii of Winslow. Musculus 
frontalis verus, seu corrugator coiterii 
of Douglas, and Cutaneo-sourcillier 
of Dumas. A small muscle on the 
forehead. When one muscle acts, it 
is drawn towards the other, and pro- 
jects over the inner canthus of the 
eye. When both muscles act, they 
pull down the skin of the forehead, 
and make it wrinkle, particularly 
between the eye-brows. 

Co'rtex, -ticis, m. or f. A term 
generally, though improperly, given 
to the Peruvian bark ; as it applies 
to any rind, or bark. 

Co'rtex angeli'NjE. The bark 
of a tree growing in Grenada. A 
decoction of it is recommended as a 
vermifuge. It excites tormina, si- 
milar to jalap, and operates by 
purging. 

Co'rtex angustu'rs. See Cus- 
paria?. 

Co'rtex antiscorbl'ticus. The 
canclla alba. 

Co'rtex aroma'ticus. The ca- 
nclla alba. 

Co'rtex bela-ave. See Dcla-aye 
cortex. 

Co'rtex cane'll^ malaba'rice. 
See Laurus cassia. 

Cortex caroina'lis de Lu'go. 
The Peruvian bark was so called, 
because the Cardinal Lugo had testi- 
monials of above a thousand cures 
performed by it in the year 1653. 

Co'rtex ce'rebri. The cortical 
substance of the brain. 

Co'rtex ciu'n/E re'gius. See 
Cinchona. 

Co'rtex chi'hjb suriname'nsis. 

Surinam bark. This bark is'remark- 

ably bitter, and preferable to the 

other species in intermittent fevers. 

Co'rtex chinchi'n/E. See Cinchona. 

Co'rtex eluthe'ri/E. See Croton 
CGbxarilta. 



Co'rtex Geoftroy'^ Jamaice'n- 
SIS. See Geojfroya Jamaicensis. 

Co'rtex la'vola. The bark of 
this name is supposed to be the pro- 
duce of the tree which affords the 
anisum stellatum. It has similar 
virtues. 

Co'rtex magella'nicus. See 
JV inter a armnatica. 

Co'rtex massoy. The produce of 
New Guinea, where it is beaten into 
a pultaceous mass with water, and 
rubbed upon the abdomen to allay 
tormina of the bowels. It partakes 
of the smell and flavour of cinna- 
mon. 

Co'rtex pa'trum. The Peruvian 
bark. 

Co'rtex Peruvia'nus. See Cin- 
chona, 

Co'rtex Peruvia'nus fla'vus. 
See Ciyichona. 

Co'rtex Peruvia'nus ru'ber. 
See Cinchona. 

Co'rtex pocgereb.e. This bark 
is sent from America, and is said to 
be serviceable in diarrhoeas, dysen- 
teries, and hepatic fluxes. 

Co'rtex qua'ssi*. See Quassia. 

Co'rtex wintera'nus. See Win- 
ter a aromatica. 

Co'rtical. Cineritious substance. 
The external substance of the brain 
is of a darker colour than the in- 
ternal, and surrounds the medullary 
substance, as the bark does the tree ; 
hence it is termed cortical. See also 
Kidneys. 

Cortu'sa. The plant self-heal ; 
bear's ear ; sanicle. Expectorant. 

Co'ru cana'rica. A quince-like 
tree of Malabar. Antidysenteric. 

Co'rylus. — 1. A genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, 3fo- 
jwecia ; Order, Polyandria. — 2. The 
pharmacopceial name of the hazels 
tree. See Corylus avellana. 

Co'rylus ave'llana. The hazel- 
nut tree. The nuts of this tree are 
much eaten in this country ; they 
are hard of digestion, and often pass 
the bowels very little altered ; if, 
however, they are well chewed, they 
give out a nutritious oil. An oil is also 
obtained from the wood of this tree, 
Cory his avellana stipulis ovalisy ob- 
R 



COS 



182 



COU 



t asis 9 of Linnaeus ; which is effica- 
cious against the tooth-ache, and is 
said to kill worms. 

Co'ryphe. (Kopv0>?). The ver- 
tex of the head. The inner parts of 
the nails. 

Cory'za. (Coryza, nopv^a : from 
Hcipa, the head, and %slj, to boil). 
An increased discharge of mucus 
from the nose. See Catarrh, 

Cory'za catarrha'lis. A catarrh 
from cold. 

Cory'za febrico'sa. A catarrh 
with fever. 

Cory'za phlegmatorrha'gia. A 
catarrh, with much discharge of 
mucus. 

Cory'za purule'nta. A catarrh, 
with discharge of matter. 

Cory'za variolo'sa. A catarrh 
accompanying small-pox. 

Cory'za virule'nta. A catarrh, 
with discharge of acrid mucus. 

Coscu'lia. The grains of kermes. 

Cosme'tic. A term applied to 
remedies against blotches and frec- 
kles. 

Co'smos. Rythmus. A regular 
scries. According to Hippocrates, 
it is the order and scries of critical 
days. 

Co'ssis. Cossi. A worm that 
breeds in wood : also a little tuber- 
cle in the face, like the head of a 
worm. 

Co'ssum. A malignant ulcer of 
the nose mentioned by Paracelsus. 

Co'sta, -#?, f. A rib. The ribs are 
four-and-twenty in number, twelve 
on each side of the thorax. See 
Bibs. 

Co'sta pulmona'ria. Costa herba. 
A name of the berb hawkweed. 

Costo-iiyoide'us. (From costa, 
a rib, and hyoidcus, belonging to 
the hyoidal bone). A muscle, so 
named from its origin and insertion. 
See Chno- hyoidcus. 

Co'stus. (From kasta, Arab.) 
The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnacan system: Class, Monandria , i 
Order, Monogynia. 

Co'stus ama'rus. Sec Costus ara~ 

btCUS. 

Co'stus aha'jjicus. Costus indi- 
a/Sj amarus, dulcis, oricntalis. Sweet 



and bitter costus. The root of this 
tree, Costus arabicus of Linnaeus, 
possesses bitter and aromatic vir- 
tues, and is considered as a good 
stomachic. There were, formerly, 
two other species, the bitter and 
sweet, distinguished for use. At 
present, the Arabic only is known, 
and that is seldom employed. It is, 
however, said to be stomachic, dia- 
phoretic, and diuretic. 

Co'stus cortico'sus. The ca- 
nella alba. 

Co'stus iiorto'rum mi'nor. The 
ageratum. 

Co'stus m'gra. The artichoke. 

Co'style. (KotvXtj, the name 
of an old measure) . The socket of 
the hip-bone. 

Cotaro'ntum. A word coined by 
Paracelsus, implying a liquor in 
which all bodies, and even their 
elements, may be dissolved. 

Co'tis. (From kotIij, the head). 
The back part of the head ; some- 
times the hollow of the neck. 

Co'tula foz'tida. (Cotula, dim. 
of cos, a whetstone, from the re- 
semblance of its leaves to a whet- 
stone ; or from nolvXij, a hollow). 
Stinking chamomile. See Anthemis 
cotula. 

Cotyloid cavity. (Coty hides; 
from kotvXtj, the name of an old 
measure, and a£oc, resemblance). 
The acetabulum. See I/mominatum os, 

Cotyloi'des. See Cotyloid cavity. 

Couching. The surgical operation 
of removing the opaque lens out of 
the axis of vision, by means of a 
needle constructed for the purpose. 

* # * There are two couching nee- 
dles, which now seem to be prefer- 
red to all others ; the one used by 
Mr. Hey, and that employed by 
Professor Scarpa ; although some 
recent improvements have been sug- 
gested and adopted by individuals in 
their own practice. 

Couch-grass. See Triticum repens. 

Cough. Tu&sis. A sonorous con- 
cussion of the thorax, produced by 
the sudden expulsion of the inspired 
air. 

Co'um. The meadow-saffron. 

Counter opening. Contra-aper- 



cox 



183 



CRA 



tura. An opening made in any part 
of an abscess opposite to one already 
in it. This is often done in order to 
afford a readier escape to the collect- 
ed pus. 

Coup-de-soleil. (Fr.) Stroke of 
the sun. Erysipelas, apoplexy, or 
any affection produced instantane- 
ously from a scorching sun. 

%* The coup-de-soleil frequently 
occurs in warm climates, and during 
intense summer heats, with those 
long exposed to the immediate heat 
of the sun. It evidently appears to 
he an attack of apoplexy, and re- 
quires to be treated in the same 
manner. 

Cou'rap. (Ind.) A distemper 
very common in Java, and other 
parts of the East Indies, where there 
is a perpetual itching and discharge 
of matter. It is a herpes on the 
axilla, groins, breast, and face. 

Col'rbaril. The tree which pro- 
duces the gum anime. Sec Anime. 

Colro'ndi. An evergreen tree of 
India, said to be antidvsenteric. 

Couroy moi/lli. A shrub of In- 
dia, said to be anti venomous. 

Cou'scous. An African food, 
much used about Senegal. It is a 
composition of the flour of millet, 
with some flesh, and what is there 
called lalo. 

Covola'm. The Crata'va marmrlos 
of Linnaeus, whose fruit is astrin- 
gent whilst unripe, but when ripe 
uf a delicious taste. The bark of 
the tree strengthens the stomach, 
and relieves hypochondriac languors. 

(ow/iagc, or Cow-itch. See Doli- 

Cowper's GLANDS. (Cow peri glan- 
dule?; named after the discoverer 
and first describer of them). Three 
large muciparous glands of the male, 
two of which are situated before the 
prostate gland, under the accelerator 
muscles of the urine, and the third 
more forward, before the bulb of 
the urethra. They excrete a fluid, J 
similar to that of the prostate gland, I 
during the venereal orgasm. 

Cowpe'ri gla'ndul*:. See Cow- 
per's glands. 

Co'xa. The ischium is sometimes 



so called, and sometimes the os 
coecygis. 

Coxe'ndix, -icis, f. (From co.ivz, 
the hip) . The ischium ; the hip- 
joint. 

Crab-yaws. A name in Jamaica 
for a kind of ulcer on the soles of 
the feet, with callous edges, so hard 
that it is difficult to cut them. 

Cra'mbe. (Kpap^rj, the name, 
given by Dioscoridcs, Galen, and 
others, to the cabbage). A genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Tetr adynamia; Order, Silicu- 
losa. 

Cra'mbe mari'tima. The syste- 
matic name for the sea-cole. 

Cramp. (From krempen, to con- 
tract. Germ.) A spasm of a mus- 
cle or muscles, of which there ape 
several species. See Tetanus. 

Cranesbill, bloody. See Gera- 
nium sanguineus, 

Cra'mum, -i, n. (Kpaviov, quasi 
napaviov; from napa, the head). 
The skull, or superior part of the 
head. See Caput. 

Crante'res. (From xpauno, to 
perform). A name given to the 
sapientiae dentes and other molares, 
from their office of masticating the 
food. 

Cra'plla. (KpanrvXa) . A sur- 
feit ; drunkenness. 

Cra'sis. (From Hepavvvfii, to 
mix). Mixture. A term applied to 
the humours of the bodv, when there 
is such an admixture of their prin- 
ciples as to constitute a healthy 
state : hence, in dropsies, scurvy, 
&c. the crasis, or healthy mixture 
of the principles of the blood, is 
said to be destroyed. 

Cra'spedon. (Kpa(T7T6ooj/, the 
hem of a garment; from xpejuaw^ to 
hang down, and vrtcovy the ground). 
A relaxation of the uvula, when it 
hangs down in a thin, long mem- 
brane, like the hem of a garment. 

Crassame'ntum. (From crassus, 
thick). See Blood. 

Cra'ssula. (From erassus, thick : 
so named from the thickness of its 
leaves). See Sedum telephium. 

CRAT«'GUS.(From xpa7oo, strength : 
so called from the strength and hard- 
R2 



CRI 



184 



CRI 



ness of its wood) . The wild service- 
tree, whose virtues are astringent. 

Crati'cula. (From crates ■, a hur- 
dle). The bars or grate which cover 
the ash-hole in a chymical furnace. 

Cream of tartar. See Potassa? 
supertartras. 

Crema'ster. (From Kpspau), to 
suspend). A muscle of the testicle, 
by which it is suspended, drawn 
up, and compressed, in the act of 
coition. 

Cke'mnus. (From uprji-ivog, a 
precipice, or shelving-place). The 
edges of an ulcer are so called ; 
also the labium pudendi. 

Cre'mor, -orw, m. Cream. Any 
substance floating on the top, and 
skimmed off. 

Crepita'tion. The crackling 
noise made in cases of emphysma, 
when air is passing from one part 
of the cellular substance to another. 

Cre'pitus, -i, in. (From crepare, 
to make a noise) . A puff, or little 
noise : the crackling made by the 
joints when there is a deficiency of 
synovia. 

Cre'pitus lu'pi. See Ly coper don 
bovista. 

Cress, water. See Sisymbrium 
nasturtium. 

Cre'ta, ~ce 9 f. Carbonas calcis 

friabilis. Chalk. Carbonate of lime. 

Pure chalk is a neutral compound of 

carbonic acid and lime. See Creta 

prceparata. 

Cre'ta prjepara'ta. Prepared 
chalk. An absorbent, and possessing 
antacid qualities. Jt is exhibited in 
form of powder, mixture, or bolus, 
in pyrosis, cardialgia, diarrhoea, aci- 
dities of the primae via?, rachitis, 
crusta lactea, &c. 

Crete, dittany or. See Origa- 
num dictamnu.s. 

CrJBRIFo'rMIS. (From cribrum, 
a sieve, and forma, likeness ; be- 
cause it is perforated like a sieve). 
bee Ethmoid bone. 

Cri'co. Names compounded of 
this word belong to muscles which 
are attached to the cricoid cartilage. 

Cri'co- auyt/ENOIDe'i;s lateralis. 
(Vico-tateri arithenoidicn of Dumas. 
A muscle of the glottis, that opens 



the rima glottidis, by drawing the 
ligaments from each other. 

Cri'co-arytenoide'us posti'cus. 
Crico creti arithenoidien of Dumas. 
A muscle of the glottis, that opens 
the rima glottidis a little, and by 
pulling back the arytenoid cartilage, 
stretches the ligament so as to make 
it tense. 

Cri'co-pharynge'us. See Con- 
strictor pharyngis inferior. 

Cri'co-thyroidf/us. Crico-thy- 
roidien of Dumas. The last of the 
second layer of muscles between the 
os hyoides and trunk, that pulls 
forward and depresses the thyroid 
cartilage, or elevates and draws 
backward the cricoid cartilage. 

Cricoi'des. Cricoid. (From xpt- 
xoc, a ring, and sidog, resemblance). 
A round ring-like cartilage of the 
larynx is called by this name. See 
Larynx. 

Crimno'des. (From xptpvov, bran). 
A term applied to urine, which de- 
posits a sediment like bran. 

Crina'tus. (From apivovy the 
lily). A fumigating composition, 
mentioned by P. iEgineta. 

Cri'nis. The hair. See Capillus. 

Crinomy'ron. (From xpivov, a 
lily, and pvpov, ointment) . An oint- 
ment composed chiefly of lilies. 

Crino'des. (From crinis, the 
hair). Collections of a sebaceous 
fluid in the cutaneous follicles upon 
the face and breast, appearing like 
black spots, and when pressed out, 
like small worms or maggots. 

Crio'genes. Certain troches for 
cleansing sordid ulcers. P. JEgincta. 

Cripso'rciiis. (From kqvttIlo, to 
conceal, and o(>x'C> a testicle). Hav- 
ing the testicle concealed, or not yet 
descended into the scrotum. 

Cri'sis. (From xpivio, to judge). 
The judgment. The sudden change 
of symptoms in acute diseases, from 
which recovery or death is prognos- 
ticated. 

Crispatu'ra. (From crispare, to 
curl). A spasmodic contraction, or 
curling of the membranes and fibres. 

Cri'sta. (Quasi cerista, from he- 
pag, a horn : or carista, from xapa, 
the head, as being on the top of the 



CRI 



185 



CRO 



head). Any thing having the ap- 
pearance of a crest ; as crista clito- 
ridis, the nympha. Also a tubercle 
about the anus. 

Cri'sta ga'lli. The cock's comb. 
An eminence of the ethmoid bone, 
so called from its resemblance to a 
cock's comb. See Ethmoid bone* 

Cri'thamum. See Crithmum. 

Crithe'rion. (From Kpivio, to 
judge). The same as crisis. 

Cri'the. (Kpi9rj). Barley. A 
stye or tumour on the eyelid, of the 
shape, and about the size of a barley- 
corn. 

Cri'thmum. (From kolvio, to se- 
crete ; so named, from its supposed 
virtu.* ; in promoting a discharge of 
the urine and menses). Samphire 
or sea-fennel. 

Cri'thmum mariti'mum. TheLin- 
naean name of the samphire or sea- 
fennel. Crithmum. A low peren- 
nial plant, that grows about the 
M;i-coast in several parts of the 
island, and has a spicy aromatic 
flavour, which induces the common 
people to use it as a pot-herb. 
Pickled with vinegar and spice it 
makes a wholesome and elegant con- 
diment which is in much esteem. 

Critho'dcs. (From KpiQri, bar- 
ley, and sicog, resemblance). From 
their resemblance to a barley-corn. 
Applied to small protuberances. 

Cri'tical. (From critique, Fr. ; 
triticus, Lat. ; jcpili/coc, Gr.) De- 
termining the event of a disease. 

* # * Physicians are of opinion, 
that there is something in the nature 
of fevers which generally determines 
them to be of a certain duration ; 
and, therefore, that their termina- 
tions, whether salutary or fatal, 
happen at certain periods of the 
disease, rather than at others. These 
periods, which were carefully marked 
by Hippocrates, are called critical 
days. The critical days, or those on 
which we suppose the termination 
of continued fevers especially to hap- 
pen, are the third, fifth, seventh, 
ninth, eleventh, fourteenth, seven- 
teenth, and twentieth. Critical signs, 
are those taken from a crisis, either 
at refers to recovery or dissolution. 



Crocidi'xis. (From KpoKih^cj, to 
gather wool). A fatal symptom in 
some diseases, where the patient 
gathers up the bed-clothes, and 
seems to pick up substances from 
them. 

Cro'cinum. (From icpoKog, saf- 
fron) . Oil of saffron, or a mixture 
of oil, myrrh, and saffron. 

Croco'des. (From icpoicog, saf- 
fron ; so called from the quantity of 
saffron they contain) . A name of 
some old troches. 

Crocoma'gma. (From Kpoicoc, 
saffron, and fiay/xa, the thick oil or 
dregs). A troch made of oil of 
saffron and spices. 

Cro'cus. (Kpo/coc of Theophras- 
tus. For the story of the young 
Crocus, turned into this flower, (see 
Oiid'sAfctam. lib.iv.) Others derive 
this name from Kpoicrj, or icpoicig, a 
thread ; whence the stamens of flow- 
ers are called Kpoicideg. Others, 
again, derive it from Coriscus, a 
city and mountain of Cilicia, and 
others from crokin, Chald.) Saffron, 
— 1. A genus of plants in the Lin- 
naean system : Class, Triandria; Or- 
der, Moiiogynia. Saffron. — 2. The 
pharmacopoeial name of the prepared 
stigmata of the Crocus sativus, spat ha 
univalvi radically corolla; tubo lon- 
gissimoy of Linnaeus. — 3. A term given 
by the old chymists to several pre- 
parations of metallic substances, 
from their resemblance; thus, crocus 
martis, crocus veneris. 

*** Saffron has a powerful, pe- 
netrating, diffusive smell, and a 
warm, pungent, bitterish taste. 
Many virtues were formerly attri- 
buted to this medicine, but little 
confidence is now placed in it. The 
Edinburgh College directs a tincture, 
and that of London a syrup of this 
drug. 

Cro'cus antimo'nii. Crocus me- 
tallorum. This preparation is a sul- 
phuretted oxyde of antimony. It 
possesses emetic and drastic cathartic 
powers, producing afterwards a vio- 
lent diaphoresis. 

CRo'cus Germa'nicus. See Car- 
thamus. 

Cro'cus 1'ndicus, Sqc Cunuma. 
R 3 



CRO 



186 



CRU 



Cro'cus ma'rtis. Green vitriol 
exposed to fire till it becomes red. 

Cro'cus metallo'rum. See Cro- 
cus aiitimonii. 

Cro'cus officinalis. See Crocus 
sativus. 

Cro'cls sarace'nicus. See Car- 
t humus. 

Cro'cus sati'vus. See Crocus. 
Cro'cls ve'neris. Copper cal- 
cined to a red powder. 

Cro'mmyon. (Ilapa to rag xopag 
fivuv, because it makes the eyes 
wink). An onion. 

Crommyoxyre'gma. (From jtpo/i- 
fivov, an onion, o£vc, acid, and 
pTjyvvfii, to break out). An acid 
eructation, accompanied with an 
alliaceous taste. 

Crota'phica arte'ria. The ten- 
don of the temporal muscle. 

Crotaphi'tes. (Crotayhites y sc. 
wusculus; from npolatyog, the tem- 
ple) . See Temporalis. 

Crota'phium. (From jtpoJew, to 
pulsate ; so named from the pulsation 
which in the temples is eminently 
discernible). Crotaphos. Crotaphus. 
A pain in the temples. 

Cro'taphos. i ,. „ M , . 
Cro'taphus. j aeeCro ^ W '- 
Crotchet. A curved instrument, 
with a sharp hook to extract the foetus. 
Cro'ton. (From xpolaiv, to beat). 
— 1. An insect called a tick, from 
the noise it makes by beating its 
head against wood. — 2. A name of 
the ricinus, or castor - oil - berry, 
from its likeness to a tick. — 3. The 
,ne of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Monoccia ; 
Order, Monadclpkia. 

Cro'ton benzo'e. Gum-Benjamin 
was formerly so called. 

Cro'ton cascari'lla. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant which 
affords the Cascarillabark. The tree 
that produces the easearilla bark, 
is the Croton cascarilla of Linnaeus. 
It is a yjerj excellent tonic, astrin- 
gent, and stomachic, is valuable in 
dyspepsy and flatulent colic, in dy- 
itery and diarrha*a, and in the 
gangrenous thrush, peculiar to chil- 
dren. See New London Medical 
J\-:ket B'johy p. 67. 



Cro'ton lacci'ferum. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant on which 
gum-lac is deposited. 

Cro'ton ti'glium. The name of 
the tree which affords the pavana 
wood, and tiglia seeds. — 1. Croton; 
foliis ovatis glabris acuminatis ser- 
ratisy caule arboreo of Linnaeus. It 
is said to be useful as a purgative 
in hydropical complaints. — 2. Grana 
tiglia. Grana tilli. Grana tiglii. The 
grana tilia are seeds of a dark grey 
colour, the produce of the Croton 
tiglium of Linnaeus, in shape very 
like the seed of the ricinus communis. 
* # * The oil from the seeds of this 
plant has been revered as a powerful 
purgative. In some cases a drop 
applied to the tongue has produced 
many loose watery stools, and one 
or two drops has sometimes brought 
on an alarming hypercatharsis. Dr. 
Nimmo of Glasgow makes an alco- 
holic solution of it, &c. 

Cro'ton tincto'rium. The sys- 
tematic name of the lacmus plant. 
Lacca c&rulea. Litmus. It is the 
Croton tinetorium; foliis rhomleis 
repandis, capsidis pendulisy caule her- 
baceoy of Linnaeus. It is much used 
by chymists as a test. 

Croto'ne. (From npolov 9 the 
tick) . A fungus on trees produced 
by an insect like a tick ; and meta- 
phorically applied to tumours and 
small fungous excrescences on the 
periosteum. 

Croup. Sec Cynanche. 

Crou'ms. (From xpov w, to beat, 
or pulsate). Pulsation. 

Crou'smata. (From Kpovto, to 
pulsate). Rheums or defluxions from 
the head. 

Crowfoot. See Ranunculus. 

Crowfoot cranesbill. Sec Geranium 
pr a tense. 

Crucial. Some parts of the body- 
are so called when they cross one 
another, as the crucial ligaments of 
the thigh, &c. 

Crucia'lis. Cross-like. Mugwecd 
or crosswort. 

Crucible. (Crucibuluniy from 
crucire, to torment ; because, in the 
language of old chymists, metals arc 
tormented in it, and tortured, U* 



CRU 



187 



CRY 



yield up their powers and virtues") . j rob or electuary made of this pear 
Chymical vessels of various shapes '\ and apples boiled up with honey, 
and composition, made mostly of I Crymo'des. (From npvoc, cold), 
earth to bear the greatest heat. j A name for a fever, where the ex- 

Cru'ditas, atis, f. (Fromcrudus, j ternal parts are cold. 
raw). Applied to undigested sub- j Crypso'rchis. (From xpvTrlb), to 
stances in the stomach, and humours conceal, and op\LQ, a testicle). When 
in the body unprepared for con- j the testicles are hid in the belly, or 
coction. : have not descended into the scrotum. 



Cru'mon. (From koovvo^t^ 



Cry'pte. (From xpi/<r7w, to hide). 



rent). A medicine mentioned by i The little rounded appearances at the 



Aetius, and thus named from the vio- 
lence of its operation as a diuretic. 

Cru'or. The red part of the blood. 
See Blood. 

Cru'ra. The plural of crus, a leg 



end of the small arteries of the cor- 
tical substanse of the kidneys, that 
appear as if formed by the artery 
being convoluted upon itself. 

Cryptopy'ica isciiu'ria. A sup- 



or root ; applied to some parts of I pression of urine from a retraction 



the body from their resemblance to 

a leg or root : thus crura cerebri, 
crura ccrebelli, the crura diaphragm- 
atic, Sec. &c. 

Cru'ra clito'ridls. See Clitoris. 
Cru'ra medu'll* oblonga't.e. 
The roots of the medulla oblongata. 
CruRje'is. (From crus, a leg; so 
named, because it covers almost tbe 
whole foreside of the upper part of 
the leg or thigh) . Cruralis. A muscle 
of the leg, situated on the fore-part 
of the thigh. Its use is to assist the 
vasti and rectus muscles in the exten- 
sion of the leg. 

Crural. Belonging to the crus, 
leg, or lower extremity. 

Crural hernia. Femoral hernia. 
See Hernia cruralis. 

Crura'liS. See Crur&us. 
Cru'sta. A shell ; a scab ; the 
scum or surface of a fluid. 

Cru'sta la'ctea. A disease that 
mostly attacks some part of the face 
of infants at the breast. It is known 
by an eruption of broad pustules, full 
of a glutinous liquor, which form 
white scabs when they are ruptured. 
See IFUlan on Porrigo* &c. 

Cru'sta villo'sa. The inner coat 
of the stomach and intestines. 

Cru'stula. (Dim. of crusta, a 
shell). Ecchymosis, or discoloration 
of the flesh from a bruise, where the 
skin Is entire, and covers it over like 
a shell. 

Crustumina'tum. (From Crustu- 
minum, a town where they grew). — 
1. A kind of Catherine pear. — 2. A 



of the penis within the body. 

Cryso'rciiis. (Kpvcropx i c) • Are- 
traction or retrocession of one of the 
testicles, the same as crypsorchis. 

Crysta'lli. White and transparent 
eruptions about the size of a lupine, 
which sometimes break out all over 
the body. They are also called Cr,y- 
itaUina', and by the Italians Taroli. 
Probably the pemphigus of modern 
writers. 

Crystalline lens. (Lens crystal- 
lina — crystallina, from its crystal - 
like appearance). A lentiform pel- 
lucid part of the eye, enclosed in a 
membranous capsule, called the cap- 
sule of the crystalline lens, and situ- 
ated in a peculiar depression in the 
anterior part of the vitreous humour. 
Its use is to transmit and refract the 
rays of light. 

Crystalli'num. (From xpi/?«\\oc, 
a crystal : so called from its trans- 
parency) . White arsenic. 

Crystallization. (From crys- 
tal/us, a crystal) . Crystallizatio. A 
property by which crystallizable 
bodies tend to assume a regular form, 
when placed in circumstances favour- 
able to a particular disposition of 
their particles. Almost all minerals 
possess this property, but it is most 
eminent in saline substances. 

%* The circumstances favourable 
to the crystallization of salts, and 
without which it cannot take place, 
are two : 1. Their particles must be 
divided and separated by a fluid, in 
order that the corresponding faces 



cue 



188 



cue 



©f those particles may meet and 
unite. — 2. In order that this union 
may take place, the fluid which se- 
parates the integrant parts of the 
salt must be gradually carried off, 
so that it may no longer divide 
them. 

Crysta'llus. (From Kpvog, cold, 
and <?e\\oj, to contract : i. e. con- 
tracted by cold into ice). Crystal. 
The ancients supposed that crystals 
were water intensely frozen. It also 
means an eruption over the body of 
white transparent pustules. See 
Cry st alii. 

Cte'dones. (From xlqdiov, a 
rake). The fibres are so called from 
their pectinated course. 

Cteis. (Krac). A comb or rake. 
Ctenes, in the plural, implies those 
teeth called incisores, from their 
likeness to a rake. 

Cube'bje. (From cubabah, Arab.) 
See Piper Cnbeba. 

Cubebs. See Piper Cubeba. 

Cubital artery. Arteria cubi- 
tulis. Arteria ulnar is. A branch 
of the brachial that proceeds into 
the fore-arm, and gives off the re- 
current and inter-osseals, and forms 
the palmary arch, whence arise 
branches going to the fingers, called 
digitals. 

Cubital nerve. Nervus cubitalis. 
Nervus ulnaris. It arises from the 
brachial plexus, and proceeds along 
the ulna. 

Cubita'lis mu'sculus. An exten- 
sor muscle of the fingers. 

Cubit-s/us exte'rnus. An exten- 
sor muscle of the fingers. 

Cubit/e'us intf/rnus. A flexor 
muscle of the fingers. 

Ci/biti profu'nda ve'na. A vein 
of the arm. 

Cu'bitus. (From cubare, to lie 
clown ; because the ancients used to 
lie down on that part at their meals) . 
The fore-arm, or that part between 
the elbow and wrist. 

Cuboi'des os. (From *u£oc, a 
rube, or die, and tuW, likeness). 
A tarsal bone of the foot. 

Cuckoo /lower. See Cardaminc. 

Cucu'BALUS Bf/uen. Be/ten ojfici- 
ii&rum. The spatling poppy : Cuut- 



balus behen of Linnaeus, formerly 
used as a cordial and alexipharmic. 

Cuculla'ris. (From cucullus, a 
hood so named, because it is 
shaped like a hood). See Trape- 
zius. 

Cucu'llus. A hood. An odorife- 
rous cap for the head. 

Cucumber. See Cucumis. 

Cucumber, bitter. See Cucumis Co- 
locynthis. 

Cucumber, squirting. See Mo- 
mordica Elaterium. 

Cucumber, wild. See Momordica 
Elaterium. 

Cu'cumis, -mis, m. also cucumer, 
-ru. (Quasi diirvitneres , from their 
curvature) . The cucumber. — 1 . The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Monoecia ; 
Order, Synge?iesia. The cucumber. 
— 2. The pharmacopceial name of the 
garden cucumber. See Cucumis sa- 
tivus. 

Cu'cumis agre'stis. See Momor- 
dica Elaterium. 

Cu'cumis asini'nus. See Momor- 
dica Elaterium. 

Cu'cumis colocy'nthis. The 
systematic name for the officinal 
bitter apple. Colocynthis. Alhandula 
of the Arabians. Coloquintida. Bit- 
ter apple. Bitter gourd. Bitter cu- 
cumber. The fruit, which is the me- 
dicinal part of the Cucumis colocyn- 
this; foliis multijidis, pomis globosis 
glabris, is imported from Turkey. 
Its spongy membranous medulla, or 
pith, is directed for use; it has a 
nauseous, acrid, and intensely bitter 
taste ; and is a powerful irritating 
cathartic. In doses of ten or twelve 
grains, it operates with great vehe- 
mence, frequently producing violent 
gripes, bloody stools, and disorder- 
ing the whole system. It is re- 
commended in various complaints, 
as worms, mania, dropsy, epilepsy, 
&c. ; but is seldom resorted to, ex- 
cept where other milder means have 
been used without success, and then 
only in the form of the extract um co- 
locynthidis composition and the pi lu la 3 , 
e.v colocynthide cum aloe of the phar- 
macopoeias. 

Cu'cumis me'lo. The systematic 



cue 



189 



CUN 



name of the melon plant. Melo. 
Musk melon. Cucumis melo of Lin- 
naeus. 

* # * When ripe, the musk melon 
has a delicious refrigerating taste, 
but must be eaten moderately, with 
pepper, or some aromatic, as all this 
class of fruits are obnoxious to the 
stomach, producing" spasms and colic. 
The seeds possess mucilaginous qua- 
lities. 

CVcumis sati'vus. The syste- 
matic name of the cucumber plant. 
Cucumis. Cucumis sativum; fol'vtrum 
anguHs rectis ; pomis oblongis scabris, 
of Linnaeus. 

* # * Cucumbers are cooling and 
aperient, but apt to disagree with 
bilious stomachs. They should al- 
ways be eaten with pepper and oil. 

Cu'cumis syuye'stris. See Mo- 
rn or dica elate riiun. 

Cu'cupha. A hood. An odorife- 
rous cap for the head composed of 
aromatic drugs. 

Cucu'rbita. (Acurvitate, accord- 
ing to Scaliger ; the first syllable 
being doubled, as in cacula, populus, 
&c. — 1 . Hot. A genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Mo- 
noecia ; Order, Sj/nirmesia. The 
pumpion. — 2. Pharm, The common 
pumpion or gourd. — 3. Ckym. Dis- 
tilling ycsscI shaped like a gourd. 

Cucu'rbita citru'llus. The sys- 
tematic name of the water-melon 
plant. CitruUus Angara, &c Sicilian 
citrul, or water-melon. The seeds 
of this plant, Cucurbita citrullus ; 
J'oliis multipartita y of Linnaeus, were 
formerly used medicinally, but now 
only to reproduce the plant. 

*#* Water-melon is cooling and 
somewhat nutritious ; but so soon 
begins to ferment, as to prove highly 
noxious to some stomachs, and 
bring on spasms, diarrhoeas, cholera, 
colics, &c. 

Cucu'rbita lagena'ria. The sys- 
tematic name of the bottle-gourd 
plant. See Cucurbita pepo. 

Cuci/rbita pe'po. The syste- 
matic name of the common pum- 
pion. They contain a large propor- 
tion of oil, the use of which is su- 
perseded by that of sweet almonds. 



Cucurbi'tinus. A species of 
worm, named from its resemblance 
to the seed of the gourd. See Tcenia. 

Cucurbi'tuua. (A dim. of cucur- 
bita, a gourd ; so called from its 
shape). A cupping-glass. 

Clcurbi'tlla crue'nta. A cup- 
ping-glass with scarification to pro- 
cure blood. 

Cucurbi'tula cum fe'rro. A cup- 
ping-glass with scarification to draw 
out blood. 

Cucurbi'tula si'cca. A cupping- 
glass without scarification. 

Cue'ma. (From xua>, to carry in 
the womb) . The conception, or 
rather, as Hippocrates signifies by 
this word, the complete rudiments of 
the fcetus. 

Culbi'cio. A sort of strangury, 
or rather heat of urine. 

Culila'wan cquTEX. Sec Lauras. 

Cu 'unary. (Culinarius, from cu- 
lina, a kitchen). Any thing apper- 
taining to the kitchen. 

Cu'lter. (From colerc, to culti- 
vate). A knife or shear. The third 
lobe of the liver is so called from its 
resemblance. 

Cu'lus, -i j m. (From xov\oc\ 
The anus or fundament. 

Cu'mamus. See Piper cubeba. 

Cumin-seeds. See Cuminum. 

Cu'minum. (From kvio> to bring 
forth ; because it was said to cure 
sterility). Cyminum. Fceuiculuut 
orientate. — 1. A genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Hep- 
tandria ; Order, Digynia. The cu- 
min plant. — 2. Pharm. The Cuminum 
c>/ mil turn of Linnaeus. 

Cu'minum tEtiiio'picum. A name 
for the ammi verum. 

Cu'minum cy'minum. The syste- 
matic name of the cumin plant; the 
seeds of which, the only part of 
the plant in use, have a bitterish 
taste, accompanied with an aromatic 
flavour, but not agreeable. They 
are generally preferred to other 
seeds for external use in discussing 
indolent tumours, as the. encysted 
scrofulous, &c. and give name both 
to a plaster and cataplasm in the 
pharmacopoeias. 

Cunea'lis sutu'ra. The suture 



CUP 



190 



CUR 



by which the os sphenoides is joined 
to the os frontis. 

Cuneiform. (Cuneiformis ; from 
cuneus, a wedge, and forma, like- 
ness) . Some parts of the body are 
so called, being shaped, or fixed in, 
like a wedge : such are the sphenoid 
bone, and some bones of the wrist 
and tarsus. 

Cune'olus. (From cuneare, to 
wedge) . A crooked tent to put into 
a fistula. 

Cupel. (Kuppel, German). Co- 
pella. Catellus cinereus. Cineritium. 
Patella docimastica. Testa probatrix, 
exploratrix , or docimastica. — Chym, 
An instrument which suffers the 
baser metals to pass through it, when 
exposed to heat, and retains the pure 
metal. This process is termed cu- 
pellation. 

Cupella'tion. (From kuppel. 
German) . The purifying of perfect 
metals by means of an addition of 
lead, which at a due heat becomes 
vitrified, and promotes the vitrifica- 
tion and calcination of such imper- 
fect metals as may be in the mix- 
ture, so that these last are carried 
off in the fusible glass that is formed, 
and the perfect metals are left 
nearly pure. 

Cu'phos. (Kov^oc). Light. When 
applied to aliments, it imports their 
being easily digested ; when to dis- 
tempers, that they are mild. 

Cupre'ssus. (So called, arro tov 
HVtiv irapifrovQ tovq aHptpovag, be- 
cause it produces equal branches). 
Cypress. — 1. The name of a genus 
of plants in the Linnaean system : 
Class, Monwcia; Order, Monadel- 
phia. The cypress -tree. — The phar- 
macopceial name of the Cupressus 
iemperv i tetu of Linnaeus. 

Cuprf/ssus sempf/rvirens. The 
systematic name of the cupressus of 
the shops. Cupressus foliis imbrica- 
tis Miami* (juadrangulis, of Linnaeus ; 
called also cyparissus. 

Every part of this plant abounds 
with a bitter, aromatic, terebinthi- 
nate fluid ; and is said to be a remedy 

-ainst Intermittent. Its wood is 
extremely durable, and constitutes 
the cases of Egyptian mummies. 



Cu'pri ammonia'ti li'quor. So- 
lution of ammoniated copper. Aqua 
cupri ammoniati of Pharm. Lond. 
1787, and formerly called aqua sap- 
phirina. It is employed by sur- 
geons for cleansing foul ulcers, and 
disposing them to heal. 

Cu'pri rubi'go. Verdigrise. 

Cu'pri su'lphas. The sulphate of 
copper. It possesses acrid and styp- 
tic qualities ; is esteemed as a tonic, 
emetic, astringent, and escharotic, 
and is exhibited internally in the 
cure of dropsies, hemorrhages, and 
as a speedy emetic. Externally it 
is applied to stop hemorrhages, to 
haemorrhoids, leucorrhcea, phage- 
daenic ulcers, proud flesh, and con- 
dylomata. 

Cu'prum, -?, n. See copper. 

Cu'prum ammoniaca'le. See Cu- 
prum ammoniatum. 

Cu'prum ammonia'tum. Cuprum 
ammoniacale. Ammoniated copper. 
Ammoniacal sulphate of copper. Its 
principal use internally has been in 
epilepsy, and other obstinate spas- 
modic diseases ; in doses of half a 
grain, gradually increased to five 
grains or more, two or three times 
a day. For its external application , 
see Cupri Sulphas. 

Cu'ra avena'cea. A decoction of 
oats and succory roots, in which a 
little nitre and sugar were dissolved, 
formerly used in fevers, and was 
thus named. 

Cu'rcas. The Barbadoes nut ; a 
drastic purge. 

Curcu'lio. (From karkarah. 
Heb.) The throat ; the trachea. 

Cu'rcum. The large celandine ; 
deobstruent. 

Curcu'ma. (From the Arabic cur- 
cum, or hercuui). Turmeric. — 1. A 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Monaudria ; Order, Mo- 
nogynia. — 2. The pharmacopoeial 
name of the turmeric tree. See Cur- 
cuma tonga* 

Curcu'ma lo'nga. The turmeric 
plant. Curcuma ; foliis lanccolatis ; 
nereis laterulibus uinnerosissinu's of 
Linnaeus. It is an ingredient in the 
composition of Curry powder, is va- 
luable as a dying drug, and furnishes 



cus 



191 



CYC 



achymical test of the presence of un- 
combined alkalies. It is now very 
seldom used medicinally, but retains 
a place in pharmacopoeias. 

Curcu'ma ro'tunda. See Cur- 
cuma longa. 

Cu'rmi. (From Kspaa), to mix). 
Ale. A drink made of barley, ac- 
cording to Dioscorides. 

Currants. See Ribes. 

Cl'rsima. Curtuma. The Ranun- 
culus Jit-aria of Linnaeus. 

Cu'rvator co'ccygis. A muscle 
bending the coccyx. 

Cursu'ta. (Corrupted from cas- 
suta kasuth, Arab.) The root of the 
Gentiana purpurea of Linnaeus. 

Cuscu'ta. (According to Linnaeus, 
a corruption from the Greek Kacru- 
Tae, or Katvlag, which is from the 
Arabic Chessuth, or Chasuth). Dod- 
der. — 1. A genus of plants in the 
Liimaean system. : Class, Tetaudrin; 
Order, Digynia. — 2. The pharma- 
copeeial name of dodder of thyme. 
See Cuscuta Epithymum. 

Cuscu'ta epithy'mum. The sys- 
tematic name of dodder of thyme. 
Epithymum. Cuscuta. Dodder of 
thyme. A parasitical plant, posses- 
sing a strong disagreeable smell, and 
a pungent taste, very durable in the 
mouth. Two kinds are recommended 
in melancholia, as cathartics, viz. 
Cuscuta epithymum ; folds sessilibus, 
fjuinqucfidisy bractcis obvallatis, and 
cuscuta Europcea ; Jloribus sessilibus of 
Linnaeus. 

Cuscu'ta Europ*:'a. The syste- 
matic name of a species of dodder 
thyme. See Cuscuta Epithymum. 

Cuspida'tus. (From cuspis, a 
point). See Teeth, 

Cuspa'ria. The generic name given 
by Messrs. Humboldt and Bonpland 
to the tree from which we obtain the 
Angustura bark. 

Cuspa'ria febri'fuga. This is 
the tree said to yield the bark called 
Angustura. Cortex cusparice. When 
reduced into powder, it resembles 
that of Indian rhubarb. It is very 
generally employed as a febrifuge, 
tonic, and astringent. 

Cu'spis. (From cuspa, Chald. a 
shell, or bone, with which spears 



were formerly pointed) . The glans 
penis was so called, from its likeness 
to the point of spear. Also a bandage. 

Cu'stos o'culi. An instrument 
to fix the eye during an operation. 

Cuta'mbuli. (From cutis, the 
skin, and ambulare 9 to walk). Cuta- 
neous worms ; scorbutic itching. 

Cuta'neus mu'sculus. The pla- 
tysma myoides. 

Cutaneous. (From cutis, the 
skin). Belonging to the skin. 

Cuticle. (Cuticu/a, dim. of cutis, 
the skin). Epidermis. Scarf-skin. 
A thin, pellucid, insensible mem- 
brane, of a white colour, that covers 
and defends the true skin, with 
which it is connected by the hairs, 
exhaling and inhaling vessels, and 
the rete mucosum. 

Cu'tis, -tis, f. Derma. The true 
skin. A thick, fibrous, vascular, 
and nervous membrane, that covers 
the whole external surface of the 
body, and is the seat of the organ 
of touch, as also of exhalation, and 
inhalation. 

Cu'tis anseri'na. (Anserina, from 
anser, a goose) . The rough state the 
skin is sometimes thrown into from 
the action of cold, or other cause, 
in which it looks like the skin of the 
goose. 

Cu'tis ve'ra. The true skin under 
the cuticle. 

Cy'anus. (Kvavog, coerulean, or 
sky-blue; so called from its colour). 
Blue-bottle. See Centaurea, 

Cy'ar. (From kho, to pour out) . 
The lip of a vessel. The eye of a 
needle ; and the orifice of the inter- 
nal ear, from its likeness to the eye 
of a needle. 

Cya'sma. Spots on the skin of 
pregnant women. 

Cyathi'scus. (From KvaQoe, a 
cup). The hollow part of a probe, 
formed in the shape of a small spoon, 
as an ear-picker. 

Cy'bitos. See Cubitus. 

Cy'bitum. See Cubitus, 

Cy'bitus. See Cubitus. 

Cyboi'des. See Cuboides. 

Cy'ceum. (From tcvKau), to mix) . 
Cyceon. A mixture of the consist- 
ence of pap. 



CYL 



192 



CYN 



Cy'ciMA. (From kvkcho, to mix). 
So called from the mixture of the 
ore with lead, by which litharge is 
made. 

Cy'clamen. (From kvkXoq, cir- 
cular ; either on account of the 
round form of the leaves, or of the 
roots) . — 1 . A genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system : Class, Pentan- 
dria; Order, Monogynia. — 2. The 
pharmacopoeial name of the sow- 
bread. 

Cy'clamen Europje'um. The sys- 
tematic name of the Arthanita, or 
sow-bread. 

Cycli'scus. (From kvkXoq, a cir- 
cle). A surgical instrument in the 
form of a half-moon, formerly used 
for scraping carious bones. 

Cycli'smus. (From kvkXoc, a cir- 
cle) . A lozenge. 

Cyclopho'ria. (From kvkXoq, a 
circle, and (pepoj, to bear). The cir- 
culation of the blood, or other fluids. 

Cyclo'pion. (From kvkXocj, to 
surround, and to\p, the eye). The 
white of the eye. 

Cy'clos. A circle. The cheeks, 
and the orbits of the eyes. Hipp. 

Cy'clus metasyncri'ticus. A long 
protracted course of remedies, per- 
sisted in with a view of restoring the 
particles of the body to such a state 
as is necessary to health. 

Cydo'nium Ma'lum. (From Cy- 
don, a town in Crete, where they 
grew) . The quince. See Pyrus Cy- 
denia. 

Cye'ma. (From km, to bring 
forth). Parturition. 

Cyli'chnis. (From jci>\i£, a cup). 
A gallipot, or vessel of any kind, to 
contain medicines. 

Cyllo'sis. (From kvXXoio, to make 
lame). A tibia, or leg, bending out- 
wards. 

Cyli'ndrus. (From kvXko, to roll 
round) . A cylinder. A tent for a 
wound, equal at the top and bottom. 

Cy'lus. (From kvXXouj, to make 
lame). One affected with a kind 
of luxation, which bends outward, 
and is hollowed inward. Hipp. — 
Such a defect in the tibia is called 
Cyllosisy and the person to whom it 
belongs, is called by the Latins Va- 



ries; which term is opposed to Val- 



gus* 



Cymato'des. Applied by Galen 
and some others to an unequal fluc- 
tuating pulse. 

Cy'mba. (From Kvptoq, hollow)* 
A boat, or pinnace, A bone of the 
wrist is so called, from its supposed 
likeness to a skiff. 

Cymina'lis. Gentian. 

Cy'minum. See Cuminum. 

Cyna'nche. (From avcov, a dog, 
and ayx^S to suffocate, or strangle; 
so called from the dogs being said to 
be subject to it) . Sore throat. A 
genus of disease in the Class Py- 
rexiae, and Order Phlegmasia, of 
Cullen ; known by pain and redness 
of the throat, attended with a diffi- 
culty of swallowing and breathing* 
&c. The species of this are — 1. Cy- 
nanche trachealis ; called also by 
some cynanche laryngea. Suffocatio 
stridula angina perniciosa. Asthma 
infantum. Cunanche stridula. Morbus 
strangulator ius . Catarrhus suffocati- 
ve Barbadensis. Angina polyposa 
sive membranacca. The croup. A 
disease that mostly attacks infants, 
who are suddenly seized with a diffi- 
culty of breathing and a crouping 
noise. It is an inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the trachea 
that causes the secretion of a very 
tenacious coagulable lymph, which 
lines the trachea and bronchia, ami 
impedes respiration. The croup does 
not appear to be contagious, what- 
ever some physicians may think to 
the contrary ; but it sometimes pre- 
vails epidemically. It seems, how- 
ever, peculiar to some families ; and 
a child having once been attacked, 
is very liable to its returns. It is 
likewise peculiar to young children, 
and has never been known to attack 
a person arrived at the age of pu- 
berty. The application of cold, seems 
to be the general cause which pro- 
duces it, and, therefore, it occurs 
more frequently in the winter and 
spring, than in the other seasons. 
It has been said, that it is most 
prevalent near the sea-coast ; but 
it is frequently met with in inland 
situations, and particularly those 



CYN 



193 



CYN 



which are marshy. — 2. Cynanche 
tonsillaris. The inflammatory quincy, 
called also angina injlammatoria. In 
this complaint, the inflammation 
principally occupies the tonsils ; but 
often extends through the whole 
mucous membrane of the fauces, 
so as essentially to interrupt the 
speech, respiration, and deglutition 
of the patient, &c. — 3. Cynanche 
pharyngea: so called when the pha- 
rynx is chiefly affected. See IFilsons 
Treatise on Febrile Diseases. — 4. Cy- 
nanche parotidea. The mumps. A 
swelling on the cheek and under 
the jaw, extending over the neck, 
from inflammation of the parotid 
and other salivary glands, render- 
ing deglutition, or even respiration, 
sometimes difficult, declining the 
fourth day. Epidemic and conta- 
gious. The disease is subject to a 
metastasis occasionally, in females, 
to the mammae; in males, to the 
testes ; and in a few instances re- 
pelled from these parts, it has affected 
the brain, and even proved fatal. In 
general, however, the disease is 
i without danger, and scarcely calls 
for medical aid. — 5. Cynanche ma- 
ligna. The malignant, putrid, or 
ulcerous sore throat. Called also 
f cynanche gangrenosa. Angina ulce- 
rosa. Febris epidemica cum angina 
i ulcusculosa. Angina epidemica. An- 
gina gangrenosa. Angina sujfocntiva. 
Angina maligna. The putrid sore 
throat often arises from a peculiar 
state of the atmosphere, and so be- 
comes epidemical ; making its attacks 
chiefly on children, and those of a 
weak relaxed habit. It is produced 
likewise by contagion, as it is found 
to run through a whole family, 
when it has once seized any person 
in it ; and it proves often fatal, par- 
ticularly to those in an infantile 
state. 

Cyna'nche a degluti'tis. Quincy 
from hard substances swallowed. 

Cyna'nche a dysente'ria. Quincy 
from dysentery. 

Cyna'nche angino'sa. The in- 
flammatory quincy. 

Cyna'nche arthri'tica. Quincy 
from gout. 



Cyna'nche epide'mica. The cy- 
nanche maligna. 

Cyna'nche gangrenosa. The 
cynanche maligna. 

Cyna'nche hepa'tica. Quincy 
from a disease of the liver. 

Cyna'nche laryngf/a. The cy- 
nanche -trachealis. 

Cyna'nche mali'gna. See Cy- 
nanche. 

Cyna'nche parotide'a. See Cy- 
nanche. 

Cyna'nche pharynge'a. See Cy- 
nanche, 

Cyna'nche prune'lla. Common 
sore throat. 

Cyna'nche purpuro-parotide'a. 
A cynanche maligna, or malignant 
sore throat. 

Cyna'nche stri'dula. The croup. 
See Cynanche. 

Cyna'nche thy'mica. Sore throat 
from an enlargement of the thyroid 
gland. 

Cyna'nche tonsilla'ris. See Cy- 
nanche. 

Cyna'nche trachea'lis. See Cy- 
nanche. 

Cyna'nche ulcero'sa. Th: ma- 
lignant sore throat. 

Cyna'nchica. (From xwayxHy 
the quincy) . Medicines which relieve 
a quincy. 

Cynanthro'pia. (From ttvuv, a 
dog, and av9p(t)7rog, a man). Used 
by Bellini (De Morbis Capitis) to 
express a particular kind of melan- 
choly, when men fancy themselves 
changed into dogs, and imitate their 
actions. 

Cy'nara sco'lymus. See Cinara. 

Cy'nchms. (Kvyxvig). A ves- 
sel of any kind to hold medicines 
in. 

Cvnocra'mbe. (From kvijjv, a 
dog, and AnapGrj, cabbage ; a spe- 
cies of cabbage with which dogs are 
said to physic themselves). See 
Mercurialis perennis. 

Cyno'ctanum. (From xvow, a 
dog, and hIiivoj, to Vll). A species 
of aconitum, said to destroy dogs, if 
they eat it. 

Cynocy'tisis. (From kvuv, a dog, 
and kvIigoq, the cytisus ; so named 
because it was said to cure the dis ■ 



CYN 



194 



CYR 



temper of dogs) . The dog-rose. See 
Rosa canina. 

Cynode'ctos. (From xvojv, a dog, 
and SaHVU), to bite). A person bit 
by a mad dog. Dioscorides. 

Cyn ode's mi on. (From xuwv, a 
dog, and £e co 9 to bind ; so named 
because in dogs it is very discernible 
and strong). A ligature by which 
the prepuce is bound upon the glans. 
Sometimes it signifies the lower part 
of the prepuce. 

Cynodo'ntes. (KwoSovree : from 
xvojv, a dog, and ocovc, a tooth)'. 
The canine teeth. 

Cynoglo'ssum. (From xvwv, a 
dog, and yXwvva, a tongue ; so 
named from its supposed resem- 
blance). Kound's-tongue. — 1. The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Pentandria; 
Order, Monogynia. — 2. The phar- 
macopoeial name of the cynoglossum 
officinale. 

Cynoglo'ssum officinale. The 
systematic name for hound's-tongue. 
Cynoglossum. Lingua canina. Cyno- 
glossum staminibus corolla breviori- 
bus ; foliis lato-lanceolatis, tomentosis, 
.sessilibus, of Linnaeus. It possesses 
narcotic powers, but is seldom em- 
ployed medicinally. 

Cyno'lophus. (From xvwv, a dog, 
and \o0oc, a protuberance ; so called 
because in dogs they are peculiarly 
eminent). The asperities and pro- 
minences of the vertebrae. 

Cynoly'ssa. (From kvwv, a dog, 
and Xvccnj, madness). Canine mad- 
ness. 

Cynomo'riuim. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Monoccia; Order, Mo- 
it an dria. 

Cynomo'rium cocci'neum. The 
systematic name of the fungus meli- 
tcnsis. Fungus melitensis. This is 
improperly called a fungus, it being 
the Cynomorium coccineum of Lin- 
naeus ; a small plant which grows 
only on a little r« ck adjoining Malta. 
A. drachm of the powder is given 
for a dose in dysenteries and he- 
morrhages, and with remarkable 
success. 

pl nore'xia. (From *vm>> a dog, 



and optZic, appetite) . A voracions 
or canine appetite. See Bulimia. 

Cyno'sbatos. See Cynosbatus. 

Cyno'sbatus. (From xi/wj/, a dog, 
and /3a)oc, a thorn ; so called be- 
cause dogs are said to be attracted 
by its smell). The dog-rose. See 
Rosa cani?ia. 

Cynospa'stum. (From xviov, a 
dog, and <nra<o, to attract). See 
Rosa canina. 

Cyopho'ria. (From xvoc, a foetus, 
and (pepw, to bear). Gestation. The 
pregnancy of a woman. 

Cypari'ssus. See Cupressus. 

Cy'perus. (From Hvirapoc, a little 
round vessel, which its roots are 
said to resemble). Cyperus. The 
name of a genus of plants in the Lin- 
naean system : Class, Triandria; Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

Cy'perus lo'ngus. The pharma- 
copceial name of the English galan- 
gale. Cyperus longus; culmo tri- 
quetro folioso , mnbclla foliosa supra- 
decomposita ; pedunculis ?iudis 9 spicis 
alternis, of Linnaeus. Fallen into 
disuse. 

Cy'perus rotu'ndus. The round 
cyperus. The Cyperus rotundus; cul- 
mo triquetro subnudo ; umbella decom- 
posita; spicis alternis linearibus, of 
Linnaeus, is generally preferred to 
the former, being a more gratefully 
aromatic bitter. Chiefly used as a 
stomachic. 

C ypho'ma. (From KU7r1w, to bend) . 
A gibbosity, or curvature of the 
spine. 

Cypho'sis. Incurvation of the spine. 

Cypress spurge. See Esula minor. 

Cy'prinum o'leum. Flowers of 
cypress, calamus, cardamoms, &c. 
boiled in olive- oil. 

Cy'prilm. (From Kinrpoc, Cy- 
prus, an island where it is said for- 
merly to have abounded). Copper. 

Cyprus. The cypress-tree, or East- 
ern privet ; so called from the island 
of Cyprus, where it grew abun- 
dantly. 

Cy'pselis. (From kvxI/eXtj, a bee- 
hive). The aperture of the ear ; the 
ear-wax. 

Cyrcne'sis. (From u-vpytavao), to 
mix). A mixture, or composition. 



CYS 



195 



CYS 



Cyrto'ma. (From nvplog, curved) . 
An unnatural convex tumour ; tym- 
panites. 

Cyrtono'sus. (From Kvolog, curved, 
and vovog, a disease) . The rickets, 
or curved spine. 

Cy'ssarus. (From xi/troc, the anus). 
The rectum is so called, because it 
reaches to the anus. 

Oysso'tis. (From xvcrog, the anus) . 
An inflammation of the anus. 

Cysteoli'thus. (From xvric, the 
bladder, and \i0oc, a stone). The 
stone in the bladder. 

Cy'sthus. (Kv<t9oc). The anus. 

Cystic. Belonging to the uri- 
nary or gall bladder. 

Cystic duct. Ductus cysticus. The 
membranous canal that conveys the 
bile from the hepatic duct into the 
gall-bladder. 

Cy'stica (From Hwrig, the blad- 
der) . Remedies for diseases of the 
bladder. 

Cy'stides. (From nv-ig, a bag). 
Encysted tumours. 

Cystiphlo'gia. (From *v<?ig, the 
bladder, and ^Xtyw, to burn). An 
inflammation in the bladder. 

Cystirrha'gia. (From xv<7ig, the 
bladder, and prjyvvpi, to burst forth) . 
A discharge of blood from the blad- 
der. 

Cy'stis. (Kutic, a bag). The 
bladder ; any receptacle of morbid 
humours. See Urinary-bladder. 

Cy s its cuole'docha. See Gall- 
bladder. 

Cy'stis fe'llea. See Gall-bladder. 

CytiSj'ne. An alkali found in the 
cytisus laburnum, or pea-tree, of 
our shrubberies ; and supposed also 
to exist in Arnica montana, or Ger- 
man leopard's-bane. It is bitter to 
the taste, and possesses emetic pro- 
perties ; although it has not been 
hitherto used medicinally. 

Cysti'tis. (From kvtlq, the blad- 
der). Inflammation of the bladder. 
A genus of disease arranged by Cul- 
len in the Class Pyrexia?, and Order 
Phlegmasia?. It is known by great 
pain in the region of the bladder, 
attended by fever and hard pulse, 
a frequent and painful discharge of 
urine, or a suppression, and gene- 



rally tenesmus. It is rarely a pri- 
mary disease, and when it occurs, 
the above character of it will readily 
point it out, &c. 

Cystito'me. (From xvrtg, and re fi- 
ve*, to cut). An instrument made on 
| the same principle as the pharyngo- 
tomus, and invented by M. de la 
Faye, for opening the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

Cystoce'le. (From nv^ig, the 
bladder, and Kt]\rj, a tumour). An 
hernia formed by the protrusion of 
the urinary bladder. 

Cytoli'thicus. (From xv<?ig, the 
bladder, and \i9og, a stone). A sup- 
pression of urine from a stone in the 
bladder, is called ischuria cystoli- 
thica. 

Cystophle'gicus. (From *v-ic, 
the bladder, and (pXeyu, to burn). 
A suppression of urine from an in- 
flammation of the bladder, was for- 
merly called ischuria cystophlegica. 

( ystophle(;ma'tica. (From kv-ic, 
the bladder, and (pXey/ia, phlegm). 
A suppression of urine, from too 
much matter or mucus in the blad- 
der, was called ischuria cystophlcg- 
matica. 

Cl >topro'ctica. (From av^ig, the 
bladder, and <&oiokIoc, the anus, or 
rectum). A suppression of urine, 
caused by wind, inflammation of the 
rectum, hardened faeces, &c. is 
called ischuria cystoproctica. 

Cystopto'sis. (From xwzig, the 
bladder, and T«ri7r)w, to fall). A pro- 
trusion of the inner membrane of the 
bladder, through the urethra. 

Cystospa'sticus. (From xvrig, 
the bladder, and (nrafTfxa, a spasm). 
Suppression of urine, from a spasm 
in the sphincter vesicae, was called 
ischuria cystospastica. 

Cystospy'icus. (From kutic, the 
bladder, and 'urvov, pus.) Suppres- 
sion of urine, from purulent matter 
in the bladder, was called ischuria 
cystospyica. 

Cystotiiromboi'des. (From xurte, 
the bladder, and Qpoixtog, a coagu- 
lation of blood). Suppression of 
urine, from a concretion of grumous 
blood in the bladder, was called 
ischuria cystothromboides. 
S2 



DjEM 



196 



DAP 



Cystoto'mia. (From Kwsig, the 
bladder, and repvo), to cut). The 
operation of cutting or piercing the 
bladder. 

Cy'tkion. An eye-wash. 

Cy'tinus. (From kvw, to produce ; 
so called from its fecundity). The 
bud or flower of the pomegranate. 

Cy'tinus hypoci'stis. The plant 



from whose fruit the succus hypocis- 
tidis is obtained. See Hypocistis. 

Cytjso-geni'sta. Common broom. 
See Spar Hum. 

Cyze'mer. Painful swelling of the 
wrists. 

Cyzice'nus. Plaster for wounds 
of the nerves. 



D. 



-D , in the old chymical alphabet, 
signifies vitriol. 

Dacne'rus. (From £a/ei/w,tobite). 
Biting. Pungent. An epithet for an 
old eye-wash, composed of burnt 
copper, pepper, cadmia, myrrh, and 
opium. 

Dacry'dium. (From Saicpv, a tear). 
The inspissated juice of scammony. 

Dacrygelo'sis. (From daicpva), 
to weep, and yeXau), to laugh). A 
species of hysterical insanity, in 
which the patient weeps and laughs 
at the same time. 

Dacryo'des. (From dcacpvu, to 
weep) . A sanious ulcer. A weeping 
sore. 

Dacryo'ma. (From dcucpvu, to 
weep) . A closing of one or more of 
the puncta lachrymalia, causing an 
effusion of tears. 

Dactyle'thra. (From SctKluXog, 
a finger) . A species of bougies shaped 
like a finger, to excite vomiting. 

Dactyle'tus. (From SctKlvXog, 
the date). The hermodactylus. 

Da'ctylius. (From daiclvXog, a 
•finger) . A round pastil troche, or 
lozenge, shaped like a finger. 

Da'ctylus. (From SaidvXog, a 
finger ; so called from the likeness 
of its fruit to a finger). The date. 
See Phernix dactylifera. 

D/e'dium. (From Sa'ig, a torch). 
A small torch or candle. A bougie. 

D;emonoma'nia. (From caiynov, a 
demon, and \iavia, madness). That 
species of melancholy, where the pa- 
tient supposes himself to be pos- 
sessed by devils. 



Daisy, common. See Bellis pe- 
rennis. 

Daisy, ox-eye. See Chrysanthe- 
mum leiccanthemztm. 

Damask rose. See Rosa centifolia. 

Damna'tus. (From damnare, to 
condemn). — Chym. The dry useless 
faeces, left in a vessel after the mois- 
ture has been distilled from it, is 
called terra damnata, or caput mor- 
tuum. 

Damson. The fruit of a variety 
of the prunus domestica; which see. 

Dandelion. See Leontodon Tarax- 
acum. 

Dandrif. See Pityriasis. 

Dane-wort. See Sambucus Ebulus. 

Da'phne. (Daphne, §a(j>vi] : from 
cyuw, to burn, and (pwvn, a noise ; 
because of the noise it makes when 
burnt). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Octandria ; Order, Monogynia. The 
laurel, or bay-tree. 

Daphne alpi'na. Chama j lea. Cha- 
mdcea. The herb widow-wail, or 
Daphne alpina, of Linnaeus. A sort 
of dwarf olive-tree ; said to be pur- 
gative in the dose of 5Jj. The me- 
zereon is also so called, because it 
has leaves like the olive-tree. 

Daphne, jiax-leavcd. See Daphne 
G nidi inn. 

Da'phne cm'dium. The systema- 
tic name of the tree which affords 
the garou. Thymela'a. Oneoron. 
Spurge-flax. Flax-leaved Daphne. 
This plant, Daphne gnidium ; pani- 
cula terminal i foliis lineari-lanveolft- 
tis avian i nut is of Linnaeus, affords the 



DAR 



197 



DAU 



gcrou bark 9 which very much re- 
sembles that of our mezereum. 

Da'phne laure'ola. The syste- 
matic name of the spurge laurel. 
Laureola. Spurge laurel. The bark 
of this plant, Daphne laureola of 
Linnaeus, is recommended to excite 
a discharge from the skin, in the 
same way as that of the thymel&a. 

Da'phne meze'reum. The syste- 
matic name of the mezereon. Meze- 
reum. Spurge-olive. Widow-wail. 
The Daphne mezereum floribus scssi- 
libus ternis caulinis, foliis lanceolatis 
deciduis, of Linnaeus. It is extremely 
acrid, especially when fresh, and, 
if retained in the mouth, excites 
great and long-continued heat and 
inflammation, particularly of the 
mouth and fauces ; the berries have 
also the same effects, and, when 
swallowed, prove a powerful corro- 
sive poison, not only to man, but to 
dogs, wolves, and foxes. The bark 
of the root is the part employed me- 
dicinally in the decoctum sarsaparilla 
compositum, intended to assist mer- 
cury in resolving nodes and other 
obstinate symptoms of syphilis. The 
antisyphilitic virtues of mezereum, 
however, have been by many writers 
very justly doubted. 

Daphnelje'on. (From ta<pvi), the 
lam-el, and tXaiov, oil;. The oil of 
bay-berries. 

Damini'tis. (From ca<pvrj, the 
laurel). 
the laurel. 

Dapuno'ides. (From ca<pvtj, the 
laurel, and afoc, a likeness). The 
herb spurge laurel. 

Da'rsin. (From darzin, Arab.) 
The grosser sort of cinnamon. 

Da'rsis. (From cepu), to exco- 
riate). An excoriation. 

Da'rtos. (From dspuj, to exco- 
riate ; so called from its raw and 
excoriated appearance). The part 
thus called, under the skin of the 
scrotum, is by some anatomists con- 
sidered as a muscle, although it ap- 
pears to be nothing more than a 
condensation of the cellular mem- 
brane lining the scrotum. It is bv 
means of the dartoi that the skin of 
the scrotum is corrugated and relaxed. 



c c«pvrj, 
A sort of cassia resembling 



Dasy'mna. (From caave, rough) . 
A scabby roughness of the eye-lids. 
Da'sys. (Aaavg, rough). A dry, 
parched tongue. Difficult respira- 
tion. 

Date plum, Indian. See Diospyrus 
lotus. 

Date. See Dactylus. 
Datu'ra. (Blanchard says it is 
derived from the Indian word datiro, 
of which he knows not the meaning). 
A genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system : Class, Pentandria ; Order, 
Afonogynia, 

Datu'ra stramo'nium. The sys- 
tematic name of the thorn-apple. 
Stramonium. Dutray. Barry o CQC- 
calon. Solanum ma?iiacum of Dios- 
corides, and Stramonium spinosum 
of Gerard. Solanum foetidum of 
Bauhin. Strammonium minus alba a-. 
Common thorn-apple. Datura stra- 
monium; pcricarpiis spinosis erecti-s 
ovatiSy fi/liis ovatis glabris, of Lin- 
naeus. This plant has been long 
known as a powerful narcotic poi- 
son. Instances of the deleterious 
effects of the plant are numerous, 
more particularly of the seed. An 
extract prepared from the seeds is 
recommended by Baron Stoerck in 
maniacal, epileptic, and convulsive 
affections ; and is said by some to 
succeed, while, in the hands of 
others, it has failed. 

Datlrnine. A new principle 
found by Brandes in the Datura 
Stramonium, which possesses its ac- 
tive properties ; our knowledge of 
it is, however, but still very obscure. 
Dalci'tes vi'mm. Wild carrot - 
seeds steeped in must. 

Dal'cus. (A7ro tov cavtiv, from 
its relieving the colic, and discussing 
flatulencies). The carrot. — 1. The 
name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system: Class, Pentandria; 
Order, Digynia. — 2. The pharma- 
copceial name of the garden carrot. 
See Daucus carota, 

Dal'cus alsa'ticus. The oreo- 
selinum pratense of Linnaeus. 

Dau'cus a'nmus mi'nor. The 
caucalis anthriscus of Linnaeus. 

Dau'cus caro'ta. The systematic 
name of the carrot plant, Dozcqus*. 
S3 



DEA. 



198 



DEC 



Daucus sylvcstris. Pastinaca syl- 
vestris tenuifolta oflicinarum. The 
root of the Daucus carota; seminibus 
hispidis, petiolis subtus nervosis, of 
Linnaeus, scraped and applied in the 
form of a poultice, is an useful ap- 
plication to phagedenic ulcers, and 
to cancers and putrid sores. The 
s°eds have a light aromatic smell, 
and a warm acrid taste, and are 
esteemed for their diuretic qualities, 
and for their utility in calculous and 
nephritic complaints, in which an 
infusion of three spoonfuls of the 
seeds in a pint of boiling water, has 
been recommended ; or the seeds 
may be fermented in malt liquor, 
which receives from them an agree- 
able flavour, resembling that of le- 
mon-peel. 

*^* The boiled root is said by 
many to be difficult of digestion ; but 
this is the case only where the sto- 
mach is weak. It contains a con- 
siderable quantity of the saccharine 
principle, and is very nutritious. 

Dau'cus cre'ticus. See Atha- 
manta Cretensis. 

Dau'cus sati'vus. A variety of 
the daucus carota, whose seeds are 
preferred by some practitioners. 

Dau'cus sepri'ntus. Common 
chervil. 

Dau'cus sylve'stris. Wild car- 
rot, or bird's nest. The seeds of 
the wild plant are said to be more 
efficacious than those of the garden 
carrot ; they possess demulcent and 
aromatic qualities, and are given, in 
infusion or decoction, in calculous 
complaints. 

Dead nettle. See Lamium album. 
Deadly nightshade. See Atropa 
Belladonna. 

Deafness. Surditas,i. The loss of 
hearing may be occasioned by any 
thing that proves injurious to the 
ear, as loud noises, from the firing 
of cannon, violent colds, particularly 
affecting the head, inflammation or 
ulceration of the membrane, hard 
wax, or other substances interrupt- 
ing sounds ; too great a dryness, or 
too much moisture in the parts ; or 
by atony, debility, or paralysis of 
the auditory nerves. In some in- 



stances it is a consequence of pre~ 
ceding diseases, such as fever, sy- 
philis, &c. ; and in others it depends 
upon an original defect in the struc- 
ture or formation of the ear. In 
the last instance, the person is 
usually not only deaf but likewise 
dumb. See Paracusis. 

Dearticula'tio. (From de, and 
articulus, a joint). Articulation ad- 
mitting evident motion. 

Deascia'tio. (From de, and as- 
ciare, to chip, as with a hatchet). 
A bone splintered on its side. 

Decamy'ron. (From csm, ten, 
and pvpov, an ointment). An aro- 
matic ointment, mentioned by Ori- 
basius, containing ten ingredients. 

Decide'ntia. (From decider e, to 
fall down). Cataptosis. Any change 
prolonging acute diseases. 

Deci'dua. (Decidua, sc. mem- 
brana; from decidere, to fall down). 
Membrana decidua. A very thin 
and delicate membrane or tunic, ad- 
hering to the gravid uterus, and is 
said to be a reflection of the chorion, 
and, on that account, is called deci- 
dua reflex a. 

Decima'nus. (From decern, ten, 
and mane, the morning) . Returning 
every tenth day : applied to some 
erratic fevers. 

Decli'vis. (From de, and clivis y 
a hill). Declining, descending. A 
name of an abdominal muscle, from 
its posture. 

Deco'ctum. (From decoquere, to 
boil). A decoction. Any medicine 
made by boiling in a watery fluid. — 
Chym. A continued ebullition with 
water, to separate such parts of bo- 
dies as are only soluble at that de- 
gree of heat. 

Deco'ctum a'lbum. See Mistura 
Cornu usti. 

Deco'ctum a'loe.s compo'situm. 
Compound decoction of aloes. This 
decoction, now first introduced into 
the London Pharmacopoeia, is ana- 
logous to an article in very frequent 
use, invented by the late Dr. De- 
valingin, and sold under the name 
of beaume de vie. By the proportion 
of tincture which is added, it will 
keep unchanged for any length of tune. 



DEC 



199 



DEC 



Deco'ctum ALTiuE'm. Decoction 
of marsh mallows. Tins prepara- 
tion, directed in the Edinburgh 
Pharmacopoeia, may be exhibited as 
a common drink in nephralgia, and 
many diseases of the urinary pas- 
sages, with advantage. 

Deco'ctum anthe'midis. See 
Decoctum chomcemeli. 

Deco'ctum astra'gali. This re- 
medy was tried very extensively in 
Germany, and said to evince very 
powerful effects, as an antisyphilitic. 

Deco'ctum barda'n\e. Take of 
bardana root, *yj ; of distilled wa- 
ter, fbvj. These arc to be boiled 
till only two quarts remain. From 
a pint to a quart in a day is given in 
those cases where safsaparilla and 
other remedies that are called alte- 
rative are supposed to be requisite. 

Deco'ctum chamaeme'li. Cha- 
momile decoction. Take of chamo- 
mile flowers, 3j ; caraway seeds, 3SS ; 
water, tbv. Boil fifteen minutes, 
and strain. A very common and 
excellent vehicle for tonic powders, 
pills, &c. It is also in very frequent 
use for fomentation, and clysters. 

Deco'ctum cincho'n;e. Decoc- 
tion of cinchona, commonly called 
decoction of Peruvian bark. It is a 
very proper fomentation for prolap- 
sus of the uterus and rectum. 

Deco'ctum co'rnu. See Mistura 
Cornu usti. 

Deco'ctum cydo'nije. Mucilago 
seminis cydonii mail. Mucilago se- 
mi/tum cydoniorum. Decoction of 
quince-seeds. This decoction, in the 
new London Pharmacopoeia, has 
been removed from among the mu- 
cilages, as being less dense than 
either of the others, and as being 
employed in larger doses, like other 
mucilaginous decoctions. Its virtues 
are demulcent. Joined with syrup 
of mulberry, and a little borax, it 
is useful against aphthae of the mouth 
and fauces. 

Deco'ctum da'phnes mezf/rei. 
Decoction of mezereon. Take of 
the bark of mezereon root, ~jj ; 
liquorice root, bruised, *ss ; water, 
ftjjj. Boil it, with a gentle heat, 
down to two pounds, and strain it. 



* # * From four to eight ounces 1 
this decoction may be given four 
times a day, in some obstinate ve- 
nereal and rheumatic affections. It 
operates chiefly by perspiration. 

Deco'ctum dui.c am \u \ . 
coction of woody nightshade. Th- 
dose is half an ounce to two ount 
mixed with an equal quantity of milk. 

* # * This remedy is employed in 
inveterate cases of scrofula ; in < ; 
cer and phagedsena ; in lepra, and 
other cutaneous affections ; and in 
anomalous local diseases, originating 
in venereal lues. 

Deco'ctum Geoffr/e'x ine'rmi-. 
Decoction of cabbage-tree plant. 
Take of bark of the cabbage-tree,, 
powdered, 3J ; water, ftjj. Boil it, 
with a gentle fire, down to one 
pound, and strain. — This is a pow- 
erful anthelmintic. It may be given 
in doses of one table-spoonful to 
children, and four to adults. If 
disagreeable symptoms should arise 
from an over-dose, or from drinking 
cold water during its action, we 
must immediately purge with castor 
oil, and dilute with acidulated drinks. 

Deco'ctum guai'aci offices/.! as 
compo'situm. Decoctum lignorum. 
Compound decoction of guaiacum, 
commonly called decoction of the 
woods. — This decoction possesses 
stimulant and diaphoretic qualities, 
and is generally exhibited in rheu- 
matic and cutaneous diseases, which 
are dependent on a vitiated state of 
the humours. It may be taken by 
itself, to the quantity of a quarter 
of a pint, twice or thrice a day, or 
used as an assistant in a course of 
mercurial or antimonial alteratives ; 
the patient, in either case, keeping 
warm, in order to promote the ope- 
ration of the medicine. 

Deco'ctum helle'bori a'lim. 
See Decoctum vcratri. 

Deco'ctum ho'rdei. Decoctum 
hordei distichi. Aqua hordeata. — 
Barley water is a nutritive and soft- 
ening drink, and the most proper 
of all liquors in inflammatory dis- 
eases. It is an excellent gargle in 
inflammatory sore throats, mixed 
with a little nitre. 



DEC 



200 



DEC 



Deco'ctum ho'rdei compo'situm. 
Decoctum pectorale. Compound de- 
coction of barley. — From the pecto- 
ral and demulcent qualities of this 
decoction, it may be administered 
as a common drink in fevers and 
other acute disorders, in catarrh, 
and several affections of the chest. 

Deco'ctum ho'rdei cum gu'mmi. 
Barley water, Ifejj ; gum arab. ^j. 
The gum is to be dissolved in the 
barley decoction whilst warm. It 
then forms a suitable diluent in 
strangury, dysury, &c. ; for the 
gum, finding a passage into the 
bladder in an unaltered state, mixes 
with the urine, and prevents the 
action of its neutral salts on the 
urinary canal. 

Deco'ctum liche'nis. Decoction 
of liverwort. Take of liverwort, £j ; 
water, a pint and a half. Boil down 
to a pint, and strain. The dose is 
from 5J to ^iv. 

Deco'ctum lobe'ixe. Take a 
handful of the roots of the lobelia 
syphilitica; distilled water, ibxjj. 
These are to be boiled in the usual 
way, till only four quarts remain. 
The very desirable property of cur- 
ing the venereal disease has been 
attributed to this medicine ; but it 
is not more to be depended on than 
guaiacum, or other vegetable sub- 
stances, of which the same thing has 
been alleged. 

Deco'ctum Lu>ita'nicum. Lis- 
bon diet drink. 

"Take of sliced sarsaparilla, lig- 
num santalum rubrum, lignum san- 
talum citrinum, of each 5J SS ? of the 
root of glycyrrhiza and mezereon, of 
each 5Jj ; of lignum rhodii, officinal 
lignum guaiacum, and lignum sas- 
safras, of each *ss i °f antimony, 
5j - y distilled water, fbv." These in- 
gredients are to be macerated for 
twenty-four hours, and afterwards 
boiled, till the fluid is reduced to 
half its original quantity. From one 
to four pints are given daily. 

The late Mr. Hunter notices the 
above, and also the following for- 
mula, in his Treatise on the Venereal 
Disease. 

Take of sliced sarsaparilla, of 



11 



the root of China, of each §j ; wal- 
nut peels, dried, xx; antimony, *jj ; 
pumice-stone, powdered, 3J ; distil- 
led water, ibx. The powdered an- 
timony and pumice stone are to be 
tied in separate pieces of rag, and 
boiled along with the other ingre- 
dients." This last decoction is reck- 
oned to be the genuine Lisbon diet 
drink, whose qualities have been 
the subject of so much encomium. 

Deco'ctum maYvje compo'situm. 
Decoctum pro enemate. Decoctum 
commune pro clyster e. Compound 
decoction of mallows. Take of mal- 
lows, dried, an ounce ; chamomile 
flowers, dried, half an ounce ; water, 
a pint. Boil for a quarter of an hour, 
and strain. A very excellent form 
for an emollient clyster, to which a 
variety of medicines may be added 
to answer particular indications. 

Deco'ctum meze'rei. See De- 
coctum daphnes mezerei. 

Deco'ctum papa'veris. Decoc- 
tum pro fomento. Fotus communis. 
Decoction of poppy. Take of white 
poppy capsules, bruised, Jiv; water, 
four pints. Boil for a quarter of an 
hour, and strain. This preparation 
possesses sedative and antiseptic pro- 
perties, and may be directed with 
advantage in sphacelus, &c. 

Deco'ctum pro ene'mate. See 
Decoctum malvce compositum, 

Deco'ctum pro fome'nto. See 
Decoctum papaveris. 

Deco'ctum que'rcus. Decoction 
of oak bark. Take of oak bark, ~j ; 
water, two pints. Boil down to a 
pint, and strain. This astringent 
decoction has lately been added to 
the Lond. Fharin. and is chiefly 
used for external purposes. It is a 
good remedy in prolapsus ani, and 
may be used also in some cases as 
an injection. 

Deco'ctum sarsapari'll*:. De- 
coction of sarsaparilla. Take of 
sarsaparilla root, sliced, 31V ; boil- 
ing water, four pints. Macerate for 
four hours, in a vessel lightly co- 
vered, near the fire ; then take out 
the sarsaparilla, and bruise it. After 
it is bruised, put it again into the 
liquor, and macerate it in a similar 



DEC 



201 



DEL 



manner for two hours more ; then 
boii it down to two pints, and 
strain. — This is much praised by 
some practitioners, in phthisis ; and 
to restore the strength after a long 
course of m e r cury . 

Deco'ctum sarsapari'lle com- 
po'situm. Compound decoction of 
sarsaparilla. Take of decoction of 
sarsaparilla, boiling, four pints ; 
sassafras root sliced, guaiacum 
wood shavings, liquorice root bruis- 
ed, of each an ounce ; mezereon root 
bark, ^iij. Boil for a quarter of an 
hour, and strain. 

%* The alterative property of 
the compound decoction is very 
great ; it is generally given after a 
course of mercurv, where there have 
been nodes and indolent ulcerations, 
and with great benefit. The dose is 
from half a pint to a pint in twenty- 
four hours. 

Deco'ctum se'negje. Decoction 
of senega. This is esteemed as an 
useful medicine, especially in affec- 
tions of the lungs, attended with 
debility and inordinate secretion. 

Deco'ctum u'lmi. Decoction of 
elm bark. This may be employed 
with great advantage as a collyrium 
in chronic ophthalmia. It is given 
internally in some cutaneous erup- 
tions. 

Deco'ctum vf.ua'tr». Decoction 
of white hellebore. — This is a very 
efficacious application, externally, as 
awash, in tinea capitis, lepra, psora, 
Set, When the skin is very tender 
and irritable, it should be' diluted 
with an equal quantity of water. 

Decolla'tio. (From decollate, to 
behead) . The loss of a part of the 
skull. 

Decomposition. A separation of 
parts. See .//iah/sis. 

Decortication. (From de, from, 
and cortex, bark). The stripping of 
any thing of its bark, husk, &c. : 
thus almonds, and the like, are de- 
corticated, that is, deprived of their 
pellicle. 

Decrepitation. fFrom de, and 
crepitarc, to crackle). A kind of 
crackling noise, which takes place in 
bodies when heated. 



Decussation. (From decussare, 
to divide after the form of the letter 
X, to bisect). When nerves, or 
muscular fibres, cross one another, 
they are said to decussate each 
other. 

Decusso'rium. (From decussare, 
to divide) . An instrument to depress 
the dura mater, after trephining. 

Defensi'va. (From defendere, to 
preserve). Cordial medicines, or 
such as resist infection. 

De'feren>. (From deferre, to 
convey ; because it conveys the se- 
men to the vesiculae seminales). See 
Vas deferens. 

Deflagration. (From deftagretre, 
to burn). Calcination. — Chyui. The 
burning or setting fire to any sub- 
stance ; as nitre, sulphur, &c. 

Defluxion. (From defiucre, to 
runoff. Dcfluxio. A falling down 
of humours from a superior to an 
inferior part. Many writers mean 
nothing more by it than inflam- 
mation. 

Deglutition. (From deglutire, to 
swallow down). A natural action, 
by which the masticated bole or a 
fluid is conveyed from the mouth 
into the fauces, and from thence 
through the oesophagus into the 
stomach. 

Df/gmus. (From factw, to bite). 
A biting pain in the orifice of the 
stomach. 

Deje'ctio alvi'na. 
excrement by stool. 

Dejecto'ria. (From dejicere, to 
cast out) . Purging medieines. 

Deino'sis. (From ceivoio, to ex- 
aggerate). Enlargement of the su- 
percilia. 

Delachrymati'va. (From de, and 
lacltryma, a tear) . Medicines which 
dry the eyes, first purging them of 
tears. 

Dela'psio. (From delabi, to slip 
down^ . A falling down of the anus, 
uterus, or intestines. 

Deleterious. (Dehterius\ from 
o//\£w, to hurt or injure). Those 
substances are so called which are of 
a poisonous nature. 

Deliquescence. (From deliqurs- 
cere } to melt) . Deliquation 3 or the 



Discharge of 



DEL 



202 



DEN 



gradual melting down of crystallized 
salts, from exposure to the air. 

Deli'ouium a'nimi. (Deliquium; 
from delinquere, to leave) . See Sy?i- 
€ope* 

Deli'rium. (From delirare, to 
rave). A febrile symptom, in which 
the persons act or talk unreasonably. 
It is to be carefully distinguished 
from an alienation of the mind, with- 
out fever. 

Deloca'tio. (From de, from, and 
locus, a place). A dislocation, or 
putting any part out of its proper 
place. 

Delphinium. (From Se\<j>tvoe., 
the dolphin). Larkspur; so called 
from the likeness of its flower to the 
dolphin's head. A genus of plants 
in the Linnaean system : Class, Poly- 
andria; Order, Trigynia. 

Delphnine. A new principle dis- 
covered by M. M. Feneulle and 
Lassaigne, in Delphinum Staphisa- 
gria or Stavesacre. It is white, in- 
odorous, very bitter, and acrid. Ac- 
cording to Orfila, six grains proved 
fatal to a dog ; little more is at pre- 
sent known of it. 

Delphi'nium conso'lida. The 
systematic name of the consolida re- 
galis. Calcatrippa. Delphinium con- 
solida; nectariis monophyllis, caule 
subdiviso, of Linnaeus. The flowers 
are bitter, and a water distilled from 
them is recommended in ophthalmia. 
The herb has been administered in 
calculous cases, obstructed menses, 
and visceral diseases. 

Delphi'nium staphisa'gria. The 
systematic name of stavesacre. Sta- 
phisagria. St aphis. Pedicular ia» Sta- 
vesacre. Delphinum staphisagria ; 
nectariis tetraphyllis petalo brcvioribus , 
foliis palmatis, lobis obtusis, of Lin- 
naeus. The seeds arc the only parts 
directed for medicinal use. It was 
formerly employed as a masticatory, 
but is now confined to external use, 
in some kinds of cutaneous eruptions, 
but more especially for destroying 
lice and other insects ; hence, by the 
vulgar, called louse-wort. 

Dk'lphys. AtXtyvc. The uterus, 
£>r pudendum muliebre. 

Delia. (The Greek letter, A), 



The external pudendum muliebre is 
so called, from the triangular shape 
of its hair. 

Deltoi'des. (From SeXra, the 
Greek letter A, and eicoe., a likeness ; 
shaped like the Greek delta) . Sous- 
acromio- clavi- humeral oi Dumas. A 
muscle of the superior extremity, 
situated on the shoulder. 

Deme'ntia. (From de, and mens, 
without mind) . Madness. Delirium. 
Absence of intellect. 

Demulcents. Demulcejitia. (From 
demulcere, to soften). Medicines 
suited to obviate and prevent the 
action of acrid and stimulant mat- 
ters ; and that not by correcting or 
changing their acrimony, but by in- 
volving it in a mild and viscid matter 
less stimulating than the fluids usually 
applied, which prevents it from act- 
ing upon the sensible parts of our 
bodies, or by covering the surface 
exposed to their action. 

*#* Catarrh, diarrhoea, dysentery 
calculus, and gonorrhoea, are the 
diseases in which demulcents are 
employed ; and they may be reduced 
to the two divisions of mucilages and 
expressed oils. The principal are, 
the acacia vera, astragalus, traga- 
cantha, linum usitatissimum, althaea 
officinalis, malva sylvestris, glycir- 
rhiza glabra, cycas circinalis, orchis 
mascula, maranta arundinacea, triti- 
cum hybernum, ichthyocolla, olea 
Europaea, amygdalus communis, ce- 
taceum, and cera. 

Dendroli'banus. (From vei>?pov, 
a tree, and oXitavog, frankincense). 
The herb rosemary, or frankincense - 
tree. 

Dens. (Dens, -tis,m. Quasi edens 
from edere, to eat, or from gSovq, 
odovlog). A tooth. See Teeth. 

Dens leonis. See Leontodon Ta- 
raxacum. 

Denta'gra. (Dent a gra y odovra- 
ypa : from odovg, a tooth, and aypa, 
a seizure) . The tooth-ache ; also 
an instrument for drawing teeth. 

Denta'ria. (Dentaria, from dens, 
a tooth : so called, because its root 
is denticulated). See Plumbago E>u- 
ropa*a . 

Dentarpa'ga. (From ccovq, a 



DEO 



203 



DEP 



See Teeth. 
See Canine 



tooth, and ap7ra£w, to fasten upon). 
An instrument to draw teeth. 

Denta'ta. See Dentatus. 

Denta'tls (From dens, a tooth ; 
from its tooth-like process) . Dentata. 
Epistropheus. The second vertebra 
of the neck. It differs from the 
other cervical vertebrae, by having a 
tooth-like process at the upper part 
of the body. See Vertebra?. 

Dentella'ria. (From dentella, a 
little tooth ; so called, because its 
root is denticulated). The herb 
tooth- worth. See Plumbago Eu- 
ropca. 

De'ntes inciso'res. 

De'ntes cani'm. 
teeth. 

De'ntes la'ctei. The milk-teeth. 
See Teeth, and Dentition. 

De'ntes mola'res. See Teeth. 

Dentidu'cum. (From dens, a 
tooth, and ducere, to draw). An in- 
strument for drawing of teeth. 

Dentifrice. (From den&, a tooth, 
and/Wear^, to rub). A composition 
to clean the teeth. 

Dentisca'lphm. (From dens, a 
tooth, and scalpere, to scrape). An 
instrument for scaling teeth. 

Dentition. (From dent ire, to 
breed teeth). Breediug or cutting 
of the teeth. 

%* Dentition first begins about 
the sixth or seventh month, and 
these are termed the primary or milk 
teeth. About the seventh year these 
fall out, and are succeeded by others, 
which remain during life, and are 
called the secondary or perennial 
teeth. The last dentition takes place 
between the ages of twenty and 
twenty -five, when the four last 
grinders appear : they are called 
denies sapitnticp. See also Teeth. 

Dentodu'cum. See Dentiducum. 

Denuda'tio. (From denudare, to 
make bare). A laying bare the 
bone. 

Deobstruents. (Deobstruentia, 
from de, and obstruere, to obstruct). 
Medicines that are exhibited with a 
view of removing any obstruction. 

Deoppila'ntia. (From de, and 
oppilare, to stop). Deoppilativa. 
Medicines which remove obstruc- 



tions ; deobstruent or aperitive medi- 
cines. 

Departttio. (From de, and par- 
tere, to divide). Separating metals. 

Deperdi'tio. (From deperdere, to 
lose) . Abortion, or the undue loss 
of the foetus. 

Depeti'go. (From de, and petigo, 
a running scab) . A ring-worm, or 
tetter. A scurf, or itch, where the 
skin is rough. 

Dephlegma'tion. (From de, and 
phlegma, phlegm). The operation 
of rectifying or freeing spirits from 
their watery parts. 

Depilatory. Depilatvria. (From 
de, of, and pilus, the hair). Any ap- 
plication which removes the hairs 
from any part of the body, &c. 

Deplu'mation. (From de, and 
pluma, a feather) . Deplumation. A 
disease of the eyelids, which causes 
the hair to fall off. 

Deprehe'nsion. (From deprehen- 
dere, to catch unawares). Depre- 
hension. Epilepsy, from the sud- 
denness with which persons are seized 
with it. 

Depre'ssio. (From deprimere, to 
press down). Depression. When 
the bones of the skull are forced in- 
wards by fracture, they are said to 
be depressed. 

Depre'ssor. (From deprimere, to 
press down). Several muscles are 
so termed, because they depress the 
part on which they act. 

Depre'ssor a'l.e na'si. See De- 
pressor lahii superioris altrque nasi. 

Depre'ssor a'ngili o'ris. Tri- 
angularis of Winslow. Depressor 
labiorum communis of Douglas. De- 
pressor labiorum of Cowper. Sous- 
maxillo-labial of Dumas. A muscle 
of the mouth and lip, situated below 
the under lip. It pulls the angle of 
the mouth downwards. 

Depre'ssor la'bii inferio'ris. 
Quadrat us of Winslow. Depressor 
labii inferioris proprius of Douglas 
and Cowper. Mentonier labial of 
Dumas. A muscle of the mouth and 
lip, that pulls the under lip and skin 
of the side of the chin downwards, 
and a little outwards. 

Depre'ssor la'bii superio'ris 



DES 



204 



DET 



AL^'que na'si. Depressor alee 7iasi 
of Albinus. Incisivus medius of 
Winslow. Depressor labii superiaris 
proprius of Douglas. Constrictores 
alarum nasi, ac depressores labii supe- 
rior is of Cowper. Maxillo-alveoli ?ia- 
sal of Dumas. A muscle of the 
mouth, and lip, situated above the 
mouth, that draws the upper lip and 
all nasi downwards and backwards. 

Depre'ssor la'bii superio'ris 
PRo'prius. See Depressor labii supe- 
rioris alceque nasi. 

Depressor labio'rum commu- 
nis. See Depressor anguli oris. 

Depre'ssor o'culi. See Rectus 
inferior oculi. 

De'primens. See Rectus inferior 
oculi. 

Depura'ntia. (From depurare, to 
make clean). Depurants. Medicines 
which evacuate impurities. 

Depuration. The freeing a liquor 
or solid body from its foulness. 

Depurato'rius. (From de> and 
purusy pure). It is applied to fevers, 
which terminate in perspiration. 

De'ris. (Acppic, : from Sepu), to 
excoriate). The skin. 

Derivation. (From derivare, to 
drain off) . The drawing away any 
disease from its original seat to ano- 
ther part. 

*£.* The doctrines of derivation 
and revulsion, talked of by the an- 
cients, are now, in their sense of the 
terms, wholly exploded. 

De'rma. (Aeppa) . The skin. 
Dermatomes . (From ctppa, skin, 
and e idog , a likeness) . Resembling 
skin, or leather, in its consistence. 
It is applied to the dura mater. 

Dermatolo'gia. (From deppa, 
the skin, and Xoyoc, a discourse). 
Dermatology. A discourse or trea- 
tise on the skin. 

De'rtron. (From ceppig, skin). 
The omentum, or peritonaeum, is 
so named, from its skin-like con- 
sistence. 

Descenso'rium. (From descendcre, 
to move downwards). — Chym. A 
vessel in which the distillation by 
descent is performed. 

DESCENSUS. (From descendrre \ to 
move downwards) . — Chym. Distilla? 



tion per descensum, by descent, when 
the fire is applied at the top and 
round the vessel, whose orifice is at 
the bottom. 

Desiccati'va. (From desiccare, to 
dry up). Desicatives. Such medi- 
cines as, being applied outwardly, 
dry up the humours and moisture 
running from a wound. 

Desipie'ntia. (From desipere, to 
dote) . A defect of reason. Sympto- 
matic phrenzy. 

De'sme. (From deco, to bind up). 
A bandage, or ligature. 

Desmi'dion. (From decrptj, a 
handful) . A small bundle, or little 
bandage. 

De'smos. (From deio, to bind up). 
A bandage, an inflammatory stric- 
ture of a joint, after luxation. 

Despumation. (From despumare, 
to clarify). Clarifying a fluid, or 
separating its foul parts from it. 

Desquamate. (From desquamare, 
to fall off in scales) . The separating 
of laminae, or scales, from a bone. 
Exfoliation. Applied also to the 
falling pustules of measles, small- 
pox, &c. 

Desquamato'rium. (From des- 
quamare, to scale off) . A trephine, 
or instrument to take a piece out of 
the skull. 

Destiula'tion. See Distillation. 

Desuda'tio. (From desudare, to 
sweat much). An unnatural and 
morbid sweating. 

Dete'ntio. (From detinere, to 
stop, or hinder) . Epilepsy ; from 
the suddenness with which the pa- 
tient is seized. 

Detergents. (From deter gerc, 
to wipe away). Medicines which 
cleanse and remove viscid humours. 
Also applications that cleanse ulcers. 

Detona'tion. (From deto?wre, to 
make a noise) . Explosion. 

Detra'ctor. (From detrahere, to 
draw). Applied to a muscle, whose 
office is to draw the part to which it 
is attached. 

De'trahens quadra'tus. SeePla- 
tys?na myoidvs. 

Detritus, -«, -u?n, pt. Worn, 
worn out or away. 

Detrusor uri'ne. (From detru- 



DIA 



205 



DIA 



dere, to. thrust out). A muscle, 
whose office is to expel the urine. 
The muscular coat of the urinary 
bladder was formerly so called. 

Deu'teri. (From cevlepog, second; 
because it is discharged next after 
the foetus). The secundines, pla- 
centa, or after-birth. 

Deuteropa'phia. (From cevlepog, 
second, and <&a9og, a suffering]. 
An affection or suffering by consent. 
One part suffers from consent, with 
another part originally affected ; as 
where the stomach is disturbed 
through a wound in the head. 

Devil's dang. See Ferula assafos- 
tida. 

Diabe'bus. (From ha€t€aiotj, 
to strengthen ; so called, as affording 
the chief support to the foot) . The 
ankle-bone. 

Diabe'tes. (From cia, through, 
and fiaivu), to pass). An immode- 
rate flow of urine. A genus of dis- 
ease in the Class Neuroses, and Or- 
der Spasmi, of Cullen. There are 
two species of this complaint : 1. Dia- 
betes insipidus, in which there is an 
excessive discharge of limpid urine, 
of its usual urinary taste. 2. Diabe- 
tes mellitus, in which the urine is 
very sweet, and contains a consider- 
able quantity of sugar. The cha- 
racteristics of this disease are : great 
thirst, with a voracious appetite, 
gradual emaciation of the whole 
body, and a frequent discharge of 
urine, containing a large proportion 
of saccharine and other matter, 
which is voided in a quantity even 
exceeding that of the aliment or fluid 
introduced. Those of a shattered 
constitution, and those who are in 
the decline of life, are most subject 
to its attacks. It not unfrequently 
attends on hysteria, hypochondria- 
sis, dyspepsia, and asthma ; but it is 
always much milder when sympto- 
matic, than when it appears as a 
primary affection. 

Diabetes may be occasioned by 
the use of strong diuretic medicines, 
intemperance of life, and hard drink- 
ing ; excess in venery, severe eva- 
cuations, or by any thing that tends 
to produce an impoverished state of 



the blood, or general debility. It 
has, however, taken place, in many 
instances, without any obvious 
cause. 

* # * The causes which imme- 
diately give rise to the urease, have 
ever been considered as obscure, 
and various theories have been ad- 
vanced on the occasion. It has been 
usual to consider diabetes as the ef- 
fect of relaxation of the kidneys, or 
as depending on a general colliqua- 
tion of the fluids. Dr. Richter of 
Goettingen, supposes the disease to 
be generally of a spasmodic nature, 
occasioned by a stimulus acting on 
the kidneys; hence a seeretio aucta 
urinae, and sometimes perversa, is 
the consequence. Dr. Darwin thinks 
that it is owing to an inverted action 
of the urinary branch of the lym- 
phatics ; a doctrine which, although 
it did not escape the censure of the 
'best anatomists and experienced 
physiologists, met, nevertheless, with 
a very favourable reception, on its 
being first announced. Dr. Cullen 
offered it as his opinion, that the 
proximate cause of diabetes might 
be some fault of the assimilatory 
powers, or in those employed in 
converting alimentary matters into 
the proper animal fluids, which the- 
ory has since been adopted by Dr. 
Dobson, and still later by Dr. Itollo, 
surgeon-general to the royal artil- 
lery. The liver has been thought, 
by some, to be the chief source of 
the disease ; hut diabetes is hardly 
ever attended with any affection of 
this organ, as has been proved by 
frequent dissections ; and when ob- 
served, it is to be considered as ac- 
cidental. The primary seat of the 
disease is, however, far from being 
absolutely determined in favour of 
any hypothesis hitherto advanced ; 
the weight of evidence, however, 
appears to induce the majority of 
practitioners to consider it as de- 
pending on a primary affection of 
the kidneys. — In addition to the 
above authors, see Cases of Diabetes, 
by Dr. Watt, of Glasgow ; — Med, 
Chirurg. Review, No 67; — Edinb. 
Med. and Surg. Jour., No. 29 ; and 



DIA. 



206 



DIA. 



Ferriar's Med. Hist, and Reflexions. 
new edit. 

Diabe'tes hystericus. Large 
discharge of urine in hysterical wo- 
men. 

Dia'bolus metallo'rum. Tin. 

Diabo'tanum. (From ha, and 
fioravrj, a herb). A plaster made of 
herbs. 

Biaca'dmias. (From ha, and 
fca^/ita, cadmia). The name of a 
plaster whose basis is cadmia. 

Diacalami / nthes. (From dia, 
and KaXafxivOrj, calamint). An an- 
tidote ; the chief ingredient of which 
is calamint. 

Diaca'rcinum. (From ha, and 
KctpKivog, a crab) . An antidote pre- 
pared from the flesh of crabs and 
cray-fish. 

Diaca'ryon. (From Sia, and 
icapvov, a nut). Rob of nuts, or 
walnuts.' 

Diaca'ssia. (From ha, and icacr- 
cia, cassia). Confection of cassia. 

Diacasto'rium. (From dia, and 
Kctgiop, castor). An antidote having 
castor for its basis. 

Diacatho'licon. (From ha, and 
tcaBoXiicog, universal). A purge, so 
called from its general usefulness. 

Diacentau'rhjm. (From ha, and 
KEvlavpiov, centaury). The name of 
the Duke of Portland's powder, be- 
cause its chief ingredient is centaury. 

Diacentro'tum. (From ha, and 
Kirtpou), to prick). A stimulating 
collyrium. 

Diachalci'tis. (From ha, and 
XaXicilig, chalcitis). A plaster whose 
chief ingredient is chalcitis. 

Diacha'lsis. (From haxciXco, to 
be relaxed). Relaxation. The open- 
ing of the sutures of the head. 

Diacheiri'smus. (From dia, and 
Xtipi the hand). Any manual ope- 
ration. 

Diachelido'nium) . From ha, and 
XeXiccoviov, celandine). A plaster 
whose chief ingredient was the herb 
celandine. 

Diaciiore'ma. (From haxotptb), 
to separate from). Diachorcsis. Any 
excretion, or excrement, but chiefly 
that by stool. 

Dlachore'sis. See Diachorema. 



Diachri'sta. (From ha, and 
Xpioj, to anoint). Medicines to 
anoint sore or bruised parts. 

Diachry'sum. (From ha, and 
Xpvaog, gold). A plaster for frac- 
tured limbs ; so named from its 
yellow colour. 

Dia'chylum. (From ha, and 
XvXog, juice). The plaster of this 
name was formerly made of certain 
juices, but it now means an emol- 
lient digestive plaster. 

Dia'chysis. (From dia, and xvo), 
to pour out) . Fusion or melting. 

Diachy'tica. (From haxvu, to 
dissolve) . Medicines which discuss 
and dissolve tumours. 

Diacine'ma. (From Sia, zndiciveto, 
to move). A slight dislocation. 

Diaci'ssum. (From dia, and kig- 
aog, ivy). An application composed 
of ivy-leaves. 

Dia'clasis. (From ha, and /eXaw^ 
to break) . A small fracture. 

Diacly'sma. (From diaKXvfy, 
to wash out) . A gargle, or wash 
for the mouth. 

Diacoccyme'lon. (From dia, and 
KOKKVfifjXov, a plum). An electuary 
made of prunes. 

Diaco'dium. (From ha, and 
Kiodia, a poppy-head). A composi- 
tion made from the poppy-heads. 

Diacolocy'nthis. (From Sia, 
and KoXoKvvOig, the colocynth). A 
preparation whose chief ingredient 
is colocynth. 

Diaco'mma. (From haKonloj, to 
cut through). Diacope. A deep cut 
or wound. 

Dia'cope. See Diacomma. 

Diacopr&'gia. (From dia, ko irpog, 
dung, and ai£, a goat). A prepa- 
ration with goat's dung. 

Diacora'llum. (From ha, and 
KopaXXiov, coral). A preparation in 
which coral is a chief ingredient. 

Dia'crisis. (From diaicpivio, to 
distinguish). The distinguishing dis- 
eases one from another by their 
symptoms. See Diagnosis. 

Diacro'cium. (From ha, and 
KpoKog, saffron). A collyrium in 
which is saffron. 

Diacurcu'ma. (From ha, and 
Kvpicovfia, turmeric). An antidote 



DIA 



207 



DIA 



in which turmeric, or saffron, enter 
as an ingredient. 

Diacydo'nium. (From ha, and 
Kvdwvia, a quince). Marmalade of 
quinces. 

Diadapiini'dion. (From ha, and 
Satyvig, the laurel-tree) . A draw- 
ing-plaster in which were bay-berries. 
Diade'ma. (From hahu), to sur- 
round). A diadem. A bandage, so 
called, to put round the head. 

Diadex'is. (From diadexofJiai, to 
transfer) . Diadochc. The transpo- 
sition of humours from one place to 
another. 

Dia'doche. See Diadexis. 
Dia'dosis. (From Siahdufii, to 
distribute) . Remission of a disorder. 
Diuresis. (From haipei*), to 
divide or separate). A solution of 
continuity of the soft parts of the 
human body. 

Di^ere'tica. (From haiptw, to 
divide). Corrosive medicines. 

Di^e'ta. (From Siailaio, to nou- 
rish). Diet; food. It means also the 
whole of the non-naturals. Sec Diet. 
Diaglau'cium. (From ha, and 
yXaviciov,, the blue juice of a herb). 
An eye-water made of the purging 
thistle. 

Diagno'sis. (From hayivcocncoj, 
to discern or distinguish). The sci- 
ence indicating the signs by which 
one disease may be distinguished 
from another; hence those symp- 
toms which distinguish such affec- 
tions, are termed diagnostic signs. 

Diagry'dium. Corrupted fromda- 
crydium or scammony. 

Diaiiermoda'ctylum. (From ha, 
and apiioSaiclvXog, the hermodactyl). 
A purging medicine, whose basis is 
the hcrmodactyllus, or colchicum 
autumnale of the ancients, the basis 
of the Eau Medieinale de Husson, 
and Dr. Wilson's tincture for gout. 

Diai'reon. (From ha, and ipig, 
the lily). An antidote, in which is 
the root of the lily. 

Diai'um. (From diet, and iov, a 
violet) . A pastil, whose chief ingre- 
dient is violets. 

Diala'cca. (From ha, and \a/oca). 
An antidote, in which is the lacca. 
Dialago'lm, (From dia, and \a- 



ywg, a bare) . A medicine, in which is 
the dung of a hare. 

Diale'mma. (From haXafitavu), 
to interrupt). The remission of a 
disease. 

Dialep'sis. (From haXaptapto, 
to interrupt). An intermission. Also 
a space left between a bandage. 

Diali'banum. (From Sia, and Xt- 
tavov, frankincense). A medicine 
in which frankincense is a principal 
ingredient. 

Dia'loes. (From ha, and aXorj, 
the aloe) . A medicine chiefly com- 
posed of aloes. 

DialtH-e'a. (From ha, and «'A- 
Qata, the mallow). An ointment 
composed chiefly of mallows. 

Dia'lysis. (From haXvio, to dis- 
solve) . A solution of continuity, or 
a destruction of parts. 

Dia'lyses. An order in the Class 
Locales of Cullen's Nosology. 

Di aly'tica. (From haXvio, to dis- 
solve. Medicines which heal wounds 
and fractures. 

Diamargari'tov. (From ha, and 
fianyapiltiQ, pearl). An antidote in 
which pearls are the chief ingredient. 

Diamassk'ma. From ha, and fiaa- 
GOj-iai, to chew). A masticatory, or 
substance put into the mouth and 
chewed, to excite a discharge of the 
saliva. 

Dia'mbka. (From ha, and ap€pa, 
amber). An aromatic composition 
in which was ambergrise. 

Diame'lon. (From ha, and (.irj- 
Xov, a quince). A composition in 
which are quinces. 

Diami'syos. (From ha, and fiiav, 
misy) . A composition in which misy 
is an ingredient. 

Diamond. The diamond, which 
was well known to the ancients, is 
principally found in the western pe- 
ninsula of India, on the coast of Co- 
romandel, in the kingdoms of Gol- 
conda and Visapour, in the island of 
Borneo, and in the Brazils. 

They are generally found bedded 
in yellow ochre, or in rocks of free- 
stone, or quartz, and sometimes in 
the beds of running waters. When 
taken out of the earth, they are in- 
crusted with an exterior earthy co - 
T2 



D1A 



208 



DIA 



vering, under which is another, con- 
sisting of carbonate of lime. 

In the Brazils, it is supposed that 
diamonds might be obtained in greater 
quantities than at present, if the suf- 
ficient working in the diamond-mines 
was not prohibited, in order to pre- 
vent that diminution of their com- 
mercial value, which a greater abun- 
dance of them might occasion. Bra- 
zilian diamonds are, in commercial 
estimation, inferior to the oriental 
ones. 

In the rough, diamonds are worth 
two pounds sterling the carat, or 
four grains, provided they are with- 
out blemish. The expence of cut- 
ting and polishing amounts to about 
four pounds more. The value, how- 
ever, is far above what is now stated 
when they become considerable in size. 
The usual method of calculating the 
value of diamonds is by squaring 
the number of carats, and then mul- 
tiplying the amount by the price of 
a single carat : thus, supposing one 
carat to be 21. a diamond of eight 
carats is worth 128/. being 8*8x2. 

The famous Pigot diamond weighs 
188 l-8th grains. 

Physical Properties of Diamond. — 
Diamond is always crystallized, but 
sometimes so imperfectly, that at 
first sight it might appear amor- 
phous. The figure of diamond, when 
perfect, is an eight-sided prism. 
There are also cubical, flat, and 
round diamonds. It is the oriental 
diamond which crystallizes into octo- 
hedra, and exhibits all the varieties 
of this primitive figure. The dia- 
mond of Brazil crystallizes into do- 
decahedra. 

The texture of the diamond is 
lamellated ; for it may be split or 
cleft with an instrument of well- 
tempered steel, by a swift blow in a 
particular direction. There are, how- 
ever, some diamonds which do not 
appear to be formed of lamina?, but 
of twisted and interwoven fibres, 
like those of knots in wood. These 
exceed the others greatly in hard- 
ness, they cannot be cut or polished, 
and are therefore called by the lapi- 
daries diamonds of nature. 



The diamond is one of the hardest 
bodies known. It resists the most 
highly-tempered steel file ; which 
circumstance renders it necessary to 
attack it with diamond-powder. It 
takes an exquisite and lasting polish. 
It has a great refractive power, and 
hence its lustre, when cut into the 
form of a regular solid, is uncom- 
monly great. The usual colour of 
diamonds is a light grey, often in- 
clining to yellow, at times lemon- 
colour, violet, or black, seldomer 
rose -red, and still more rarely green 
or blue, but more frequently pale 
brown. The purest diamonds are 
perfectly transparent. The colourless 
diamond has a specific gravity, which 
is in proportion to that of water as 
3.512 to 1.000, according to Brisson. 
This varies, however, considerably. 
When rubbed it becomes positively 
electric, even before it has been cut 
by the lapidary. 

Diamond is not acted upon by 
acids, or by any chymical agent, 
oxygen excepted ; and this requires 
a very great increase of temperature 
to produce any effect. 

The diamond burns by a strong 
heat, with a sensible flame, like 
other combustible bodies, attracting 
oxygen, and becoming wholly con- 
verted into carbonic acid gas during 
that process. 

It combines with iron by fusion, 
and converts it, like common char- 
coal, into steel; but diamond re- 
quires a much higher temperature 
for its combustion than common 
charcoal does, and even then it con- 
sumes but slowly, and ceases to 
burn the instant its temperature is 
lowered. 

It is considered by modern chy- 
mists as pure crystallized carbon. See 
Carbon. 

Diamo'ron. (From ha, and /«w- 
pov, a mulberry). A preparation of 
mulberries. 

Diamo'schum. (From ha, and 
jttorrxoCf musk) . An antidote in which 
musk is a chief ingredient. 

Diamoto'sis. (From ha, and mo- 
log, lint) . The introduction of lint 
into an ulcer or wound. 



DIA 



209 



DIA 



Dia'na. A name of the moon. — 
Chym. Silver, from its white shining 
appearance. 

Diananca'smus. From ha, and 
avayKa(u), to force). The forcible 
restoration of a luxated part into its 
proper place. An instrument to re- 
duce a distorted spine. 

Dia'nthus. (From Aic, hog, Jove, 
and avQoe, a flower : so called from 
the elegance and fragrance of its 
flowers). The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Decandria; Order, IJiqy?iia. 

Dia'nthls caryophy'llus. The 
systematic name of the clove-pink. 
Caryophyllum rubrum. Tunica. Ve- 
tonica. Betonica. Coronaria. Caryo- 
phyllus hortensis. Clove pink. Clove 
gilliflower. Clove July flower. This 
fragrant plant, Dianthus caryophyl- 
lus; fiorihus solitariis, squamis calyci- 
Htl subovatis, brcvissimis, corollis cre- 
natis, of Linnaeus, crows wild in 
several parts of England ; but the 
flowers, which are pharmaceutically 
employed, are usually produced in 
gardens : they have a pleasant aro- 
matic smell, somewhat allied to that 
of clove-spice ; their taste is bitterish 
and sub-astringent. 

Diapa'sma. (From harraarju), to 
sprinkle). A medicine reduced to 
powder, and sprinkled over the body, 
or any part. 

Diapede'ms. TFrom haTrrjhiio, to 
leap through). The transudation, or 
escape of blood through the coats of 
an artery. 

Diape'gma. (From ha7rrjyvvio, to 
close together). A surgical instru- 
ment for keeping broken bones in 
due apposition. 

Diape'me. (From ha, and ttivti, 
five). A medicine composed of five 
ingredients. 

Diapha'nols. (From ha, through, 
and (paivco, to shine). A term ap- 
plied to any transparent substance ; 
e, g. the hyaloid membrane cover- 
ing the vitreous humour of the eye, 
&c. 

Diapiice'mcum. (From ha, and 
tpcivi$ f a date) . A medicine made of 
dates. 

Dja'phora. (From ciatyepu), to 



distinguish^ . The distinction of dis- 
eases by their characteristic marks 
and symptoms. 

Diaphoresis. (From c LacbopEio, to 
carry through) . Perspiration or in- 
creased cutaneous secretion. 

Diaphoretics. (Diaphoretica, sc. 
medicamenta ; from ha<pope(o, to carry 
through). Medicines which, taken 
internally, increase the discharge by 
the skin. "When this is carried so 
far as to be condensed on the sur- 
face, it forms sweat : and the medi- 
cines producing it are named sudo- 
rifics. Between diaphoretics and su- 
dorirics, however, there is no dis- 
tinction ; the operation in both cases 
being the same, and differing only in 
degree from augmentation of dose, 
or employment of assistant means. 

** This class of medicines com- 
prehends five orders : 

1. Pungent diaphoretics, as the 
volatile salts, and essential oiU, which 
are well adapted for the aged ; those 
in whose system there is little se; 
bility ; those who are difficultly af- 
fected by other diaphoretics ; and 
those whose stomachs will not bear 
large doses of medicines. 

2. Calif ac lent diaphoretics, such as 
serpeniaria contrayerva, and guaia- 
cum: these are L r :ven in cases where 
the circulation is low and languid. 

3. Stimulant diaphoretics, as anti- 
monial and mercurial preparations, 
which are best fitted for the vigorous 
and plethoric. 

4. Antispasmodic diaphoretics, s 
opium, musk, and camphor, which 
are given to produce a diaphoresis, 
when the momentum of the blood is 
increased. 

5. Diluent diaphoretics, as water, 
whey, &c. which are best calculated 
for that habit in which a predispo- 
sition to sweating is wanted ; and in 
which no diaphoresis takes place, 
although there be evident causes to 
produce it. 

Diaphra'gma, -matis, n. (Fro^i 
ha, and (pparliv, to divide). Sepiuvi 
transversiun. The midrif, or dia- 
phragm. A muscle that divides the 
thorax from the abdomen. 

*** The diaphras-m is divided 
T3 



DIA 



210 



DIA 



into the greater and less muscle. The 
first takes its origin from all the car- 
tilages of the false and of the last true 
rib, and is inserted into the centrum 
tendinosum ; the second, or lesser 
muscle of the diaphragm, arises from 
eight slips from the second, third, 
and fourth lumbar vertebrae, which 
form the two cruna ; it is then in- 
serted into the centrum tendinosum 
opposite its fellow. It is covered by 
the pleura on its upper side, and by 
the peritoneum on the lower side, 
and is pierced in the middle, for the 
passage of the vena cava ; in its 
lower part, for the oesophagus, and 
the nerves, which go to the upper 
orifice of the stomach ; and between 
the productions of the inferior mus- 
cle, pass the aorta, the thoracic duct, 
and the vena azygos. It receives 
arteries and veins called phrenic or 
diaphragmatic, from the cava and 
aorta ; and, sometimes, on its lower 
part, two branches from the vena 
adiposa, and two arteries from the 
lumbares. It has two nerves which 
come from the third vertebrae of 
the neck, pass through the cavity 
of the thorax, and are lost in its 
substance. In its natural situation, 
the diaphragm is convex on the 
upper side towards the breast, and 
concave on its lower side towards 
the belly : therefore, when its fibres 
swell and contract, it must become 
plain on each side, and consequently 
the cavity of the breast is enlarged, 
to give freedom to the lungs to re- 
ceive air in the act of inspiration ; 
and the stomach and intestines are 
pressed for the distribution of their 
contents. Hence the use of this 
muscle is very considerable ; it is 
the principal agent in respiration, 
particularly in inspiration ; for, when 
it is in action, the cavity of the tho- 
rax is enlarged, particularly at the 
sides, where the lungs are chiefly 
situated ; and as the lungs must 
always be contiguous to the inside 
of the thorax and upper side of the 
diaphragm, the air rushes into them, 
in order to fill up the increased 
space. During expiration the dia- 
phragm is relaxed, and pushed up 



by the pressure of the abdominal 
muscles upon the contents of the ab- 
domen ; and, at the same time that 
they press it upwards, they pull down 
the ribs, by which the cavity of the 
thorax is diminished, and the air 
suddenly expelled from the lungs. 

Diaphragmati'tis. (From 8ia- 
(ppayfxa, the diaphragm.) Inflam- 
mation of the diaphragm. See Pa- 
raphrenias. 

Diaphragmi'tis. See Paraphre- 
nitis. 

Dia'phthora. (From £i<x(pQeipo) 9 
to corrupt). Abortion, where the 
foetus is corrupted in the womb. 

Diaphyla'ctica. (From ciaQu- 
\acr<yio, to preserve) . Medicines which 
resist putrefaction or prevent infec- 
tion. 

Dia'physis. (From Sia<pvto, to di- 
vide) . An interstice or partition be- 
tween the joints. 

Diapissela/um. (From dia, and 
wL(T(7e\atov 9 the oil of pitch, or liquid 
pitch). A composition in which is 
liquid pitch. 

Dia'plasis. (From dicnr\a(T(Tio 9 to 
put together) . The replacing a lux- 
ated or fractured bone in its proper 
situation. 

Diapla'sma. (From diaTrXcKrvw, 
to anoint) . An unction or fomenta- 
tion applied to the whole body, or 
any part. 

Dia'pne. (From hairvsto, to blow 
through, or pass gently as the breath 
does). An involuntary and insensible 
discharge of the urine. 

Dia'pnoe. (From hairvEio y to breathe 
through). The transpiration of va- 
pour through the pores of the skin. 

Diapno'ica. (From dianvEw, to 
transpire). Diaphoretics or medi- 
cines which promote perspiration. 

Djaporf/ma. (From dtawopeu), to 
be in doubt). Nervous anxiety. 

Diapo'ron. (From Sia, ando7ra>(Kf , 
autumnal fruits.) A composition in 
which are several autumnal fruits, 
as quinces, medlars, and services. 

Diapra'ssium. (From £ia, and 
irpaaaiovy horehound) . A composi- 
tion of horehound. 

Diapru'num . (From £ia, and npov* 
vt], a prune) , An electuary of prunes. 



DIA 



211 



DIA 



(From 



cia, 



and 



A medi- 



Diapso'ricum. 
\piopa, the itch or scurvy), 
cine for the itch or scurvy. 

Diaptf/rnes. (From ha, and 'arlep- 
va, the heel). A compost of cow- 
heels and cheese. 

Diaptero'sis. (From ha, and gtIe- 
pov, a feather) . Cleaning the ears 
with a feather. 

Diapye'ma. (From ha, and teruo*', 
pus) . Suppuration or an abscess. 

Diapye'mata. (From i1a.7rv7jf.1a, a ; 
suppuration}. Suppuratives. Medi- 
cines which promote suppuration. 

Diapye'tica. (From hairviiiia, a 
suppuration). See Diapi/emata. 

Diarho'cija. (From ha, and prj- 
XOQ, a space). The space between 
the folds of a bandage. 

Dia'rius. (From dies, a day). Ap- 
plied to fevers which last but one 
day. 

Diaroma'ticum. (From ha, and 
apofialiKOv, an aromatic.) A com- 
position of spices. 

Dia'rrhage. (From happjjyvvpi, 
to break asunder). Fracture of the 
temple bones. 

Diarkhodo'.meli. (From cia, po- 
Cov, a rose, and psXi, honey). Scam- 
mony, agaric, pepper, and honey. 

Dia'rrhodon. (From far, and po- 
cW, a rose.) A composition of 
roses. 

Diarrho?/a. 
flow through), 
distinguished by frequent stools with 
the natural excrement, little or no 
griping or tenesmus, not contagious, 
and seldom attended with pyrexia. 
A genus of disease in the Class 
Xeuroses, and Order Spasmi, of Cul- 
len, containing the following species : 

1. Diarrhoea crapnlosa. The fe- 
culent diarrhoea, from crapulus, one 
who overloads his stomach. 

2. Diarrh&a liliosa. The bilious, 
from an increased secretion of bile. 

3. Diarrhcea mucosa. The mu- 
cous, from a quantity of slime being 
voided. 

4. Diarrhoea hepatirrhcea. The 
hepatic, in which there is a quantity 
of serous matter, somewhat resemb- 
ling the washings of flesh, voided; 
the liver being primarily affected. 



(From ciapoeo), to 
A purging. It is 



5. Diarrh&a lienterica. The lien- 
tery ; when the food passes un- 
changed. 

6. Diarrhoea cneliaca. The cceliac 
passion : the food passes off in this 
affection in a white liquid state, like 
chyle. 

7. Diarrhoea verminosa. Arising 
from worms. 

* # * Diarrhcea appears, unques- 
tionably, to depend on an increase 
of the peristaltic motion, or of the 
secretion of the intestines; and, be- 
sides the causes already noticed, it 
may arise from many others, influ- 
encing the system generally, or the 
particular seat of the disease. Of 
the former kind are cold, checking 
perspiration, certain passions of the 
mind, and other disorders, as den- 
tition, gout, fever, &c. To the lat- 
ter belong various acrid ingesta, 
drastic cathartics, spontaneous aci- 
dity, &c. 

Diarthro'sis. (From hapQpou, 
to articulate . A moveable con- 
nection of bones. 

*** Of this genus there are five 
species, viz. enarthrosis, arthrodia, 
ginglymus, trochoides, and amphi- 
arthroisis : which see. 

Diasapo'mlm. (From ha, and era- 
ttmviov, soap). An ointment of soap. 

Diasaty'rium. (From, ha, and 
aalvpiov, the orchis). An ointment 
made of the orchis-root. 

Diasci'llium. (From cia, ami 
(TKiWa, the squill). Oxymel and 
vinegar of squills. 

Diasci'ncls. (From ha, and 
(T/ciy/coc, the crocodile). A name for 
the mithridate, in the composition 
of which there was a part of the 
crocodile. 

Diasco'rdium. (From ha, and 
GKophov, the water germander). 
Electuary of scordium. 

DiaseSa. (From ha, and sena). 
A medicine in which is senna. 

Diasmy'rnlm. (From ha, and 
(Tpvpvi], myrrh). A collyrium con- 
taining myrrh. 

Diaso'stica. (From haGw^u), to 
preserve) . Diasostics. Medicines 
which preserve health. 

Diaspe'rmatum. (From ha, and 



DIA 



212 



DIA 



trxtpfjia, seed). A medicine com- 
posed chiefly of seeds. 

Dia'sphage. (From haacpa^u), 
to separate). Diasphaxis. The in- 
terstice between two veins. 

Diasphy'xis. (From ha, and 
<?<pv(co, to strike). Pulsation of an 
artery. 

Diastasis. (From cWr?;/n, to 
separate) . Diastema. A separation. 
Separation of the ends of bones. 



Diaste'aton. 
^tap, fat). An 



(From 



eta, 



and 



ointment made of 
the fat of animals. 

Diastema. See Diastasis. 

Dia'stole. (From ha^eWeiv, to 
separate, open, dilate). — Anat. et 
Physiolog. The dilatation of the 
heart and arteries. The motion of the 
heart and arteries, by which they di- 
late or distend themselves. SeeSystole, 

* # * The diastole, or dilatation 
of the heart, is, properly speaking, 
the recess of the parieties of the 
two ventricles from each other ; or 
the enlargement of their cavities, 
and diminution of their lengths, and 
their approximation to a spherical 
form. It arises from the blood being 
brought by the veins into its ventri- 
cles ; and that of the arteries, from 
the blood being thrown into their 
cavities by the contraction of the 
heart : so that the diastole of the 
heart and arteries is not effected at 
the same time ; that of the heart 
happening when the arteries are 
contracted, and vice versa. What 
is called the pulse, is only the dias- 
tole of the arteries. The lungs and 
breast have also their diastole and 

has the brain. — 
for the diastole of 
the analogy this 
the pendulums of 
clocks and watches. Its motion, he 
says, is performed like that of other 
muscles, the blood doing the office 
of a pondus or weight. Both of 
these notions are justly refuted by 
Or. Drake, who, with great reason 
and probability, maintains the weight 
of the atmosphere to be the pondus, 
or counterpoise, to the contractile 
force of the heart. 

Diajstomo'sis. (From i<a<ro/*ow, 



systole, and so 
Cowper accounts 
the heart, from 
muscle bears to 



to dilate). Any dilatation, or di- 
lating instrument. 

Diastre'mma. (From harpe<pio, 
to turn aside). Diastrophe. A dis- 
tortion of any limb or part. 

Dia'strophe. See Diastre?n?na. 

Dia'tasis. (From hartivu), to 
distend). The extension of a frac- 
tured limb to reduce it. 

Diatecoli'thlm. (From ha, and 
Tj]tco\i9og,the Jew's stone). — Pharm. 
An antidote, containing lapis Ju- 
daicus. 

Diatere'sis. (From ha, and 
renew, to perforate). A perforation 
or aperture. 

Diatere'tica. (From ha, and 
repeo), to preserve). — Pharm. Me- 
dicines which preserve health and 
prevent disease. 

Diate'ssaron. (From ha, and 
TEGaapEQ, four). — Pharm. A. medi- 
cine compounded of four simple in- 
gredients. 

Diate'ttigum. (From ha, and 
r£rJt£, a grasshopper) . — Pharm. A 
medicine, in the composition of 
which were grasshoppers. 

Dia'thesis. (From haTi6r)fii, to 
dispose). Any particular state of 
the body : e. g. in inflammatory fe- 
ver, there is an inflammatory dia- 
thesis, and, during putrid fever, a 
putrid diathesis. 

Diathe'smus. (From diaOeio, to 
run through). A rupture through 
which some fluid escapes. 

Diatragaca'nthum. (From ha, 
and rpayaKCLvda, tragacanth) . — 
Pharm. A medicine composed of gum 
tragacanth. 

Dia'trium. (From ha, and 
rpeiQ, three). — Pharm. A medicine 
composed of three simple ingredi- 
ents. 

Djaxyla'loes. (From ha, and 
KvXaXorj, the lignum aloes) . — Pharm. 
A medicine in which aloes is an in- 
gredient. 

Diazo'ma. (From ^ia^u>vvvfu, to 
surround ; because it surrounds the 
cavity of the thorax). The dia- 
phragm. 

Diazo'ster. (From hatuvvvjii, 
to surround ; because when the body 
is girded, the belt usually lies upon 



DIC 



213 



DIE 



it). A name of the twelfth dorsal 
vertebra*. 

Dicentf/tum. (From cia, and 
KEvleoj, to stimulate). A stimulating 
collyrium. 

Dichaste'res. (From foxa(u>, to 
divide, because they divide the food). 
A name of the incisores or foreteeth. 

Dichophy'ja. (From cixa, dou- 
ble, and (pvoj, to grow). A distem- 
per of the hairs, in which they split 
and grow forked. 

Die roti c . (Dicroticus, sc. pulsus ; 
from dig, twice, and icpouoj, to 
strike) . A term given to the pulse 
where the artery rebounds after 
striking, so as to convey the sensa- 
tion of a double pulsation. 

Dictamnt'tes. (From ciKlafivog, 
dittany). A wine medicated with 
dittany. 

Dicta'mnus. (From a city in 
Crete so called, on whose mountains 
it grows) . A genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system : Class, Dccandria ; 
Order, Monogynia. Dittany. 

Dicta'mnus a'lbus. White frax- 
inclla, or bastard dittany. Fraxintlla. 
Dictamnus albas ;foliis pinnatis, caule 
simplici, of Linnaeus. 

• # * The root of this plant is the 
part directed for medicinal use. 
Formerly it was much used as a 
stomachic, tonic, and alexipharmic, 
and was supposed to be a medicine 
of much efficacy in removing uterine 
obstructions, and destroying worms ; 
but its medicinal powers became so 
little regarded by modern physicians, 
that it had fallen almost entirely into 
disuse, till Baron Stoerck brought 
it bto notice, by publishing several 
cases of its success, viz. in tertian 
intermittent*, worms (lumbrici), and 
menstrual suppressions. 

" Undoubtedly," says Dr. Wood- 
ville, " the dictamnus is a medicine 
of considerable power ; but notwith- 
standing the account given of it by 
Stoerck, who seems to have paid 
little attention to its modus operandi, 
we may still say withHaller, i nondum 
autcm vires pro dignitate e.rploratus 
est,' and it is now fallen into disuse." 

Dicta'mnus cre'ticus. See Ori- 
ganum dictamnus. 



Didy'me'a. (From dtdvfiog, dou- 
ble). A cataplasm; so called by 
Galen, from the double use to which 
he put it. 

Di'dymi. (From didvjjiog, dou- 
ble) . Twins. An obsolete name for 
the testicles, and two eminences of 
the brain, called testes, from their 
double protuberance. 

Diecbo'lium. (From ha, and 
skGoWuj, to cast out) . — Pharm, A 
medicine causing abortion. 

Diele'ctron. (From diet, and 
{ku£\pov, amber). A name of a troche, 
in which amber is an ingredient. 

Diervi'lla. (Named in honour 
of Mri Dierville, who first brought 
it from Arcadia). See Lonicera Di- 
er villa. 

Diet. Diceta. The dietetic part 
of medicine is no inconsiderable 
branch, and seems to require a much 
greater share of regard than it com- 
monly meets with. A great variety 
of diseases might be removed by the 
observance of a proper diet and re- 
gimen, without the assistance of 
medicine, were it not for the impa- 
tience of the sufferers. It may, 
however, on all occasions, come in 
as a proper assistant to the cure, 
which sometimes cannot be performed 
without a due observance of the 
non-naturals. 

%* That food is, in general, 
thought the best, and most condu- 
cive to long life, which is simplest, 
purest, and most free from irritating 
qualities, and such as approaches 
nearest to the nature of our own 
bodies in a healthy state, or is ca- 
pable of being easiest converted into 
their substance by the vis vitae, after 
it has been duly prepared by the art 
of cookery ; but the nature, compo- 
sition, virtues, and uses of particular 
aliments can never be learnt to sa- 
tisfaction, without the assistance of 
practical chymistry. 

Diet drink. An alterative de- 
coction employed daily in consider- 
able quantities, at least from a pint 
to a quart. The decoction of sar- 
saparilla and mezereon, the Lisbon 
diet drink, is the most common and 
most useful. 



DIG 



214 



DIG 



Diete'tics. That branch of me- 
dicine which treats of the way of 
living with regard to food, or diet, 
suitable to any particular case. 

Die'xodos. (From £ia> and e£o- 
£oe, a way to pass out). Diados. 
Evacuation by stool. Hipp. 

Diffla'tio". (From difflare, to 
blow away). Dimation. Perspiration. 

Diga'stricus. (From c'tc, twice, 
and ycuTTTjp, a belly). Biventer 
maxilla? of Albinus. Mastoido-hyge- 
nien of Dumas. A muscle so called, 
from its having two bellies, situated 
externally between the lower jaw 
and os hyoides. Its use is to open 
the mouth by pulling the lower jaw 
downwards and backwards ; and 
when the jaws are shut, to raise the 
larynx, and consequently the pha- 
rynx, upward, as in deglutition. 

Digere'ntia. (From digerere, to 
digest). Digestives. Medicines which 
promote the secretion of proper pus 
in wounds and ulcers. 

Digestion. (From digerere, to 
dissolve). The conversion of food 
into chyme in the stomach of ani- 
mals, by the solvent power of the 
gastric juice. The circumstances ne- 
cessary to effect a healthy digestion 
of the food are: — 1. A certain de- 
gree of heat of the stomach. — 2. A 
free mixture of saliva with the food 
in the mouth. — 3. A certain quantity 
of healthy gastric juice. — 4. The na- 
tural peristaltic motion of the sto- 
mach. — 5. The pressure of the con- 
traction and relaxation of the abdo- 
minal muscles and diaphragm. From 
these circumstances, the particles of 
the food are softened, dissolved, 
diluted, and intimately mixed into a 
soft pap, called chyme, which passes 
through the pylorus of the stomach 
into the duodenum. The fluid, which 
is termed gastric juice, is separated 
by the minute arteries opening into 
the cavity of the stomach. See Gas- 
tric Juice. Drg. Wilson, Philip, and 
Prout, have lately made some inter- 
esting researches on this subject. 

Phcn9mena t <S.C of Digestion in a 
Rabbit. — A rabbit which had been 
kept without food for twelve hours, 
was fed upon a mixture of bran and 



oats. About two hours afterwards it 
was killed, and examined immedi- 
ately while still warm, when the fol- 
lowing circumstances were noticed. 
The stomach was moderately dis- 
tended with a pulpy mass, which 
consisted of the food in a minute 
state of division, and so intimately 
mixed, that the different articles of 
which it was composed could be 
barely recognised. The digestive 
process, however, did not appear to 
have taken place equally throughout 
the mass, but seemed to be confined 
principally to the superficies, or 
where it was in contact with the 
stomach. The smell of this mass 
was peculiar, and difficult to be de- 
scribed. It might be denominated 
fetuous and disagreeable. On being 
wrapped up in a piece of linen, and 
subjected to moderate pressure, it 
yielded upwards of half a fluid ounce 
of an opaque reddish-brown fluid, 
which instantly reddened litmus paper 
very strongly. It instantly coasm- 
lated milk, and, moreover, seemed 
to possess the property of redis- 
solving the curd, and converting it 
into a fluid, very similar to itself in 
appearance. It was not coagulated 
by heat or acids ; and, in short, did 
not exhibit any evidence of an albu- 
minous principle. On being evapo- 
rated to dryness, and burned, it 
yielded very copious traces of an 
alkaline muriate, with slight traces 
of an alkaline phosphate and sul- 
phate ; also of various earthy salts, 
as the sulphate, phosphate, and car- 
bonate of lime. 

Dr. Prout observes, that " tjie 
first thing which strikes the eye on 
inspecting the stomachs of rabbits 
which have lately eaten, is, that the 
new is never mixed with the old 
food. The former is always found 
in the centre, surrounded on all sides 
by the old food, except that, on the 
upper part between the new food and 
the smaller curvature of the stomach, 
there is sometimes little or no old 
food. If the old and the new food 
are of different kinds, and the animal 
be killed after taking the latter, un- 
less a great length of time has elapsed 



DIG 



215 



DIG 



after taking it, the line of separation 
is perfectly evident, so that the old 
may be removed without disturbing 
the new food. 

" It appears, that in proportion as 
the new food is digested, it is moved 
along the great curvature, when the 
change in it is rendered more perfect, l 
to the pyloric portion. The layer of 
food lying next to the surface of the 
stomach is first digested. In pro- 
portion as this undergoes the proper 
change, it is moved on by the mus- 
cular action of the stomach, and that 
next in turn succeeds to undergo the 
same change. Thus a continual 
motion is going on ; that part of the 
food which lies next the surface of 
the stomach passing towards the 
pyloris, and the more essential parts 
approaching the surface." 

Dr. Philip has remarked, that the 
great end of the stomach is the part 
most usually found acted upon by 
the digestive fluids after death. 

The hypotheses formed to explain 
digestion, maybe reduced to coction, 
fermentation, trituration, putrefac- 
tion, and hum (ration of the food re- 
ceived into the cavity of the sto- 
mach. At present physiologists are 
generally agreed, in considering di- 
gestion in the stomach as a solution 
of the aliment by the gastric juice. 

Digestion. — Chym. The slow 
action of a solvent upon any sub- 
stance. 

Digestive sat.t. Muriate of pot- 
ash. Sec Potassa? murias. 

Digestives. Digestiva. (From 
digerere, to dissolve). Applied by 
surgeons to substances which, when 
laid to an ulcer or wound, promote 
suppuration : e, g. certain ointments, 
warm poultices, fomentations, &c. 

Digesti'vum sal sy'lvii. See 
Digestive salt. 

Digita'lis. (From digitus, a fin- 
ger ; because its flower represents a 
finger). — 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system : Class, 
Didynamia; Order, Angiospermia. 
Fox-glove. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of the common fox-glove. See 
Digitalis purpurea. 
Digita'lis purpurea. The sys- 



tematic name of the fox-glove. — JD«- 
gitalis calycinis foliolis ovatis acutis y 
corollis obtusis, labio superiore inte- 
gro, of Linnaeus. 

* # * Digitalis diminishes most 
powerfully the actions of the system, 
and without occasioning any previous 
excitement. Even in the most mo- 
derate dose, it diminishes the force 
and frequency of the pulse, and, in 
a large dose, reduces it to a great 
extent, as from 70 beats to 40 or 35 
in a minute, occasioning, at the same 
time, vertigo, indistinct vision, vio- 
lent and durable sickness, with vo- 
miting. In a still larger quantity, it 
induces convulsions, coldness of the 
body, and insensibility ; symptoms 
which have sometimes terminated 
fatally. 

As a narcotic, digitalis has been 
recommended in epilepsy, insanity, 
and in some acute inflammatory dis- 
eases. Lately it has been very ex- 
tensively employed in phthisis, after 
bleeding and other evacuations ; and 
the beneficial effects which it pro- 
duces in this disease, arc probably 
owing to its narcotic power, by 
which it reduces the force of the 
circulation through the lungs and 
general system. It is administered 
so as to produce this effect. One 
grain of the powdered leaves, or ten 
drops of the saturated tincture, may 
be given night and morning. This 
dose is increased one half every se- 
cond day, till its action on the sys- 
tem becomes apparent. As soon as 
the pulse begins to be diminished, 
the increase of dose must be made 
with more caution ; and, whenever 
nausea is induced, it ought rather to 
be reduced, or, if necessary, inter- 
mitted for a short time. If the sick- 
ness becomes urgent, it is best re- 
lieved by stimulants, particularly 
large doses of brandy, with aro- 
matics. 

The tincture has been supposed to 
be the best form of administering 
digitalis, when the remedy is de- 
signed to act as a narcotic ; it is also 
more manageable in its dose, and 
more uniform in its strength than 
the dried leaves. 



DIG 



216 



DIN 



Independent of its narcotic effects, 
digitalis acts as one of the most cer- 
tain diuretics in dropsy, and has fre- 
quently succeeded where the other 
diuretics have failed. See Withering 
on Digitalis, &c. 

Van Helmont was the first who 
employed digitalis as a specific in 
scrofula ; " But," says Dr. Mason 
Good, " the only specific influence 
we know it to possess, is on the kid- 
neys, and on the action of the heart 
and arteries. It is for this last ef- 
fect we look to it in the present in- 
stance, phthisis; the only effect in 
all probability, that renders it of 
any advantage in consumption." See 
Study of Medicine , vol. iii. p. 290. 

Digitaline. An alkaline sub- 
stance discovered by M. Le Rayer, 
in the leaves of the digitalis purpu- 
rea, or purple fox-glove. It is with- 
out smell, very bitter, and ex- 
tremely diliquescent. It dissolves 
readily in water alcohol and ether. 
It possesses the active principle of the 
fox-glove ; and is strongly poisonous. 

Digi'tium. (From digitus, a fin- 
ger) . A contraction of the finger- 
jOint. Whitlow, or other sore, upon 
the finger. 

Digitus, -e, m. (From digerere, 
to direct) . A finger. 

Di'gitus ma'nus. A finger. The 
fingers and thumb in each hand con- 
sist of fourteen bones, there being 
three to each, finger, and two to the 
thumb ; they are a little convex and 
round towards the back of the hand, 
but hollow and plain towards the 
palm, except the last, where the 
nails are. The order of their dis- 
position is called first, second, and 
third phalanx. The first is longer 
than the second, and the second 
longer than the third. What has 
been said of the fingers, applies to 
the toes also. 

Di'gitus pe'dis. A toe. See Di- 
gitus mantis, 

Diglo'ssum. (From die, double, 
and y\u)(T(Ta, a tongue ; so called, 
because above its leaf there grows 
a lesser leaf, like two tonghes). The 
Laurus Alexandrina. Galen men- 
tions a man born with two tongues. 



Digno'tio. (From dignosccre, to 
distinguish) . See Diagnosis. 

Dih^e'maton. (From ha, and 
aijjia, blood). An antidote in which 
is the blood of many animals. 

Diha'lon. (From ha, and a\g, 
salt) . A plaster prepared with salt 
and nitre, adapted to foul ulcers. 

Dii'petes. (Trom Zevg, hog, 
Heaven, and ^nrla), to fall : i. e. 
falling as rain) . An epithet applied 
by Hippocrates to semen, when it is 
discharged like a sudden shower of 
rain. 

Dilata'tion. (From dilatare, to 
enlargej . Dilatation or enlargement. 
Diastole. 

Dila'tou. (From dilatare, to en- 
large) . The name of some muscles 
whose office it is to open and enlarge 
parts. 

Dilato'res ala'rum na'si. See 
Levator lahii superioris, 

Dilato'rium. (From dilatare, to 
enlarge) . A surgical instrument for 
enlarging any part. A speculum 
oris. 

Dill. (See Anethum, 

Diluents. Diluentia. (From di- 
luere, to wash away). Those sub- 
stances which increase the propor- 
tion of fluid in the blood. It is evi- 
dent that this must be done by 
watery liquors. Water is, indeed, 
properly speaking, the only diluent. 
Various additions are made to it, to 
render it pleasant, and frequently to 
give it a slightly demulcent quality. 
Diluents are merely secondary re- 
medies. They are given in acute 
inflammatory diseases, to lessen the 
stimulant quality of the blood. They 
are used to promote the action of 
diuretics in dropsy, and to favour 
the operation of sweating. 

Di'nica. (From divog, giddiness). 
Medicines which relieve giddiness. 

Di'nus. (From diveu), to turn 
round). A vertigo, or giddiness. 

Illusory gyration of the person 
while at rest, or of objects around 
the person, with Hebetude of the 
sensorial powers. Dinus Vertigo.— 
Good's Nosolog. 

%* The distressing sensations of 
Din us occur in different persons and 



DIO 



217 



DIO 



different circumstances, under very 
different modifications, or is con- 
nected with very different symptoms. 
It is often united with cephalcea, and 
since, says Dr. Good, (Study of Med. 
vol.iv. p. 524), by some Nosologists, 
it is made a mere species of this last 
genus ; but there are few practition- 
ers who have not witnessed instances 
of both that have commenced, con- 
tinued, and terminated their career 
without any interference with each 
other ; and hence Linnaeus has not 
only separated them from each 
other, and regarded them as dis- 
tinct genera, but has even made 
scotoma, or dizziness with blindness, 
and a tendency to swoon, a distinct 
genus also. 

Dio'cres. The name of a lozenge. 
Di'onos. (From ha, and ocog, 
the way through). Evacuation of 
stool. 

Digena'nthes. (From ha, and 
cAvavOtj, the flower of the vine). A 
remedy said to be good for cholers, 
in which was the flower of the vine- 
tree. 

Dio'gmus. (From hwy.oj, to per- 
secute) . A distressing palpitation of 
the heart. 

Dionysi'scls. (From Aiowcog, 
Bacchus, who was of old represented 
as having horns). Certain bony ex- 
crescences, near the temples, were 
called dionysisci. 
Dionyson y'mphas. (From Aiovvgoq, 
Bacchus, and vvfupa, a nymph). An 
herb which, if bruised, smells of 
wine, and yet resists drunkenness. 

Diopo'rlm. (From ha, ando7rwpa, 
autumnal fruits). — Pharm. A me- 
dicine composed of ripe fruits for 
quincy. 

Dio'ptra. (From cio7r1o/iai, to 
see through). Dioptron. Speculum 
ani, oris, or uteri. Also the lapis 
specularis. 

Dioptrics. (From hoTTTOfiai, to 
see through. The doctrine of re- 
fracted vision, or light. Properly, 
the third branch of optics, whose 
office it is to consider and explain 
the effects of light refracted by pass- 
ing through different media, as air, 
water, glass, lenses, &c. 



Dioptri'smus. (From ho7r1ofiai, 
to see through). Dilatation of any 
natural passage. 

Dio'robum. (From ha and opotog , 
a vetch) . A medicine, in the com- 
position of which there are vetches. 
Diorrho'sis. (From ha, and 
oppog, the serum). Diorosis. A dis- 
solved state of the blood. A conver- 
sion of the humours into serum and 
water. 

Diorthro'sis. (From hopOpoo), 
to direct) . The reduction of a frac- 
ture. 

Diosco'rea. (Named in honour 
of Dioscoridcs) . — 1. A genus of 
plants in the Linhaean system : Class, 
Di&cia; Order, Hexandria. — 2. An 
esculent root called the yam ; ob- 
tained principally from three species 
of Dioscorea, the alata, bullifera, 
and sativa. They grow spontaneously 
in the East and West Indies, and 
their roots are promiscuously eaten 
as the potatoe is with us. There is 
great variety in the colour, size, and 
shape of yams ; some are generally 
blue or brown, round, or oblong, 
and weigh from one pound to two. 
They are esteemed, when dressed, as 
being nutritious and easy of diges- 
tion, and are preferred to wheaten 
bread. Their taste is something like 
the potatoe, but more luscious. The 
negroes, whose common food is 
yams, boil and mash them. They 
are also ground into flour, and made 
into bread and puddings. 

* # * When yams are to be kept 
for any time, they are exposed upon 
the ground to the sun, as we do 
onions, and when sufficiently with- 
ered, they are put into dry sand 
in casks, and placed in a dry garret, 
where they remain often for many 
seasons without losing any of their 
primitive qualities. 

Dioscu'ri. (i. e. Aiog, Kovpot, 
the sons of Jupiter, or Castor and 
Pollux) . The parotid glands were 
so named, from their twin-like equa- 
lity in shape and position. 

Diospy'ros lo'tus. Indian date 
plum. The fruit, when ripe, has an 
agreeable taste, and is very nutri- 
tious. 
U 



DIP 



218 



DIP 



Dioxelje'um. (From diet, o£vq, 
acid, and eXaiov, oil). A medicine 
composed of oil and vinegar. 

Dio'xos. (From cia, and o%vg, 
acid. A collyrium composed chiefly 
of vinegar. 

Diplasia'smus. (From dnrXotj, 
to double) . The re -exacerbation of 
a disease. 

Di'ploe. (From cW\oa>, to dou- 
ble). Meditulliiim. The spongy 
substance between the two tables of 
the skull. 

Diplo'pia. (From SnrXoog, dou- 
ble, and 07TT0jLtai, to see). Visus 
duplicatus. Error of number. A 
disease of the eye, in which the per- 
son sees an object double or triple. 
Dr. Cullen makes it a variety of the 
second species of pseudoblepsis , which 
he calls mutans, in which objects ap- 
pear changed from what they really 
are : and the disease varies accord- 
ing to the variety of the remote 
cause. 

* # * The eauses of double vision 
may be referred to four classes. 
The object which the patient looks 
at, may be represented double upon 
the retina, which is the effect of the 
first class of causes. Or the object 
may be depicted differently in one 
eye from what it is in the other, as 
relates to size, position, distance, 
clearness, &c. : this is the effect of 
the second class of causes. Or the 
object may appear to one eye to be 
in a different place from that which 
it seems to the other to occupy : the 
effect of the third class of causes. 
Or, lastly, the sensibility of the optic 
nerve is defective, so that the image 
of an object, though it may appear 
single to one eye as well as the other, 
yet, in one identical situation will 
appear double to them both. When 
the complaint originates from causes 
of the first and fourth class, objects 
are seen double, whether one or 
both eyes are used ; but when it 
proceeds from the second and third 
class of causes, the patient sees ob- 
jects double only when he is looking 
at them with both eyes, and no 
sooner does he shut one, than ob- 
jects assume their natural simple 



appearance. According to Richter, 
the fourth class of causes of diplo- 
pia is the most frequent. The irri- 
tations are of various kinds, and ge- 
nerally seated in the abdominal vis- 
cera. It is sometimes the conse- 
quence of inebriety, foulness of the 
stomach, intermitting fevers, hypo- 
chondriasis, worms, &c. It is, 
however, occasionally excited by 
other sorts of irritation. It has fre- 
quently followed a violent fright. It 
may be connected with spasmodic 
and painful diseases of various kinds. 
Severe head-aches, and tooth-aches, 
are sometimes joined with the affec- 
tion of the sight. Richter mentions 
the case of a boy who was struck 
with the bough of a tree, when in 
the woods, the consequence of which 
was, that he became affected with 
diplopia. Also of a man, who rode 
a journey on horseback, along a 
snowy road on a very sun-shiny day, 
and was affected in the same man- 
ner. Diplopia is sometimes the ef- 
fect of injuries of the head. — (Vide 
Hilt's Cases in Surgery, p. 108 ; — 
Schmucher , Med. Chirurg. Bemerlt, 
1 B. No. 26 ; — Hennen's Principles 
of Military Surgery, p. 345, ed. 2. 
Persons with weak eyes are apt to 
become double sighted, whenever 
they look long attentively at shining 
objects. Persons in fevers are also 
sometimes double sighted. — Gooch's 
Cases, &c. vol.ii. p. 42, &c. 8vo. Lond. 
1792 ; — Sir E. Home's Observations 
on the Straight Muscles of the Eye, 
and the Structure of the Cornea, in 
Philos. Trans, for 1797 -,—Trard- 
rop's Essays on the Morbid Anatomy 
of the Human Eye, vol. ii. p. 216, 
&c. 8vo. Lond. 1818, &c. 

Di'pnols. (From Sic, twice, and 
irvtit), to breathe). An epithet for 
perforated wounds, that admit the 
air at both sides. 

Di'psacus. (From Ftxpa, thirst). 
Dipsacum. — 1. A genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system, so called from 
the concave situation of its leaves, 
which hold water, by which the 
thirst of the traveller may be re- 
lieved : Class, Sy agenesia ; Order, 
Polygamia. The teasel. — 2. Dia- 



DIS 



219 



DIS 



betes, from the continual thirst 
which attends it. 

Dipyre'num. (From ?ig, twice, 
and 7rvpr]v, a berry). A berry, or 
kernel.' A probe with two buttons. 

Dipyri'tes. (From £ig, twice, 
and irvp, fire). Dipyros. Bread 
twice baked. Recommended in drop- 
sies. Hipp. 

Director. (From dirigere, to 
direct) . A long narrow-grooved in- 
strument, made of silver or steel. 
Its use is to direct the knife, and to 
protect the subjacent parts from its 
edge or point. This instrument, and 
the crooked bistoury, are commonly 
employed for opening sinusses, cut- 
ting fistulae in ano, and fistulae in 
other situations, and for dilating the 
stricture in cases of strangulated 
hernia, &c. It is the name also of 
a muscle of the penis. 

Directo'res pe'nis. (From di- 
rigere, to direct). The same as 
erectores penis. 

Diri'nga. A name, in the isle of 
Java, for the calamus aromatieus. 

Disce'ssus. (From disccdere, to 
depart). — Chym. The separation of 
any two bodies, before united. 

Disciform is. (From discus, a 
quoit, and forma, likeness). Re- 
sembling a disk, or quoit, in shape. 
It is applied to the patella pan. 

Discoi'des. (From cktkoq, a 
quoit J. Resembling a disk, or quoit, 
in shape. Applied to the crystal- 
line humour of the eye. 

Discri'men. A small roller. A 
term applied to the diaphragm. 

Discu'tients. Discutientia. (From 
discicttre, to shake in pieces). A 
surgical term applied to those sub- 
stances which possess a power of re- 
pelling or resolving tumours. 

Disease. Morbus. Any alteration 
from a perfect state of health, is a 
disease. 

%* A disease is variously defined : 
when it pervades the whole system, 
as an inflammatory fever, it is called 
a general disease, to distinguish it 
from inflammation of the eye, or 
any other viscus, which is a partial 
«>r heal one : and when it does not 
depend on another disease, it is 



termed an idiopathic disease, (which 
may be either general or partial), 
to distinguish it from a symptomatic 
affection, which depends upon ano- 
ther disease, and is produced by 
consent of parts. See Endemic, Epi- 
demic, Sporadic, &c. 

Dislocation. (From dishcare, 
to put out of place). A luxation. 
When the articular surfaces of the 
bones are thrown out of their pro- 
per situation, the accident is termed 
a dislocation, or luxation. It has 
been justly remarked by that emi- 
nent hospital surgeon, Sir A. Cooper, 
that of the various accidents which 
happen to the body, there are few 
which require more prompt assist- 
ance, or in which the reputation of 
the surgeon is more at stake, than 
in cases of luxation ; for, should 
much time be lost prior to the at- 
tempt at reduction, there is* consi- 
derable difficulty in accomplishing 
it, and it is often entirely incapable 
of being effected. If it remains un- 
known, and consequently unreduced, 
the patient becomes a living, memo- 
rial of the surgeon's ignorance or 
inattention. Hence the careful study 
of anatomy is forcibly inculcated ; 
the want of an accurate knowledge 
of the anatomy of the joints being 
the principal cause of the many 
errors which happen in the diagnosis 
and treatment of dislocated bones. 
The most important differences of 
luxations are, l.As respects the par- 
ticular joint in which these accidents 
occur. — 2. The extent of the luxa- 
tion. — 3. The direction in which the 
bone is displaced. — 4. The length 
of time the displacement has re- 
mained unreduced. — 5. The accom- 
panying circumstances rendering the 
injury simple or compound. — 6. and, 
lastly, with respect to the causes of 
the accident. — On these subjects 
the following works may be con- 
sulted: — Pott's Remarks on Frac- 
tures and Dislocations, 1795 ; — Kirk- 
land's Observations upon Mr, Pott's 
General Remarks on Fractures, &c. ; 
— White's Cases in Surgery ; — Me- 
dical Observations and Enquiries, 
vol. ii. ; — Bromfieldfs Chirurgical 
U2 



DIS 



220 



DIU 



Cases and Observations, 1773; — 
JBeWs System of Operative Surgery , 
1809 ; — Howships Pract. Observ. in 
Surgery and Morbid Anatomy , 8vo. 
Lond. 1816; — TV. Hey on Disloca- 
tions and internal Derangement of the 
Knee-Joint, &c. ; — Surgical Essays, 
8vo. ; — Also a Treatise on Disloca- 
tions and Fractures, 4 to. by Sir A, 
Cooper, Bart. &c. &c. 

Dispe'nsary (Dispensarium, from 
dispendere, to distribute) . The shop, 
or place, in which medicines are 
prepared. Also a name arbitrarily- 
given to some institutions where the 
poor are supplied with medicines on 
furnishing their own bottles ; and 
advice gratis ! 

Dispe'nsatory. (Dispensatorium, 
from dispendere, to distribute) . An- 
tidotarium. A book which treats of 
the composition of medicines. 

Disse'ction. (From dissecare, to 
cut asunder). The cutting to pieces 
of any part of an animal, or vegeta- 
ble, for the purpose of examining its 
structure. 

Djsse'ptum, -i, n. (From disse- 
pire, to separate or divide. The dia- 
phragm, or membrane, which di- 
vides the cavity of the thorax from 
the abdomen. 

Dissolve'ntia. (From dissolvere 9 
to loosen). Dissolvents. Medicines 
which loosen and dissolve morbid 
concretions in the body. — C/iym. 
Menstrua. 

Bissolu'tus. (From dissolvere, to 
loosen). Loose. Applied to the dy- 
sentery, or morbus dissolutus. 

Diste'ntio. (From distendere, to 
stretch out) . Distention, or dilata- 
tion. A convulsion. 

Disti'cfiia. See Distichiasis. 
DiSTiciii / ASis. (From harixict : 
from he, double, and=rixo£, a row). 
Disirichiasis. Distichia. A disease 
of the eye-lash, in which there is a 
double row of hairs, the one row 
growing outwards, the other inwards 
toward .: the eye. 

Distillation. (From distillare, 
to drop little by little). A chymical 
process, very similar to evaporation, 
instituted to separate the volatile 
front the fixed principles, by means 



of heat. Vessels used in distilla- 
tion, are either alembics or retorts ; 
the former consist of an inferior 
vessel, called a cucurbit, designed 
to contain the matter to be exa- 
mined, and having an upper part 
fixed to it, called the capital or 
head, in which the vapours are con- 
densed by the contact of the sur- 
rounding air, or, in other cases, by 
the assistance of cold water sur- 
rounding the head, and contained in 
a vessel called the refrigeratory. 
From the lower part of the capital 
proceeds a tube, called the nose, 
beak, or spout, through which the 
vapours, after condensation, are, by 
a proper figure of the capital, made 
to flow into a vessel called the re- 
ceiver, which is usually spherical. 
These receivers have different names, 
according to their figure, being called 
mattrasses, balloons, retorts, &c. 

* # * The term distillation is often 
applied in this country to the whole 
process of converting malt or other 
saccharine substances into spirits or 
alcohol. 

Disto'rtion. (From distorquere, 
to wrest aside). Distortio. Applied 
to the eyes, when a person seems to 
turn them from the object he would 
look at, and is then called squinting, 
or strabismus. Also the bending of 
a bone preternaturally to one side ; as 
distortion of the spine, or vertebrae. 
Disto'rtor. A muscle, whose 
office is to draw the mouth awry. 
Distortor oris. The zygomaticus 
minor. 

DlSTRlCHl'ASlS. See Distichiasis. 

Di'strix. (From he,, double, and 

9pt%, the hair). A disease of the 

hair, when it splits and divides at 

the end. 

Ditto ndcr. See Lepidium sativunt. 
Dittany, bastard. See ZHctantnns 
alius. 

Dittany of Crete. See Origanum 
dictamnus. 

Dittany, white. See Dictamnus 
a I bus. 

Diure'sis. (From ha, through, 
and ovpuo, to make water). In- 
creased secretion of urine. Applied 
also to a diabetes. 



DIU 



221 



DOD 



DiURe'tics. Diuretica. (From 
ciouprjcrie, a discharge of urine). 
Medicines or substances are so called 
which, when taken internally, aug- 
ment the flow of urine from the kid- 
neys. All the saline diuretics seem 
to act in this manner. They are 
received into the circulation ; and, 
passing off with the urine, stimulate 
the vessels, and increase the quan- 
tity secreted. — There are diuretics 
whose effect does not appear to arise 
from direct application, but from 
action excited in the stomach, and 
propagated by nervous communica- 
tion to the secreting urinary vessels. 
—-Dropsy is the disease in which 
they are principally employed ; and 
when they can be brought to act, 
the disease is removed with less in- 
jury to the patient than it can be by 
exciting any other evacuation. Their 
success is very precarious, the most 
powerful often failing ; and, as the 
disease is so frequently connected 
with organic affection, even the re- 
moval of the effused fluid, when it 
takes place, only palliates, without 
• 'Meeting' a cure. — Diuretics have been 
likewise occasionally used in calcu- 
lous affections, in gonorrhoea, and 
with a view of diminishing ple- 
thora, or checking profuse perspira- 
tion. 

Murray classes the super-tartrate 
of potash, and nitrate of potash, 
the muriate of ammonia, potash, 
and the acetate of potash, among 
the saline diuretics : and selects the 
following from the vegetable king- 
dom ; scilla ?uariti/na, digitalis pur- 
purea, nxcotiana tabacum, solatium 
dulcamara, lactuca virosa, colchicum 
ai/tumuale, gratiola officinalis, spar- 
tium scoparium, juniperus communis, 
copaifera officinalis, pinus balsamea, 
and pinus lari.v; and the lytta vesi- 
catoria from the animal kingdom. 
See Mat. Med. 

The principal articles included by 
Dr. Cullen in his catalogue of diu- 
retics, are dulcamara, digitalis, scil- 
la ; some of the alliaeeae and siii- 
quosa^; the balsams and resins ;. can- 
lharides, and the diuretic salts. 

*** The action of these remedies 



is promoted by drinking freely of 
mild diluents. It is also influenced 
by the state of the surface of the 
body. If external heat be applied, 
diuresis is frequently prevented, and 
diaphoresis produced. Hence the 
doses of them should be given in the 
course of the day, and the patient, 
if possible, be kept out of bed. 

Divapora'tio. Evaporation. 

Divarica'tion. (From divaricare, 
to stride, spread, &c.) The cross- 
ing of any two things : e. g. when 
the muscular or tendinous fibres in- 
tersect each other at different angles, 
they are said to divaricate. 

Diverso'rium, -?, n. (From di- 
ver sari, to resort to). An inn. The * 
receptaculum chyli. 

Diverticulum, -t, n. By-path. 
Digression, or hole to get out at. — 
Physiolog. Mal-formation or dis- 
eased appearance of a part, in which 
a portion goes out of the regular 
course, and thereby forms a diver- 
ticulum, or deviation from the usual 
course. It is generally applied to 
the alimentary canal. 

Diverticulum nu'ckii. The 
opening through which the round 
ligaments of the uterus pass. Nuck 
asserted that it remained open a long 
time after birth ; to these openings 
he gave the name of diverticula. 

Diw'nls. An impious epithet of 
many compositions, from their sup- 
posed excellence. 

Divu'lsio. (From divellere, to 
pull asunder) . Urine with a ragged 
and uneven sediment. 

Docimastic ART. Ars docimasticu, 
The art of examining or assaying 
fossils, in order to discover what 
metals, &c. they contain. 

Dock-cresses. See Lapsana. 

Dock, sour. See Rumex acetosa. 

Dock, water. See Humex hydro- 
lapathum. 

Dodder of thyme. See Cuscuta 
epitkymum. 

Dodecada'ctylus. (From vioct- 
xa, twelve, and oaxlvXoc, a finger; 
so named because its length is about 
the breadth of twelve fingers) . The 
duodenum, an intestine so called. 
It must be observed, that at the 
U3 



DOL 



222 



DOR 



time this name was given, anatomy 
consisted in the dissection of brutes ; 
and the length was therefore proba- 
bly adjudged from the gut of some 
animal, and not of man. 

Dodecapha'rmacum. (From cw- 
axfi, twelve, and Qappaaov, a me- 
dicine). Anointment consisting of 
twelve ingredients, thereby called 
the ointment of the twelve apostles. 
Dodeca'tkeon. (From cwdtxa, 
twelve, and tl9tji.ii, to put). An an- 
tidote consisting of twelve simples. 
Dog -rose. See Rosa cauina. 
Dog's bane, Syrian. This plant, 
Asclepias Syriaca of Linnseus, is 
particularly poisonous to dogs, and 
also tc the human species. 

%* The process of boiling ap- 
pears to destroy the poison in the 
young shoots, which are then said 
to be esculent, and flavoured like 
asparagus. 

Dog's-grass. See Triticum repens. 
Do^s-mermry. See Mercurialis 
per emus. 

Dog -stones. See Orchis mascula. 
Do'gma. (From cokeoj, to be of 
opinion). An opinion founded on 
reason and experience. 

Do'lichos. (From co\i\;oc, long; 
so called from its long shape). — 1. 
A genus of plants in the Linnsean 
system : Class, Diadelphia; Order, 
Decandria. — 2. The pharmacopceial 
name of the cowhage. See DoHchos 
pruriens. 

Do'lichos so'ja. The plant which 
affords the soy. It is much culti- 
vated in Japan, where it is called 
daidsu, and where the pods supply 
their kitchens with various produc- 
tions ; but the two principal are a 
sort of butter termed rniso, and a 
pickle called sooju. 

Do'lichos fru'riens. The sys- 
te. latic name of the cowhage. J)o- 
lichos. Duiichos pruriens: volubilis, 
teguminibits racemosis> valvulis suL- 
(arinatis hirtis y pedunculis ternis, of 
Linnaeus. 

%* The manner in which these 
hairy spicula act, seems to be purely 
mechanical ; for neither the tincture 
nor the decoction possess the least 
anthelmintic power. 



Do'lor facie'i. See Tic doulou- 
reux. 

Doro'nicum. (From dorongi, 
Arab.) Leopard's bane. See Ar- 
nica. 

Doro'nicum Germa'nicum. See 
Arnica. 

Doro'nicum pardalia'nches. 
The systematic name of the Roman 
leopard's bane. See Doronkum Ro- 
manian. 

Doro'nicum PvOma'num. Roman 
leopard's bane. Doronicum parda- 
lianchcs; foliis cordatis, obtusis, den- 
ticulatis, radicalibus petiolatis; cau- 
linis amplexicau iibus , of Linnaeus. 

*** The root of this plant, if 
given in a full dose, possesses poi- 
sonous properties ; but instances are 
related of its eificacy in epileptical and 
other nervous diseases. 

Do'rsal. Appertaining to the 
back. 

Dorsa'les ne'rvi. The nerves 
which pass out from the vertebrae of 
the back. 

Do'rsi spina'lis. See Spinalis 
dor si. 

Dorste'nia. (Named in honour 
of Dr. Dorsten). A genus of plants 
in the Linnsean system : Class, Te- 
trandria; Order, Monogynia. 

Dorste'nia contrave'rva. The 
systematic name of the plant which 
produces the contrayerva root. Con- 
trayerva. Urakena. Cyperus longus, 
odorus, peruanus. Bezoardica radix. 
It was first brought into Europe, 
about the year 1581, by Sir Francis 
'; Drake, whence its name Drakena. 
%* Contrayerva and serpentaria, 
Dr. Cullen observes, are powerful 
stimulants ; and both have been em- 
ployed in fevers in which debility 
prevailed. He thinks, however, 
wine may always supersede the sti- 
mulant power of these medicines ; 
and that debility is better remedied 
by the tonic and antiseptic powers 
of cold and Peruvian bark, than by 
any stimulants. 

Dorste'nia Drake'na. The sys- 
tematic name for one sort of the 
contrayerva. 

Dorste'nia Housto'nii. SccDor- 
stenia contrayerva. 



DRA 



223 



DRO 



Do'thien. A name for the fu- 
runculus. 

Dove'ri pu'lvis. See Pulvis ipe- 
cacuanhce compositus. 

Dove's foot. The geranium co- 
la inb inn m. 

Dra'ba. (From cnacrtrii), to seize; 
so called from its sudden effect upon 
the nose of those who eat it) . — 1 . A 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Tetrad yuan da ; Order, 
Siliculosa. — 2. A name of the lepi- 
dium, or Arabian mustard, and Tur- 
key cresses. 

Dra'co sylve'stris. See Achillea 
Ptarmica. 

Dracoce'phalum. (From cpaxwi/, 
a dragon, and xetyaXr], ahead). A 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Didynamia; Order, Gy- 
nospcrniia. 

1) K ACOC F.'pH AL I M C A N AF I B*N SE. 

The systematic name of the balm of 
Gilead. Melissa Turcica. Turkey 
balsam. Canary balsam. Balsam of 
Gilead. This plant, Dracocephalum 
mokUwica; floribus vu'ticdlatis, brac- 
ttis lanceolatis, scrraturis capillaceis 
of Linnaeus, yields a fragrant essen- 
tial oil, by distillation, known in 
Germany by the name of oleum Sp- 
rite, The whole herb abounds with 
an aromatic smell, and an agreeable 
taste, joined with an aromatic fla- 
vour. It is recommended to give 
tone to the stomach and nervous svs- 
tern. 

Draco'nis sa'nguis. See Calamus 
rotang. 

Draco'ntium. (From cnctHuv, a 
dragon ; so called, because its roots 
resemble a dragon's tail J . See Arum 
dracujiculus. 

Dracu'n culls. (From cpaaojv, 
a serpent). The Guinea worm ; 
called also vermicuius capillaris. 
These animalculce are common in 
both Indies, in most parts of Africa, 
occasionally at Genoa, and other 
hot countries. They resemble the 
common worm, but are much larger ; 
commonly found in the legs, but 
sometimes in the muscular part 
of the arms. They principally af- 
fect children, and their generation 
is not unlike that of the broad 



worms of the belly ; hence their 
name tape-worm. While they move 
under the skin, they create no trou- 
ble ; but, in length of time, the 
place near the dracunculus suppu- 
rates, and the animal puts forth its 
head. If it be drawn, it excites 
considerable uneasiness, especially 
if drawn so forcibly as to break it ; 
for the part left within creates into- 
lerable pain. These worms are of 
different lengths. In the Edin. Med. 
Essays, mention is made of one 
that was three yards and a half in 
length. 

Dragaca'ntha. See Astragalus. 

Dragant gum. See Astragalus . 

Dragon s blood. See Calamus ro- 
tang. 

Dragon's wort. See Arum dra- 
cuncu'us. 

Drake'na. See Dorstenia contray- 
erva. 

Dra'stics. Drastica. (Apav-ixoc, 
active, brisk ; from Cpauj, to effect) . 
A term generally applied to those 
medicines which are very violent in 
their action ; thus, drastic purges, 
emetics, &c. 

Dresde'nsis pu'lvis. An oleo. 
saccharum, containing the oil of 
cinnamon. 

Dro'.ma. The name of a plastci . 
My reps us. 

Dropaci'smus. (From £ pen to, to 
remove) . Dropa.v. A depilatory. 
A stimulant plaster of pitch, wax, 
&c. to take off hair. 

Dro'pax. See Dropacismus. 

Dro'psy. A collection of a serous 
fluid in the cellular membrane, in 
the viscera and the circumscribed 
cavities of the body. See Hydrops 
Ascites, Anasarca, Hydrocephalus, 
Hydrothora.v, Hydrocele. 

Dropsy of the belly. See Ascites, 

Dropsy of the brain. See Hydro- 
cephalus. 

Dropsy of the cellular membrane. 
See Anasarca. 

Dropsy of the chest. See Hydro - 
thorax. 

Dropsy of the ovaria. See As- 
cites. 

Dropsy of the testicle. See Hydro- 
cele. 



DUC 



2124 



DUL 



Dropwort. See CEnanthe, and 
Spircea Filipendula. 

Dropwort hemlock. See CEnanthe. 
Dromvort water. See CEnanthe. 
Dro'sera. (From cpoas pa, dewy ; 
which is from Spo<rog, dew ; drops 
hanging on the leaves like dew). A 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Perttandria; Order, Hexa- 
gynia. Sun-dew. 

Dro'sera rotundifo'lia. The sys- 
tematic name of the sun-dew. Ros solis. 
jRovelia. Sun-dew. This elegant little 
plant, Drosera rotundifolia ; scapis ra- 
dicals; foliis orbicularis of Linnaeus, 
is said to be so acrid as to ulcerate the 
skin, and remove warts and corns, 
and to excite a fatal coughing and 
delirium in sheep who eat it. It is 
seldom given medicinally in this 
country but by the lower orders, 
who esteem a decoction of it as ser- 
viceable in asthmas and coughs. 

Drosiobo'tanum. (From cqogoq, 
dew, and fiolavn, a herb ; so called 
from its being covered with an aro- 
matic dew) . The herb betony. See 
Betonica. 

Drosso'meli. (From ^ooffo c, dew, 
and pt\i, honey). Honey-dew. Manna. 
Dry belly-ache. See Colica. 
Ducti'lity. That property or 
texture of bodies, whereby they are 
rendered capable of being drawn out 
in length, while their thickness is 
diminished, without any actual frac- 
ture of their parts. It is a term 
almost exclusively applied to metals. 
* # * Most authors confound the 
words malleability, laminability, and 
ductility, together, and use them in 
a loose indiscriminate way ; but 
they are very different. 

Malleability is the property of a 
body which enlarges one or two of 
its three dimensions, by a blow or 
pressure very suddenly applied. 

LaminabWty belongs to bodies ex- 
tensible in dimension by a gradually 
applied pressure ; and ductility is 
properly to be attributed to such 
bodies as can be rendered longer and 
thinner by drawing them through a 
hole of less area than the transverse 
section of the body so drawn. 

Ducts, biliary. See Biliary duct. 



Du'ctus arteriosus. A great 
inosculation found only in the foetus, 
and very young children, betwixt the 
pulmonary artery and the aorta. In 
adults it is closed up. 

Du'ctus ad na'sum. See Canalis 
nasalis. 

Du'ctus au'ris palati'nus. The 
eustachian tube. 

Du'ctus bilia'ris. See Choledo- 
chus ductus. 

Du'ctus commu'nis ciiole'do- 
chus. See Choleduchus ductus. 

Du'ctus hepa'ticus. See Hepa- 
tic duct. 

Du'ctus lachryma'lis. See La* 
chrymal duct. 

Du'ctus lacti'feri. The excre- 
tory ducts of the glandular substance 
composing the female breast. The 
milk passes along these ducts to the 
nipple. 

Du'ctus pancrea'ticus. The 
pancreatic duct. It is white and small, 
and arises from the sharp extremity 
of the pancreas, runs through the 
middle of the gland towards the duo- 
denum, into which it pours its con- 
tents by an opening common to it 
and the ductus commuuis choledo- 
chus. 

Du'ctus saliva'les. The excre- 
tory ducts of the salivary glands, 
which convey the saliva into the 
mouth. 

Du'ctus steno'nis. The Ste- 
nonian duct, so called after its dis- 
coverer, Sieno. It arises from all 
the small excretory ducts of the pa- 
rotid gland, and passes transversely 
over the masseter muscle, penetrates 
the buccinator, and opens into the 
mouth. 

Du'ctus tiiora'cicus. See Tho- 
racic duct. 

Du'ctus veno'sus. When the 
vena cava passes the liver in the 
foetus, it sends off the ductus venosus, 
which communicates with the sinus 
of the vena porta? ; but, in adults, it 
becomes a fiat ligament. 

Du'ctus Warthonia'nus. The ex- 
cretory duct of the maxillary glands ; 
so named after its discoverer. 

Dulca'cidum. (From dulcis, sweet, 
and acidus, sour). An oxymel. A 



DUR 



225 



DYS 



medicine composed of a sweet and 
sour ingredient. 

Dulcama'ra. (From dulcis, sweet, 
and amarus, bitter). See Solatium 
dulcamara. 

Dungy deviVs. See Ferula assa- 
fcetida. 

Duo. (Auw, two). Compositions 
consisting of two ingredients, are 
distinguished by this term, e. g. 
pilulae ex duobus. 

Duode'num. (From duodenus, 
consisting of twelve ; so c; lied be- 
cause it was supposed not 1 ) exceed 
the breadth of twelve fingers ; but as 
the ancients dissected only animals, 
this does not hold good in the human 
subject). The first portion of the 
small intestines. Sec Intestines. 

Duflica'na. (From duplex, 
double). A name of the double ter- 
tian fever. 

Du'ra ma'ter. (From durus, hard, 
and mater, a mother ; called dura, 
from its comparative hardness with 
the pia mater, and mater, from its 
being supposed to be the source of 
all the other membranes). Dura 
meninx, &.C. A thick and somewhat 
opaque and insensible membrane, 
formed of two layers, surrounding 
and defending the brain, and adhere- 
ing strongly to the internal surface 
of the cranium. It has three con- 
siderable processes, the falciform, 
the tentorium, and the septum ccre- 
belll ; and several sinusses, of which 
the longitudinal, lateral, and inferior 
longitudinal, are the principal. Upon 
the external surface of the dura 
mater, there are little holes, from 
which emerge fleshy-coloured pa- 
pilla?, and which, upon examining 
the skull-cap, will be found to have 
corresponding fovea?. These are the 
external glandulae Pacchioni. They 
are in number from ten to fifteen on 
each side, and are chiefly lateral to 
the course of the longitudinal sinus. 
The arteries which supply this mem- 
brane with vessels for its own nou- 
rishment, for that of the contiguous 
bone, and for the perpetual exudation 
of the fluid, or rather halitus, which 
serves to lubricate its internal sur- 
face, may be divided into anterior, 



middle, and posterior. The first 
proceeds from the ophthalmic and 
ethmoidal branches ; the second 
from the internal maxillary and su- 
perior pharyngeal ; the posterior from 
the occipital and vertebral arte- 



ries, &c. 



The diseases to which this 
membrane is liable are fungous tu- 
mours; inflammation, &c. M.Louis 
has described other tumours, which 
grow from the surface of the dura 
mater, when this membrane has been 
denuded, as after trephining ; differ- 
ing only from the preceding in as much 
as they do not exist before the open- 
ing is made in the skull. These cases 
are not to be confounded with hernia 
cerebri. On these subjects see Me- 
moire sur les Tumeurs Fongueuses de 
la Dure-mere, par M. Louis, in Mem. 
de V Acad, de C/iirurgie, torn. v. 4to. 
or torn. xiii. 12mo. ; — Encyclopedic 
Methodiqrie, partie Cfu'rurgicalc, Art. 
Dure-mere y J. I. Kaufmann; — Dt 
Tumore Capitis fungoso post Carievi 
cranii exorto. Hclmstadi, 1743; — La- 
sus, Pathologie (hirurgicale, torn. i. 
p. 497, edit. 1809 ;— J. andC. JVen- 
zel, ubcr du Schwammigen Ausiuuchse 
aufdu aussern Himhaut, fol. Mainz. 
1BH ; a work in which the sentiments 
of M. Louis are supported ; — Ph. J r . 
Walt her in J our n . fur Chirurgie Von 
C. Grafe, &c. b. i. p. 55, &c. 8vo. 
Berlin, 1820. The latter writer criti- 
cizes the opinions of the Wenzels, con- 
sequently differs considerably from 
Louis on several points. 

Du'ra mb'ninx. The term meninx, 
before the time of Galen, was common 
to all the membranes of the body ; 
afterwards it was appropriated to 
those of the brain. See Dura mater. 

Dwalc. See Atropa belladonna. 

Dwarf, elder. See Sambucus ebidas. 

Dyo'ta. (From cvoj, two, and 
ovq, ioloc, an ear) . A chymical in- 
strument with two ears, or handles. 

Dysesthesia. (From Svc diffi- 
culty, and aivQavouai, to feel or 
perceive). Impaired feeling. 

Dvs/ESTHE'sitf:. An order in the 
Class Locales, of Dr. Cullen's Noso- 
logy, containing those diseases, in 
which the senses are depraved > or 



DYS 



226 



DYS 



destroyed, from a defect of the ex- 
ternal organs. 

Dysanago'gus. (From dug, with 
difficulty, and avayu), to subdue). 
Viscid expectoration. 

Dyscatapo'tia. (From £vg, and 
xalamvo), to drink). A difficulty 
of swallowing 1 quids, which Dr. 
Mead thinks a more proper term 
than that generally used for canine 
madness, viz. hydrophobia ; as it is 
more particularly descriptive of the 
affection under which the patients 
labour ; for, in reality, they dread 
water from the difficulty of swallow- 
ing it. 

Dyscinl'sia. (From dvg, bad, 
and kivew, to move). Bad or im- 
perfect motion. 

Dyscine'si*. An Order in the 
Class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology ; 
embracing diseases in which the mo- 
tion is impeded, or depraved, from 
an imperfection of the organ. 

Dyscofho'sis. (From Svg, with 
difficulty, and xw^ow, to be deaf). 
A defect in the sense of hearing. 

Dyscra'sia. (From dvg, with 
difficulty, and nspavvvfii, to mix). 
A bad habit of body. 

Dysecoe'a. (From five, difficulty, 
and aKOt] 9 hearing). Cophosis. Deaf- 
ness. Hearing diminished, or de- 
stroyed. A genus of disease in the 
Class Locales, and Order Dysesthesia, 
of Cullen, containing two species; 
viz. Dyseccea organica, which arises 
from wax in the meatus, injuries of 
the membrane, or inflammation and 
obstruction of the tube : Dyseccea 
atonica, when without any discerni- 
ble injury of the organ. 

Dyse'lcia. ((From dvg, with diffi- 
culty, and eXaog, an ulcer). An 
ulcer difficult to heal. 

Dyse'metus. (From dvg, with 
difficulty, and sfieo), to vomit). A 
person not easily made to vomit. 

Dysente'ria. See Dysentery. 

Dysentery. , (From cvg, diffi- 
culty, ;md tvltpa, the bowels). Dy- 
xenteria. Bloody flux. A genus of 
ilisease in the Class Pyrexia', and 
Order Profluvia, of Cullen's Noso- 
logy ; known by contagious pyrexia ; 
Jrcijuent griping stools ; tenesmus ; 



stools, chiefly mucous, sometimes 
mixed with blood, the natural fasces 
being retained or voided in small, 
compact, hard substances, known 
by the name of scybala ; loss of ap- 
petite and nausea. It occurs chiefly 
in summer and autumn, and is often 
occasioned by much moisture suc- 
ceeding quickly intense heat, or great 
drought ; whereby the perspiration 
is suddenly checked, and a determi- 
nation made to the intestines. It is 
likewise occasioned by the use of un- 
wholesome and putrid food, and by 
noxious exhalations and vapours : 
hence it appears often in armies en- 
camped in the neighbourhood of low 
marshy grounds, and proves highly 
destructive : but the cause which 
most usually gives rise to it, is a 
specific contagion ; and when it once 
makes its appearance, where num- 
bers of people are collected together, 
it not unfrequently spreads with great 
rapidity. A peculiar disposition in 
the atmosphere seems often to pre- 
dispose, or give rise to the dysen- 
tery, in which case it prevails epi- 
demically. It frequently occurs about 
the same time with autumnal inter- 
mittent and remittent fevers, and 
with these it is often complicated. 
It, however, is much more prevalent 
in warm climates than in cold ones ; 
and in the months of August, Sep- 
tember, and October, which is the 
rainy season of the year in the West 
Indies, it is very apt to break out 
and to become very general among 
the negroes on the different planta- 
tions in the colonies. — See Dr. 
Cheyne, and others, in Dublin Hos- 
pital Reports ; — Ameen. Acad. vol. V. 
p. 82 et alibi ; — Climate and Diseases 
of Tropical Countries, p. 34, Bvo. 
1822 ; — Observations on the Acute and 
Chronic Dysentery of Ireland, &c. 
Dublin, 1822, by Dr. O'Brien ;-- 
Hati/s Observations on Simple Dy- 
sentery, and its Combinations, Bvo. ; 
— Pr ingle, Hunter, Half our, John- 
son, JJalingal, Ihnnjield, Dr. L. 
Frank, on the Co?ttagiuus or Non- 
contagious Principle of Dysentery , &c. 
Dysepulo'ticus. (FfomVvg, with 
difficulty, and £7rv\ou>, to cicatrize). 



DYS 



227 



DYS 



Dysepulotus. An inveterate ulcer 
difficult to be healed. 

Dysh;e:viorrho'is. (From ere, with 
| difficulty, and aipoppo'ig, the piles) . 
Suppression of bleeding- piles. 

Dyslo'chia. (From cvg, difficulty, 
and \ox<-a, the lochia). Suppression 
of the lochia. 

Dysmenorrhea. (From cvg, with 
difficulty, and prjvoppoia, the men- 
ses) . Difficult or painful menstrua- 
tion, accompanied with severe pains 
in the back, loins, and bottom of the 
belly. 

Dyso'des. (From etc, bad, and 
ofw, to smell). A bad smell. Foetid. 
Hippocrates applies it to a foetid dis- 
order of the small intestines. Also 
the name of a malagma and acopon 
in Galen and Paulus j'Egineta. 

Dyso'pia. (From eve, bad, and 
wty, an eye). Parorchis. Difficult 
sight. Sight depraved, requiring one 
certain quantity of light, one parti- 
cular distance, or one position. A 
genus of disease in the Class Locales , 
and Order DysetstJiesxce, of Cullen, 
containing five species, viz. 

1. Dysopia tenebrarum, called also 
amblyopia crepuscular is, requiring ob- 
jects to be placed in a strong light. 

2. Dysopia luminis, likewise term- 
ed amblyopia meridian a, objects only 
discernible in a weak light. 

3. Dysopia dissiton/m, in which 
distant objects are not perceived. 

4. Dysopia pro.rimoruni, or duso- 
pia amblyopia, in which objects too 
near are not perceived. 

5. Dysopia lateralis, called also 
amblyopia luscorum, in which objects 
are not seen, unless placed in an 
oblique position. 

Dysore'xia. (From cvg, bad, and 
opt%ig, appetite) . A bad or depraved 
appetite. 

Dysore'xia. An Order in the Class 
Locales, of Cullen 's No>ology, which 
he divides into two sections — appe- 
titus erronei and deficientes. 

Dysfe'psfa. (From cvg, bad, and 
7r£7r1to, to concoct). Apepsia. Indi- 
gestion. A genus of disease in the 
Class Neuroses, and Order Adyna- 
mia, of Cullen. It chiefly arises in 
persons between thirty and forty 



years of age, 
be met with 



and is principally to 
in those who devote 



much time to studv, or who lead 
either a very sedentary or irregular 
life. A great singularity attendant 
on it is, that it may and often does 
continue a great length of time, 
without any aggravation or remis- 
sion of the symptoms. 

Causes. — Great grief and uneasiness 
of mind, intense study, profuse eva- 
cuations, excess in venery, hard 
drinking, particularly of spirituous 
liquors, and of tea, tobacco, opium, 
and other narcotics, immoderate re- 
pletion, and over distension of the 
stomach, a deficiency in the secre- 
tion of the bile, or gastric juice, and 
the being much exposed to moist 
and cold air, when without exercise. 

Symptoms. — Loss of appetite, nau- 
sea, heart-burn, flatulency, acid, 
foetid, or nidorous eructations, a 
gnawing in the stomach when empty, 
a sense of constriction and uneasi- 
ness in the throat, with pain in the 
side, or sternum, so that the patient 
at times can only lay on his right 
side ; great costivencss, habitual 
chilliness, paleness of the counte- 
nance, languor, unwillingness to move 
about, lowness of spirits, palpita- 
tions, and disturbed sleep, &c. The 
number of these symptoms varies in 
different cases ; with some, being felt 
only in part ; in others, being ac- 
companied even with additional ones, 
equally unpleasant, such as severe 
transient pains in the head and 
breast, and various affections of the 
sight, as blindness, double vision, &c. 

*** Dyspepsia never proves fatal, 
unless when, by a very long conti- 
nuance, it produces great general 
debility and weakness ; and so passes 
into some other disease, such as 
dropsy ; but it is at all times very 
difficult to remove, but more parti- 
cularly so in warm climates. — See 
Abernethy , Wilson, Philip, on Ln- 
digestion, &c. &c. 

Dyspermati'smus. (From tvg, 
bad, and <77Tfp/Lta, seed). Angenesia. 
Slow, or impeded emission of semen 
during coition, insufficient for the 
purpose of generation. A genus of 



DYS 



228 



DYS 



disease in the Class Locales, and 
Order Epischeses, ofCullen, of which 
he enumerates eight species, viz. 
. 1 . Dyspermatismus urethralis, when 
the obstruction is in the urethra. 

2. Dyspermatisnms nodosus, when 
a tumour is formed in either corpus 
cavernosum penis. 

3. Dyspermatismus prtepuf talis, 
when the impediment is from a 
straightness of the orifice of the 
praepuce. 

4. Dyspermatismus mucosus, when 
the urethra is obstructed by a viscid 
mucus. 

5. Dyspermatismus hypertonicus, 
when there is an excess of erection 
of the penis. 

6. Dyspermatismus epilepticus, from 
epileptic fits coming on during coi- 
tion. 

7 , Dyspermatismus apractodes, from 
a want of vigour in the genitals. 

8. Dyspermatismus reHuus, in which 
the semen is thrown back into the 
urinary bladder. 

Dysphagia. (From Sve,, with dif- 
ficulty, and <pay <o, to eat) . Difficulty 
of swallowing. 

Dyspho'nia. (From Svg, bad, and 
<t>u)VTj, the voice). Difficulty of speak- 
ing. 

Dyspng/a. (From five,, difficult, 
Trveoj, to breathe). Dyspnoon. Dif- 
cult respiration, without sense of 
stricture, and accompanied with 
cough through the whole course of 
the disease. A genus of disease in 
the Class Neuroses, and Order Spas- 
mi, of Cullen. The species are, 

1. Dyspnoea cartarrhalis, when 
with a cough there are copious dis- 
charges of viscid mucus, called also 
asthma cat arr hale, pneumodes, pneu- 
monicum, and pituitosum. 

2. Dyspnoea sicca, when there is a 
cough without any considerable dis- 
charge, 

3. Dyspnoea a'erea, when the dis- 
ease is much increased by slight 
changes of the weather. 

4. Dyspnoea terrea, when earthy or 
calculous matters are spit up. 

6, Dyspnoea aguosa, when there is 



a scarcity of urine and cedematous 
feet, without the other symptoms of 
a dropsy in the chest. 

6. Dyspnoea pinguedinosa, from 
corpulency. 

7. Dyspnoea thoracica, when parts 
surrounding the chest are injured or 
deformed. 

8. Dyspnoea extrinseca, from ma* 
nifest external causes. 

Dy'spnoon. See Dyspnoea. 

Dysra'chitis. The name of a plas- 
ter. Galen. 

Dysthy'mia. (From Ivq, bad, and 
OvpoQ, mind). Insanity. 

Dysto'chia. (From Svq, with dif- 
ficulty, and tihIu), to bring forth). 
Difficult parturition or child-birth. 

Dystozchi'asis. (From eve, bad, 
and toixoq, order) . Irregular dispo- 
sition of the hairs in the eyelids. 

Dysu'ria. (From Svq, difficulty, 
and ovpov, urine) . Stillicidium. At- 
dor urince, &c. Suppression or diffi- 
culty in discharging the urine. Dr. 
Cullen places this disease in the 
Class Locales, and Order Epischeses ^ 
containing six species : 

1. Dysuria ardens, with a sense of 
heat, without any manifest disorder 
of the bladder. 

2. Dysuria spasmodica, from spasm. 

3. Dysuria compressio?iis, from a 
compression of the neighbouring 
parts. 

4. Dysuria phlogistica, from vio- 
lent inflammation. 

5. Dysuria calculosa, from stone 
in the bladder. 

6. Dysuria mucosa, from an abun- 
dant secretion of mucus. 

*** Total suppression is called 
ischuria; a partial suppression, dy- 
suria: and this may be with or with- 
out heat. When there are frequent, 
painful, or uneasy urgings, to dis- 
charge the urine, and it passes off 
only by drops, or in very small quan- 
tities, the disease is called stran- 
gury. When a sense of pain, or 
heat, attends the discharge it passes 
with difficulty, and is styled ardor 
urinff', heat of the urine. The dysu- 
ria is acute, or chronic. 



229 



E. 



EAR 



EAR 



Ear. Auris, -is, f. The organ of hear- 
ing, situated at the side of the head. 
It is divided into external and internal 
ear. The auricula, commonly called 
the ear, forms the external part, 
and contains several eminences and 
depressions, as the helix, antihelix, 
tragus, antitragus, concha auricula?, 
scapha, and lobulus. The external 
auditory passage, containing the ce- 
rumen, proceeds from the middle 
of it down to the membrana of the 
tympani, which divides the external 
from the internal parts of this organ. 
Behind the membrana tympani is the 
irregular cavity of the tympanum, 
in which are four little bones, viz. 
the malleus, incus,' stapes, and os 
orbiculare, and four openings, one 
of the Eustachian tube, another 
to the mastoid sinus, the fenestra 
oralis, and the fenestra rotunda. 
The tympanum is terminated by the 
labyrinth. The labyrinth y> the re- 
maining part of the internal ear, 
consisting of the cochlea, vestibulum, 
and semicircular canals. 

The arteries of the ear are the 
external and internal auditory. The 
veins empty themselves into the ex- 
ternal jugulars. 

The muscles of the ear are di- 
vided into three classes : the com- 
mon, proper, and internal. The 
common muscles are, the attollens 
aurem, anterior auris, and retraheii- 
tes auris, which move the whole ear. 
The proper are, the helicis major, 
helicis minor, tragicus, antitragicus, 
and transversus auris : these affect 
the parts only to which they are con- 
nected. The muscles of the internal 
ear are, the laxator tympani, tensor 
tympani, and stapedius, which belong 
to the ossicula auditus. 

The nerves of the external ear 
are branches of the nervus auditorius 
durus, and those of the internal ear, 



are branches of the nervus audito- 
rius mollis. 

%* The French Academy of Sur- 
gery (1763) offered a prize for the 
best essay on diseases of the ear ; 
and two years afterwards the honour 
was adjudged to that of M. Lesche- 
vin, senior surgeon of the hospital 
at Rouen. See Leschevin, in Me- 
moir es sur les Sujets proposes pour le 
Prix de I y Acad. Roy ale de Chirurgie 9 
torn. ix. p. Ill, 112, (edit. 12mo.) 
This memoir is still of great value, 
few modern treatises being more 
complete. 

The most useful contributors to 
our stock of information on the pa- 
thology of the ear, subsequently to 
M. Leschevin, have been Kutter 
and Leutin, (uebcr das Schwere Ge- 
hoer, Leipz. 1794) ; — Trampel, (Arne- 
man's Magaz. b. ii. 1798) ; — Pfing- 
sten, (Vieljahrige Erfahrung ueber 
die Gehoerf elder , Kiel, 1802); — 
Alard, (sur le Catarrhe de V Oreille, 
8vo. Paris, 1807, 2d edit.);— Mr. A. 
Cooper, (Philosoph. Transuct. 1802) ; 
—Portal, (Anat. Med. 1803) ;— J.C. 
Saunders, (Anatomy and Diseases 
of the Ear) ; — Baron Boyer, (Mala- 
dies reputdes Chirurgicale, t. vi.) ; — 
Saissy, in an essay that received the 
approbation of the Medical Society 
of Bourdeaux ; — Professor Rosen- 
thal, in a short but sensible tract on 
the pathology of the ear, (Jour. 
Complement aire, t. vi. 1820) ; — W. 
Wright, (An Essay on the Human 
Ear, its Anatomical Structure , and 
Incidental Complaints, 8vo. Lond. 
1817, &c.) 

Eari'tes. Haematites, or blood- 
stone. 

Earths. Sixteen or seventeen 
years ago few substances seemed 
more likely to retain a permanent 
place in chymical arrangements, than 
the solid and refractory earths which 
X 



EAR 



230 



EAR 



comprise the crust of the globe. 
Analysis had shewn, that the various 
stony or pulverulent masses which 
form our mountains, valleys, and 
plains, might be considered as result- 
ing from the combination or inter- 
mixture, in various numbers and pro- 
portions, of nine primitive earths, to 
which the following names were 
given: 1. Barytes; 2. Strontites ; 
3. Lime ; 4. Magnesia; 5. Alumina, 
or clay; 6. Silica; 7. Glucina; 
8. Zirconia; 9. Yttria. 

Alkalies, acids, metallic ores, and 
native metals, were supposed to be 
of entirely dissimilar constitution. 

The brilliant discovery by Sir H. 
Davy in 1808, of the metallic bases 
of potash, soda, barytes, strontites 
and lime, subverted the ancient 
ideas regarding the earth, and taught 
us to respect them as all belonging, 
by most probable analogies, to the 
metallic class. According to an in- 
genious suggestion of Mr. Smithson, 
although suggested at a much earlier 
period by Mr. Hume of Long-acre, 
(see his curious paper on the Iden- 
tity of Silex and Oxygen, in Til- 
loch' 'sPhilosoph. Mag. for Aug. 1808) 
silica, however, ought to be ranked 
with acids, since it has the power, in 
native mineral compounds, of neu- 
tralizing the alkaline earths, as well 
as the common metallic oxydes. 
But as this property is also pos- 
sessed by many metallic oxydes, it 
can afford no evidence against the 
metallic nature of the siliceous basis. 
Alumina, by the experiments of Ehr- 
man, may be made to saturate lime 
producing a glass ; and the triple 
compounds of magnesia, alumina, 
and lime, are perfectly neutral in 
porcelain. We might therefore re- 
fer alumina, as well as silica, to the 
same class with the oxydes of anti- 
mony, arsenic, chromium, colum- 
bium, molybdenum, titanium and 
tungsten. Alumina, however, bears 
to silica the same relation that oxyde 
of antimony does to that of arsenic ; 
the antecedent pair acting the part of 
bases, while the consequent pair act 
only as acids. The compound of the 
fluoric principle with silica, is of 



too mysterious a nature to be em- 
ployed in this discussion. The al- 
most universal function which silica 
enjoys, of saturating the alkaline 
oxydes in the native earthy minerals, 
is exhibited, in a very striking man- 
ner, in Mr. Allan's valuable synop- 
tic tables. From his fifth to his 
fifteenth table of analysis, the co- 
lumn of silica is always complete, 
whatever deficiency or variation may 
occur in the columns of the earthy 
bases; at least, only a very few ex- 
ceptions need be made for the orien- 
tal gems, which consist of strongly 
aggregated alumina. 

To the above nine earthy sub- 
stances, Berzelius has lately added a 
tenth, which he calls thorina. We 
shall at present enter into no further 
discussion concerning their place in 
a systematic arrangement. Whatever 
may be the revolution of chymical 
nomenclature, mankind will never 
cease to consider as earth, those 
solid bodies composing the mineral 
strata which are incombustible, co- 
lourless, not convertible into metals 
by all the ordinary methods of re- 
duction, or when reduced by scien- 
tific refinements, possessing but an 
evanescent metallic existence, and 
which, either alone, or, at least, 
when combined with carbonic acid, 
are insipid and insoluble in water. 
See lire's Diet, of Chym. on the Ba- 
sis of Nicholson's, p. 398, at the 
word EARTH. 

%* Stones differ from earths 
principally in cohesion and hardness, 
and therefore are included under the 
same general name. 

Earth, absorbent. See Absorbents. 

Earth, aluminous. Earth which 
contains alumina. See Alumine and 
Earth. 

Earth, animal calcareous. This 
term is applied to crabs'-claws, &c. 
which contain calcareous earth, and 
arc obtained from the animal king- 
dom. 

Earth, argillaceous. See Alumine. 

Earth-bath. A remedy recom- 
mended by some writers on the con- 
tinent, as a specific in consumption. 
In this country it produced to the 



EBE 



231 



ECC 



patients very distressing sensations 
i of cold ; in some it seemed to be 
productive of bad effects ; and it 
does not appear that, in any con- 
sumptive cases, good effects were 
ever derived from it. Also adopted 
in scorbutics. 

Earthy bolar. See Bole. 

Earth, fullers'. Cimolia pur- 
pur escens. A compact bolar earth, 
commonly of a greyish colour ; some- 
times applied by the common people 
to inflamed breasts, legs, &c. with a 
view of cooling them. 

Earthy hear?/. See Barytcs. 

Earth, Japan. See Acacia ca- 
techu. 

Earthy mineral calcareous. The 
calcareous earths obtained from the 
mineral kingdom. Applied in op- 
position to those obtained from ani- 
mals. 

Earth-nut. See Bunium. 

Earth, sealed. Terra sigillata. 
Little cakes of bolar earths stamped 
with impressions, formerly in high 
estimation as absorbents, but now 
fallen into disuse. 

Earth -worm. Lumbricus terrcs- 
tris. Vermis tervestrit. These in- 
sects are supposed to possess a diu- 
retic and antispasmodic virtue, with 
which intentions they arc occasion- 
ally employed in foreign countries. 

EAR-WAX* Cerumen aurium. A 
waxy secretion found in the exter- 
nal auditory passage, into which it is 
separated by the glands around that 
canal. 

Eaton's styptic. French brandy 
highly impregnated with calcined 
green vitriol. Used in checking he- 
morrhages. 

Eau-de-luce. See Spiritus am- 
monia succinates. 

Eau-de-rabel. One part of sul- 
phuric acid to three of rectified 
spirit of wine. Much used in France, 
diluted, in the cure of gonorrhoea, 
leuchorrhcea, &c. 

Ebel. The seeds of sage, or of 
juniper. 

Ebe'num. Indian ebony. Sup- 
posed to be ophthalmic. 

Ebe'smech. Quicksilver. Lan- 
gius. 



Ebi'scus. The hibiscus, or marsh 
mallow. 

Ebrieca'tum. (From ebriare, to be 
drunk). Loss of sense by drunken- 
ness. Paracelsus. 

Ebrieca'tum c#:le'ste. That 
kind of enthusiasm which is affected 
by many heathen priests. Paracelsus. 

Ebsemech. A name for quick-, 
silver. 

Ebulli'tion. (From ebullire, to 
bubble up) . Boiling. The change 
a fluid undergoes from a state of 
liquidity to that of an elastic fluid, in 
consequence of the application of 
heat, which dilates and converts it 
into vapour. 

E'bulus. (Ibid.) So called, from 
its supposed use in purifying the hu- 
mours of the body). See Sambucus. 
e bid us. 

Ecbo'lica. (From DttaWtOy to 
cast out). Medicines formerly said 
to cause abortion. 

Ecbo'lios. (From tx£a\\u), to 
cast out) . Abortion. 

Ecbra'smata. (From ex€pa£<i)y to 
be very hot). Ecchymata. Painful 
fiery pimples in the face, or surface 
of the body. 

Ecbra'smis. (From £*£pa£a>, to 
become hot). Fermentation. 

ECBYRSO'MATA. (From **, and 
(3up(Ta, the skin). Protuberances of 
the bones at the joints, appearing 
through the skin. 

Eccatiia'rtica. (From emtaOaipoj, 
to purge outwards) . Gorraeus says, 
eccathartics are medicines which open 
the pores of the skin ; but, in gene- 
ral, they are understood to be deob- 
struents. Sometimes expectorants 
are thus called, and also purgatives. 

Ecchylo'ma. (From £*, and 
Xv\og, juice). An extract. 

Ecchy'mata. (From £*%vw, to 
pour out) . See Ecbrasmata. 

EcchyiMo'sis. (Exxv/*wffic. : from 
tx.)(i)0), to pour out). Ecchymoma. 
Sometimes called crustula and sugil- 
latio. Extravasation. A black and 
blue swelling, either from a bruise 
or spontaneous extravasation of 
blood. A genus of disease in the 
Class Locales, and Order Tumores, 
of Cullen. 
X 2 



ECH 



232 



ECP 



Ecchymo'ma arterio'sum. The 
false aneurism. 

E'cclisis. (From shhXlvio, to 
turn aside) . A luxation or dislocation. 

E'ccope. (From shkottIu), to cut 
off). The cutting off any part. 

Ecco'peus. (From txxonlbj, to 
cutoff). An ancient instrument (the 
raspatory) , used in trephining. 

Eccopro'tics. (From eh, and ho-tt- 
poQy dung). Opening medicines, 
whose operation is very gentle ; e. g. 
manna, senna, neutral salts, &c. 

Eccrjnocri'tica. (From ehhoivm, 
to secrete, and xpivio, to judge). 
Diagnosis formed from secretions. 

Eccrinolo'gia. Eccrinologica. 
(From ehhoivio, to secrete, and 
Xoyog, a discourse). The doctrine of 
secretions. 

E'ccrisis. (From EHHptvio, to se- 
crete). A secretion of any kind. 

Eccymo'sis. See Ecchymosis. 

E'cdora. (From eitdepu), to ex- 
coriate). An excoriation : and par- 
ticularly used for an excoriation of 
the urethra. 

Ecdo'ria. (From ehSepu, to ex- 
coriate) . Medicines which excoriate 
and burn through the skin. 

Echeco'llon. (From £^o>, to have, 
and noXXct, glue). Echecollum, Any 
topical glutinous remedy. 

Echetro'sis. So Hippocrates 
calls the white briony. 

Echim'pes. In Hippocrates it is 
mentioned as the substance he used 
for purging the womb. 

Echinophtha'lmia. (From e\ivoc, 
a hedge-hog, and 0(p9aXfiia, an in- 
flammation of the eye). Inflamma- 
tion of the hairy part of the eyelids, 
where the hairs stand erect like the 
bristles of a fighting-pig, or hedge- 
hog. 

Echinopo'dium. (From Exwog, a 
hedge-hog, and ttovq, a foot ; so 
named because its flowers resemble 
the foot of an urchin) . A species of 
genista or broom. 

Echi'n6ps. (From ex lvo Q> as beset 
with prickles). Eckinopus* Globe 
thistle. Eckinops s phter o ceph ahu of 
Linnaeus ; raised in our gardens ; 
the root and seeds of which are mo- 
derately diuretic, but not used. 



E'chium. (From s^ig, a riper; 
so called because it was said to heal 
the bites of vipers) . The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem : Class, Pentandria; Order, 
Monogynia. Viper's bugloss. 

E'chium jEgypti'acum. Wall bu- 
gloss ; possessing vulnerary, sudo- 
rific properties. 

E'chos. (Hy^oc, sound). Tinnitus 
aurium, or noise in the ears. Hipp. 

(E'chysis. (From exv<o, to pour 
out). Syncope. 

Ecla'mpsia. (From EnXafxiroj, to 
shine) . See Eclampsis. 

Ecla'mpsis. (From EHXainroj, to 
shine). Eclampsia. Splendour, 
brightness, effulgence, flashing of 
light, scintillation. A flashing light, 
or those sparklings which strike the 
eyes of epileptic patients. Ccelius 
Aurelianus calls them circuit ignei, 
scintillations, or fiery circles. Though 
a symptom only of the epilepsy, Hip- 
pocrates places it for epilepsy itsel r . 

Ecle'ctica. (From eaXeytj, to 
select). Archigenes and others se- 
lected from every sect that which ap- 
peared to them to be the best and 
most rational ; hence they were 
called Eclectics, and their medicine 
Eclectic medicine. 

Ecle'ctos. (From fxXfiyw, to lick 
up). A linctus, or soft medicine to 
be licked up. 

Ecle'gma. (From ehXeix^, to 
lick). A form of medicine made by 
the incorporation of oils with syrups, 
and taken upon a liquorice stick. 
The same as Linctus ; which see. 

E'clysis. (From ehXvuj, to dis- 
solve). Universal faintness. 

Ecma'gma. ■ (From EHjjiacrffio, to 
form together). A mass of sub- 
stances kneaded together. 

Ecpepif/menos. (From ehttie^oj, 
to press out). Applied to ulcers 
with protuberating lips. 

Ecphka'ctoc. (From *x0na<T<ro>,to 
remove obstructions). Such medi- 
cines as incide and attenuate tough 
humours, so as to promote their 
discharge. 

Ecphra'ctica. (From ex,rppa<r<jo>. 
to remove obstructions) . Deobstruent 
medicines. 



ECP 



233 



ECT 



Ecphra'xis. (From £x0paffcra>, to 
remove obstruction). Diaphoresis. 
Opening of the pores. 

E'cphyas. (From w, and 0t/o>, 
to produce). An appendix, or ex- 
crescence. Some call the appendi- 
cula vermiformis by this name. 

E'cphyse. (From uupwacj, to 
blow out). Flatus from the blad- 
der through the urethra ; and from 
the uterus through the vagina. 
* Ecphyse'sis. (From aaQvcauj, to 
breathe through;. Quick expulsion 
of air from the lungs. 

E'cpiiysis. (From £K<pvio, to pro- 
duce) . An apophysis, or appendix. 
A process 

Ectie'sma. (From ucttu^, to 
press out;. Depression of the bones 
of the head. A fracture of the 
skull, in which the bones press in- 
wardly. 

Ecpie'smos. (From tx.wu(u), to 
press out). A disorder of the eye, 
in which the globe is almost pressed 
out of the socket by an afflux of hu- 
mours. 

Ecplero'ma. (From e>nr\rinoo), to 
fillj. Hard balls of leather, or other 
substances, adapted to fill the arm- 
pits, whilst, by the help of the heels, 
placed against the balls, and repress- 
ing the same, the luxated os hu- 
meri is reduced into its place. Hipp. 

Ecplexis. (Trom ex7r\ri<jcru) f to 
terrify or astonish). Stupor, or 
astonishment, from sudden external 
accidents. 

E'cpnoe. (From tx'zrvEu, to 
breathe) . Expiration ; that part of 
respiration by which the air is ex- 
pelled from the lungs. 

Ecpto'ma. (From ea7n7irli0y to fail 
out). — 1. Luxation of a bone. — 

2. The exclusion of the secundincs. — 

3. Speaking of corrupt parts, it signi- 
fies a falling off. — 4. An hernia in 
the scrotum. — 5. A falling down of 
the womb. 

Ecpy'ctica. (From txTrvKafa, to 
condense). Incrassants. Medicines 
that render the fluids thicker. 

Ecpye'ma. (From £*, and irvov, 
pus). A copious collection of pus or 
matter, from the suppuration of a 
tumour. 



Ecre'gma. (From eapiiyvvpi, to 
break). A rupture. 

Ecre'xis. (From tKOiiyvvf.ii, to 
break). A rupture. Rupture or la- 
ceration of the womb. Hipp. 

Ecrhy'thmos. (From tK, and 
pvOfiog, harmony) . Applied to the 
pulse, implying that it is disorderly 
or irregular. 

E'croe. (From €/cp£w, to flow out). 
An efflux, or the course by which any 
humour requiring purging is eva- 
cuated. 

Ecruelles. (Fr.) Scrofula, or 
king's evil. 

E'crysis. (From tKotio, to flow 
out) . An efflux of the semen before 
it receives the conformation of a 
foetus, and therefore is called an 
efflux, to distinguish it from abor- 
tion. Hipp. 

Ecsarco'ma. (From etc, and crap%, 
flesh). A fleshy excrescence. 

E'cstasis. (Eic?a(Tig : from 
eZi^apai, to be out of one's senses). 
An ecstacy, or trance. Delirium. 
Hipp. — A kind of apoplexy. Culkn. 

Ecstro'phils. (From Eic-pe^io, 
to invert) . Any medicine that forces 
out the blind piles. 

Ectiiely'nsis. (From sk9)j\vpu, 
to render effeminate). Softness. Ap- 
plied to the skin and flesh, when lax 
and soft ; and to bandages, when not 
sufficiently tight. 

Ecthli'mma. (From £x0\i6w, to 
press out against). An ulceration 
caused by pressure on the skin. 

Ecthli'psis. (From enOXiQut, to 
press out against). Elision, or ex- 
pression ; in allusion to swelled eyes, 
when they seem to emit sparks of 
light. 

E'cthyma. (From ek9vuj, to break 
out). A pustule, or cutaneous erup- 
tion. 

Ecthy'mata. (From snOvu, to 
break out). Pimples, pustules, or 
cutaneous eruptions. 

Ectillo'tica. (From txliWo), to 
pull out) . Caustics or depilatories ; 
medicines which eradicate turbercles 
or corns, or destroy superfluous 
hair. 

Ecto'pia. (From ikIqitoc, out of 
place) . Displaced. 
X 3 



ECT 



234 



EFF 



Ecto'pi£. Parts displaced. An 
Order in the Class Locales, of Cullen's 
Nosology. 

Ectrapeloga'stros. (From sk- 
^psTro^at, to degenerate, and ya^ijp, 
a belly) . One having a monstrous 
belly, or whose appetite is vora- 
ciously large. 

Ectri'mma. (From EKlpitu, to 
rub off). Attrition, or galling. An 
exulceration of the skin about the os 
sacrum. Hipp. 

E'ctrope. (From EKlpeirio, to di- 
vert, pervert, or invert) . Any duct 
by which the humours are diverted 
and drawn otf. In P. iEgineta it is 
the same as Ectropium. 

Ectro'pium. (From £x]p£7rw, to 
evert). An eversion of the eyelids, 
so that their internal surface is outer- 
most. 

With respect to causes, there arc 
two species of this disease ; one pro- 
duced by an unnatural swelling of 
the lining of the eyelids, which not 
only pushes their edges from the 
eyeball, but also presses them so 
forcibly, that they become everted ; 
the other arising from a contraction 
of the skin covering the eyelid, or of 
that in the vicinity, by which means 
the edge of the eyelid is first removed 
for some distance from the eye, and 
afterwards turned completely out- 
ward, together with the whole of the 
affected eyelid. 

* # * It is remarked by Scarpa, 
that just as excessive relaxation of 
the skin of the eyelids, and a morbid 
contraction of their lining, near the 
edges, in consequence of ulceration 
and cicatrices, occasion a faulty in- 
clination of the tarsus and eyelashes 
against the eye ; so, sometimes, an 
elongation and swelling, or too great 
a contraction and shortening of the 
skin of the eyelid itself, or neigh- 
bouring parts, produce an opposite 
disorder to trichiasis, viz. an eversion 
of the eyelids, termed ectropium. See 
Scarpa Salle Malattie degli occ/ii; — 
Practical Observations on the Ectro- 
pium, Sic. by Jf r . Adam*, p. 1 and 5, 
Lond. 1812: — JfenzeVs Manuel de 
fOeuliste; — M. Bordc/tavc " Mcmt.icc 
dans lequcl on propose un Nottveou 



procede pour traiter le Reaver senu 
des Paupieres" in Mem. de V Acad. 
Roy. de Chirurg. t. xiii. p. 136, et 
seq. edit. 12mo. ; — B. Travcrs, Sy- 
?wpsis oftheDiseases of the Eye, p. 324, 
356, &c. &vo. Lond. 1820, ike. &c. 

Ectro'sis. (Exrpaxnc : from exli- 

Ipojcwii), to miscarry). An abortion. 

Ectro'tics. (From skIiIqio<jkw, to 

miscarry). Ectyrotica. Medicines 

which cause abortion. 

Ectylo'tica. See EctiUotica. 
Ectyro'tica. See Ectrotics. 
Eczema, or Eczesma. (From 
t*£eit), to boil out). A hot painful 
eruption or pustule, characterized by 
an eruption of small vesicles on va- 
rious parts of the skin, usually close 
or crowded together, with little or 
no inflammation round their bases, 
and unattended by fever. It is not 
contagious. (Bateman's Synopsis, 
p. 250, ed. 3). There are several 
varieties of this disease, the most 
remarkable of which is the eczema 
rubrum, from the irritation of mer- 
cury, called by Mr. Pearson the ery- 
thema mercuriale. This form is at- 
tended with quickened pulse and a 
white tongue ; but the stomach and 
sensorium are not materially dis- 
turbed. 

Ede'lphus. Prognosis formed from 
the nature of elements. 

E'dera trifo'ua. The poison- 
tree of America. 

E'des. A name for amber. 
Ede'ssenum. Pelarium. An eye- 
water of tragacanth, arabic, acacia, 
opium, &c. 

E'detz. Amber. 
E'dic. Edicli. Edir. An old name 
for iron. 

E'dra. A fracture ; also the lowei 
part of the rectum. 

Edulcora'nts. (From edalcare, to 
make sweet). Edulcoruntia. Sweet- 
eners. Medicines which absorb the 
vicious humours of the body, sweeten 
the fluids, and deprive them of their 
acrimony. 

Effervescence. (From cff(rvcs- 
ccrc, to grow hot). Effervesce ntia. 
The agitation produced by mixing 
substances together, which cause the 
evolution and escape of a gas. 



EJE 



235 



ELA 



E'ffides. An old name for ceruss. 
E'ffila. Freckles. 
Efflorescence. (From ejflores- 
cere, to blow as a flower) . Effiores- 
centia. — 1. A preternatural redness 
of the skin. — 2. In cbymistry, it 
means that phenomenon which takes 
place upon crystals, producing a white 
powder when exposed to air. 

Effli/vium, -/, n. (From effluere, 
to spread abroad). See Contagion. 

Effractu'ra. (From effringere> 
to break down) . Ecpiesma. A species 
of fracture, in which the bone is 
much depressed by the blow. 

Effusion. (From effundere, to 
pour out). Effusio. In surgery, it 
means the escape of any fluid out of 
the vessel, or viscus, naturally con- 
taining it, and its lodgment in another 
cavity, in the cellular substance, or in 
the substance of parts. Effusion also 
sometimes signifies the natural secre- 
tion of fluids from the vessels ; thus 
surgeons frequently speak of the coa- 
gulable lymph being effused on diffe- 
rent surfaces, &C. See Extravasation. 
Ege'ries. (From egerere, to carry 
out). Egestio. An excretion, or 
evacuation. 

Egg. Ovum 9 "t i n. The.eggs.of poultry 
are chiefly used as food ; and different 
parts of them are employed in phar- 
macy and in medicine. The calcined 
shell is esteemed as an absorbent. 
The oil of the egg is softening, and 
is used externally to burns and chaps. 
*** The yolk of the egg renders oil 
miscible with water, and is triturated 
with the same view with resinous 
and other substances ; and raw eggs 
have been much recommended as a 
popular remedy for jaundice. 

Egrggo'rsis. (From gyoijyopfw, 
to watch). A watchfulness. A morbid 
want of sleep. 

Ejacula'ntia. (From ejaculate, 
to cast out). The vessels which 
convey the seminal fluid secreted in 
the testicles to the penis; e.g. epi- 
didymis, and the vasa defcrentia. 
The vcsiculae seminales are the re- 
ceptacles of the semen. 

Eje'ctio. (From ejicere, to cast 
out). Eacretio. Discharge of hu- 
mours or excrements. 



Ei'lamis. (From etXeu), to in- 
volve). A membrane enveloping the 
brain. 

Eile'ma. (From a\fw, to form 
convolutions) . Painful convolutions 
of the intestines from flatulence. 
Hipp. — Sometimes it signifies a 
covering. Vogel says, it is a fixed 
pain in the bowels, as if a nail was 
driven in. 

Ei'leon. (From eiXtu), to wind). 
A name of the intestinum ileum. 
Gorrcnus. 

Ei'leos. (From eiXeio, to form 
convolutions). The iliac passion. 

Ei'seole. (From eig, into, and 
[jciXXm, to cast). It signifies strictly 
an injection, but is used to express 
the access of a distemper, or of a 
particular paroxysm. 

El'sPNOE. (From ac, into, and 
Trvtu), to breathe). Inspiration of 
air. 

Ela ca'lli. An Indian cathartic 
shrub, the Euphorbia neriifoUa of 
Linnaeus. 

El.ea'gnon. (From tXaiov, oil, 
and ayvog, chaste). The Agnus 
castus was formerly so called. 

Elsq'meli. (From tXaiov, oil„ 
and f.u\i, honey). A sweet purging 
oil, like honey. 

El/Eosa'ccharum. (From tXaiov, 
oil, and (ranxapov 9 sugar). A mixr 
ture of essential oil with sugar. 

El/EOSEli'num. Water parsley. 
See Eleoselinum, 

Elain. The oily principle of solid 
fats, so named by its discoverer, M, 
Chevreul. 

*** Chevreul dissolves the tallow 
in very pure hot alcohol, separates 
the stearin by crystallization, and 
then procures the ela'in by evapora- 
tion of the spirit. But M. Braconnot 
has adopted a simpler, and probably 
a more exact method. By squeezing 
the tallow between the folds of 
porous paper, the ela'in soaks into it, 
while the stearin remains. The paper 
being then soaked in water, and 
pressed, yields up its oily impreg- 
nation. 

Elain has very much the appear- 
ance and properties of vegetable oil. 
It is liquid at the temperature of CO' \ 



ELA. 



236 



ELE 



Its smell and colour are derived from 
the solid fats from which it is ex- 
tracted. See Ure, on the Basis of 
Nicholson, p. 399. 

Elais guinee'nsis. A species of 
palm which grows spontaneously on 
the coast of Guinea, but is much cul- 
tivated in the West Indies. 

*** From this tree, according to 
some, is obtained the palm-oil, which 
is considered as an emollient and 
strengthener of all kinds of weakness 
of the limbs. It also is recommend- 
ed against bruises, strains, cramps, 
pains, swellings, &c. 

Elambica'tion. A method of ana- 
lysing mineral waters. 

Ela'nula. An old name for alum. 

Elaphobo'scum. (From tXaQog, 
a stag, and [3o<tku), to eat ; so called, 
because deer eat them greedily) . The 
wild parsnep. See Pastinaca. 

Elaphosco'rodon. (From eXa<poQ, 
the stag, and vxopocov, garlick). 
Stag's or viper's garlick. 

E'laquir. Red vitriol. 

E'las ma'ris. Burnt lead. 

Ela'sma. (From tXavvco, to drive). 
A lamina, or plate of any kind. A 
term used to express a clyster-pipe. 

Elastic fluid. See Gaz. 

Elastic gum. SeeSipho?iia elastica. 

Elasticity. A principle in bodies, 
by which they endeavour to restore 
themselves to the position whence 
they were displaced by any external 
force. 

%* The elasticity of fluids is ac- 
counted for, from their particles be- 
ing all endowed with a centrifugal 
force; whence Sir Isaac Newton 
(prop. 23, lib. 2) demonstrates, that 
particles, which mutually avoid, or 
fly off from one another, by such 
forces as are reciprocally propor- 
tional to the distances of their centres, 
will always compose an elastic fluid, 
whose density shall be proportional 
to its compression ; and, vice versa, 
if any fluid be composed of particles 
tli at fly off and avoid one another, 
and hath its density proportional to 
its compression, then the centrifu- 
gal force of those particles will be 
reciprocally as the distances of their 
centres. 



Elasticity of the air, first disco- 
vered by Galileo, is the force by 
which that element dilates itself, 
upon removing the force with which 
it was previously compressed. 

Elate'rium. (From sXavv<o, to 
stimulate or agitate : so named from 
its great purgative qualities). See 
Momordica elatcrium. 

Elathe'ria. A name for the cas- 
carilla bark. 

Elati'ne. (From eXalrcov, smaller, 
being the smaller species) . See An- 
tirrhinum elatine. 

Elati'tes. Bloodstone. 

Elco'sis. (From eXaog, an ulcer). 
A disease attended with foetid, ca- 
rious, and chronic ulcers. The term 
is seldom used. 

Eldei\ See Samhucus. 

Elder dwarf See Samhicus ehulus. 

Elecampane. From the root of 
the inula helenium, or elecampane, 
those first extracted the peculiar 
vegetable principle called inulin. M. 
Funke has since given the following 
as the analysis of elecampane root : 

1. A crystallizable, volatile oil; 

2. Inulin ; 3. Extractive ; 4. Acetic 
acid ; 5. A crystallizable resin ; 
6. Gluten ; 7. A fibrous matter. 
(Ligneous). See Inula helenium. 

Electricity. (Electricitas ; from 
elcctrum, rjXeKrpov, from j/XtxJwp, 
the sun, because of its bright shin- 
ing colour ; or from sXiuo, to draw, 
because of its magnetic power). A 
property which certain bodies possess 
when rubbed, heated, or otherwise 
excited, whereby they attract remote 
bodies, and frequently emit sparks 
or streams of light. 

*** The phenomena displayed by 
rubbing a piece of amber, constitute 
the first physical fact recorded in the 
history of science. Thales of Mile- 
tus, founder of the Ionic school, 
ascribed its mysterious power of 
attracting and repelling light, to an 
inherent soul, or essence, which, 
tiwakcncd by friction, went forth 
and brought back the small particles 
floating around. In times near to 
our own, the same hypothesis was 
resorted to by the Hon. Robert 
Boyle. From 7]XcKrpov } the Greek 



ELE 



237 



ELE 



name of amber, has arisen the sci- 
ence of electricity, which investi- 
gates the attractions and repulsions, 
the emission of light, and explosions 
which are produced, not only by the 
friction of vitreous, resinous, and 
metallic surfaces, but by the heat- 
ing, cooling, evaporation, and mu- 
tual contact of a vast number of bo- 
dies. See Sir Humphrey Davy's 
Elements j and M, Biot's Traite de 
Physique, torn. 11, chap. 16; — Ef- 
fets Chimiqucs de V Appareil Electro- 
Mot cur. 

As a topical remedy, for surgical 
diseases, electricity is chiefly used in 
amaurosis, deafness, some chronic 
tumours and abscesses, weakness 
from sprains or contusions, paraly- 
sis, &c. And in cases of suspended 
animation, cautiously employed, elec- 
tricity is sometimes an important 
auxiliary for the restoration of the 
vital functions. See J. Curry's Obs, 

Appan lit Death, &c. ed. 2d, 181."). 
— Medicinally, electricity considera- 
bly augments the circulation of the 
blood, and excites the action of the 
absorbents. 

Electro'des. (From i\\v.0.aov, 
amber). An epithet for stools which 
shine like amber. 

Electro-magnetism. The name 
given to a class of very interesting 
phenomena, first observed by M. 
Oersted of Copenhagen, in the win- 
ter of 1819-20, and which have since 
received great illustration from the 
labour of M. Ampere, M. Arago, Sir 
H. Davy, Dr. Wollaston, Mr. Fa- 
raday, M. de la Rive, and several 
other philosophers. 

Ele'ctrum minera'le. The tinc- 
ture of metals ; made of tin and cop- 
per, to which some add gold, and 
double its quantity of martial regu- 
lns of antimony melted together ; 
from these there results a metallic 
mass, to which some chvmists have 
given the name of elcctrum miner ale. 

*+* This mass is powdered and 
detonated with nitre and charcoal to 
a kind of scoria ; it is powdered 
again whilst hot, and then digested 
in spirit of wine, whence a tincture 
is obtained of a fine red colour. 



Electua'rium. An electuary. See 
Confections. 

Electua'rium antimo'nii. Elec- 
tuary of antimony. Given in those 
cutaneous diseases which go under 
the general name of scorbutic. It 
is usually accompanied with the de- 
coctions of elm-bark or of sarsapa- 
rilla. 

Electua'rium ca'ssi;e. See C<m- 
fectio c ass ice. 

Electua'rium ca'teciiu. Con- 
feet io Japonica. Electuary of cate- 
chu, commonly called Japonic con- 
fection. A very useful astringent. 
Ten scruples of this electuary con- 
tain one grain of opium. 

Electua'rium cinciio'nje cum 
na'tro. — Jjk Natri ppti 5JJ ; pulve^ 
ris cinchonas unc : mucilaginis gum- 
mi arabici q. s. misce. 

%* This will be found an excel- 
lent substitute for the burnt sponge, 
whose powers, as a remedy in scro-* 
fula, are known solely to depend 
on the proportion of natron con- 
tained in it. The dose is two drachms, 
twice or thrice a day. 

Electua'rium opia'tum. See Con- 
fee tio opii. 

Eleli'stiiacos. (From e\e\i^o, to 
distort, and crcjctitog, sage : so named 
from the spiral coiling of its leaves 
and branches). A species of sage. 

Ele'mrrxt. An obsolete term for 
alkaline salts. 

Elements. Substances which can 
no further be divided or decomposed 
by chymical analysis. A term used 
by the earlier chymists, nearly in the 
same sense as the moderns use the 
term first principle. The chief, and 
indeed very essential difference be- 
tween them is, that the ancients 
considered their elements as bodies 
possessing absolute simplicity, and 
capable of forming all other bodies 
by their mutual combination ; where- 
as the first principles of the mo- 
derns are considered as simple, 
merely in respect to the present 
state of the art of analyzing bodies. 

%* The ancients reckoned only 
four elements — fire, air, water, and 
earth : all of which are at present 
acknowledged to be compound. But. 



ELE 



238 



ELE . 



on the other hand, we have formed 
a much more numerous list : light, 
caloric, oxygen, azote, hydrogen, 
carbon, boron, sulphur, phosphorus, 
the metals, and the metallic bases of 
the earths, and fixed alkalies. Whe- 
ther to these should be added the 
magnetic and electric fluids, with 
chlorine, fluorine and iodine, is not 
yet determined. 

E'lemi. (It is said this is the Ethi- 
opian name). Gum elemi. The pa- 
rent plant of this resin is supposed 
to be the Amyris elemifera; which 
see. 

E'lemi ungue'ntum. See Ungu- 
entum elemi compositum. 

Elemi'fera curassa'vica a'r- 
bor. The gum-elemi tree. 

Ele'gni. A tree of Malabar. Car- 
diac. 

Eleochry'sum. (From rjXiog, the 
sun, and %pvcrog, gold; so called 
from their shining yellow appear- 
ance). Goldilocks. See Gnaphalium 
Sta?chas. 

Eleoseli'num. (From eXog, a lake, 
and crtXivov, parsley) . See Apium. 

Elepha'ntia. (From eXstyag, an 
elephant ; so called, from the great 
enlargement of the body in this dis- 
order). A species of anasarca. 

Elepha'ntia a'rabum. Synoni- 
mous with elephantiasis. Cullen. — 
The term is, however, occasionally 
confined to this disease when it 
affects the feet. 

Elephantiasis. (From sXttyag, 
an elephant ; so named, from the 
legs of persons affected with this 
disorder growing scaly, rough, and 
wonderfully large, at an advanced 
period, like the legs of an elephant) . 
Elcphas. Elaphus. A disease that 
attacks the whole body, but mostly 
affects the feet, which appear some- 
what like those of the elephant. It 
is known by the skin being thick, 
rough, wrinkly, unctuous, and void 
of hair, and mostly without the 
sense of feeling. It is said to be 
contagious. Cullen makes it a genus 
of disease in the ClaQS Cachexia', and 
Order hnpetiginett 

%* This disease has generally 
been supposed to arise in conse- 



quence of some slight attack of fever, 
on the cessation of which, the mor- 
bid matter falls on the leg, occa- 
sioning a distension and tumefaction 
of the limb, which is afterwards 
overspread with uneven lumps and 
deep fissures. By some authors it 
has been considered as a species of 
leprosy ; but it often subsists for 
many years without being accompa- 
nied with any of the symptoms which 
characterize that disease. For a de- 
tailed history of this disease, see 
Good's Study of Medicine, vol. ii. 
p. 416, et seq. 

Elephanti'num empla'strum. A 
plaster described by Oribasius. Cel- 
sus describes one of the same name, 
but very different in qualities. 

E'lephas. (E\£0ac, the elephant) . 
The disease called elephantiasis ; 
also aqua fortis. 

Ele'rsna. An obsolete term for 
black lead. 

Ele'smatis. An old term for burnt 
lead. 

Ele'ttari pri'mum. The true amo- 
mum. 

Eletta'ria. (From elettari). This 
is a new genus of plants formed by 
Dr. Maton, to which the lesser car- 
damom is referred: Class, Monan- 
dria; Order, Monogyuia. 

Eletta'ria cardamo'mum. Car- 
damomum minus. Lesser or officinal 
cardamom. Amomum repens, or le 
cardamome de la cote de Malabar, of 
Sonncrat. Elettaria cardamomum, of 
Maton, in Act. Soc. Lin. 

* # * The seeds of this plant are 
imported in their capsules or husks, 
by which th^y are preserved ; for 
they soon lose a part of their flavour 
when freed from this covering. On 
being chewed, they impart a glowing 
aromatic warmth and grateful pun- 
gency ; they are supposed gently to 
stimulate the stomach, and prove 
cordial, carminative, and antispas- 
modic, but without that irritation 
and heat which many of the other 
spicy aromatics arc apt to produce. 

Eleuthe'ria BARK. See Croton 
cascarilla. 

Eleuthe'ria co'rtex. Sec Cre- 
tan cascarilla* 



ELI 



239 



ELY 



Eleva'tio. (From elevoare, to lift 
up). Elevation. Sublimation. 

Eleva'tor. (From elevare, to lift 
up) . The name of a muscle, whose 
office is to lift up the part to which 
it is attached. Also an instrument 
with which surgeons raise any de- 
pressed portion of bone, but chiefly 
those of the cranium. 

Eleva'tor la'bii ixferio'ris pro'- 
PRIUS. See Levator labii infer ioris. 
Eleva'tor la'bii superio'ris 
pro'prius. See Levator labii supe- 
rioris alceque nasi. 

Eleva'tor labio'rum. See Le- 
vator anguli oris. 

Eleva'tor na'si ala'rum. Mus- 
cles of the alae nasi. 

Eleva'tor o'culi. See Rectus 
superior oculi. 

Eleva'tor pa'lpebrje super i'oris. 
See Levator palpebrce superioris. 

Eleva'tor sca'pul*:. See Levator 
scapulce. 

Elevato'rium. See Elevator. 

Eli'banum. See Juniperui lycia. 

Elichry'sum. (From ?y\toc, the 
sun, and XP V<T °G> gold ; so called 
from their shining yellow appear- 
ance). See GnaphaUum Stceclias. 

Eli'drion. Mastich. A mixture 
of brass. 

Eli'gma. An old name for a 
linctus. 

Elioseli'num. See Elcoselinum. 

£liqltation. An operation by 
means of which a more fusible sub- 
stance is separated from another 
which is less fusible. It consists in 
the application of a degree of heat 
sufficient to fuse the former, but not 
the latter. 

Elitiiroi'des. The vaginal coat 
of the testicle. 

Elixa'tio. (From elixare, to boil) . 
The act of seething, or boiling. 

Eli'xir. (From elekser, an Arabic 
word signifying quintessence). A 
term formerly applied to many pre- 
parations similar to compound tinc- 
tures. 

Eli'xir of health. Elixir salutis. 
A term formerly applied to what is 
now called compound tincture of 
senna. See Tinetura sennoe. 

Eli'xir parego'ricum. Paregoric 



elixir. See Tinetura camphorce com~ 
posita. 

Eli'xir proprieta'tis. A prepa- 
ration of aloes. 

Eli'xir sa'crum. A tincture of 
rhubarb and aloes. 

Eli'xir salu'tis. See Tinct. 
Sennce. 

Eli'xir stoma'chicum. Stomachic 
elixir. See Tinetura gentiance com- 
posita. 

Elixiva'tio. (From elLrare, to 
boil, or from lixivium , lye). The 
extraction of a fixed salt from vege- 
tables, by an affusion of water. 

Elle'borum. See Helleborus and 
Veratrum. 

Elm. See Ulmus. 

Elmi'ntiies. (From eiXew, to in- 
volve, from its contortions) . Worms. 

Elm-leaved sumach. See Rhus 
coriaria. 

Elo'des. (From tXoc, a swamp). 
A term given to a sweating fever, 
from its great moisture. 

Elonga'tion. (From elongare^ to 
lengthen out) . An imperfect luxa- 
tion, where the ligament is only 
lengthened, and the bone not put out 
of its socket. 

Elutriation. (From elutriare, to 
cleanse). — Chym. Washing over. Jt 
is the pouring a liquor out of one 
vessel into another, in order to sepa- 
rate the subsiding matter from the 
clear and fluid part. 

Elu'vies. (From eluere, to wash 
out) . The effluvium from a swampy 
place. Also the humour discharged 
in fiuor albus. 

Eluxa'tio. (From eluxare, to put 
out of joint). A luxation, or dislo- 
cation. 

Elymagro'stis. (From aXsipog, 
the herb panic, and aypw^ic, wild). 
Wild panic. 

Ely'mus. (EXeifiog). The herb 
panic. 

Elytroce'le. (From eXvrpov, 
the vagina, and KrjXrj, a tumour). 
Vaginal hernia. 

Elytroi'des. Elytroides; from 
tXvrpov, a sheath, and eidog, form). 
Like a sheath. The tunica vaginalis 
is so called by some writers, because 
it includes the testis like a sheath. 



EMB 



240 



EME 



Ely'tron. (From skvo), to in- 
volve). The vagina. A sheath. The 
membranes which involve the spinal 
marrow are called elvtra, skvlpa. 

Emargina'tion. (From emargi- 
nare, to cleanse the edges). The 
cleansing of the edsres of wounds 
from scurf and filth. 

Emascula'tus. (From emasculare, 
to render impotent). Having the 
testicles in the belly, and not de- 
scended into the scrotum. 

Emba'mma. (From sfitctTrlu), to 
immerge in) . A medicated pickle to 
dip the food in. 

E'mbole. (From sfxtaWu), to put 
in) . The reduction or setting of a 
dislocated bone. 

E'mbolum. (From £/z€a\\(o, to 
cast out ; so named, because it ejects 
the semen). The penis. 

Embre'gma. (From sfi^psxot, to 
make wet) . A fluid application to 
any part of the body. 

Embrocation. (From ^pg^w, to 
moisten or soak in). Embrocatio. 
A fluid application to rub any part 
of the body with. Many use the 
term, however, as synonimous with 
liniment. The following embroca- 
tions are noticed in the Pharmaco- 
poeia Chirurgica. 

Embroca'tio ali/minis. 5;. Alu- 
minis 5JJ. Aceti, spiritus vinosi te- 
nuioris, sing. ftss. For chilblains 
and diseased joints. 

Embroca'tio ammo'ni;e. — Jk em- 
brocationis ammoniae acetatis 5jj. 
Aquae ammoniae puree 33J . For sprains 
and bruises. 

Embroca'tio ammo'nije aceta'tis 
gamphora'ta. — Jk solutionis saponis 
cum camphora, aquae ammoniae ace- 
titae sing. 5j. Aquae ammoniae pu- 
rae 5SS. For sprains and bruises. 
It is also frequently applied to dis- 
perse chilblains which have not sup- 
purated. It is said to be the same as 
Steer's opodeldoc. 

Embroca'tio ammo'ni/E aceta'- 
pis. — Jk aquae ammoniae acetatae. 
Solutionis saponis sing, ^j M. For 
bruises with inflammation. 

Embroca'tio cantha'ridis CUM 
c a'mphora. — Jjk tine, cantharidis. 
Spiritus ramphorae sing. $j. M. This 



may be used in any Case in which the 
object is to stimulate the skin. 

E'mbroche. See Embrocatio. 

E'mbryo. (From tjugpuw, to bud 
forth) . The foetus in utero, before 
the fifth month of pregnancy. 

Embryothla'stes. (From £ju- 
€pvov, the foetus, and 6\a<o, to 
break). Embryorectes. A crotchet, 
or instrument for breaking the bones 
of a dead foetus to promote delivery. 

Embryo'tomy. (From tfitovov, a 
foetus, and refxvu), to cut). Embrio- 
tomia. The separating of any part 
of the foetus whilst in utero, to ex- 
tract it. 

Embryu'lcus. (From s/x€pvov, a 
foetus and *\xw, to draw). A blunt 
hook, or forceps, for drawing the 
child from the womb. 

E'merus. Scorpion senna. A laxa- 
tive. 

Eme'sia. (From efitu), to vomit). 
Emesma. Emesis. The act of vo- 
miting. Medicines which cause vo- 
miting. 

Eme'tics. Emetica. (From s^iecj 9 
to vomit). Substances capable of 
exciting vomiting, independently of 
any effect arising from the mere 
quantity of matter introduced into 
the stomach, or of any nauseous 
taste or flavour. 

The susceptibility of vomiting is 
verv different in different individuals, 
and is often considerably varied by 
disease. 

Emetics are employed in many 
diseases, e. g, 

* # * The operation of vomiting is 
dangerous, or hurtful, viz. where 
there is determination of the blood 
to the head, especially in plethoric 
habits ; in visceral inflammation ; in 
the advanced stage of pregnancy ; in 
hernia and prolapsus uteri ; and 
wherever there exists extreme gene- 
ral debility. 

The frequent use of emetics weak- 
ens the tone of the stomach. An 
emetic should always be adminis- 
tered in the fluid form. Its opera- 
tion may be promoted by drinking 
any tepid diluent, or bitter infusion. 

The individual emetics may be ar- 
ranged under two heads, those de- 



EMM 



241 



EMP 



rived from the vegetable, and those 
from the mineral kingdom. From 
the vegetable kingdom are numbered 
ipecacuanha, scilla maritima, an- 
themis nobilis, sinapis alba, asarum 
Europaeum, nicotiana tabacum. From 
the mineral kingdom, antimony, the 
zulphates of zinc and copper, and 
the subacetate of copper. To these 
may be added ammonia and its hy- 
dro-sulphuret. 

Emetine. A new principle dis- 
covered by Pelletier and Majendie, 
in the several species of ipecacuanha. 
It is bitter, inodorous, and without 
the nauseous taste of ipecacuanha. 
It is soluble both in water and alco- 
hol, but not in ether, and does not 
crystallize. Half a grain acts as a 
powerful emetic, followed by sleep ; 
six grains vomit violently, and pro- 
duce stupor and death. The lungs 
and intestines are inflamed. See 
Ann. de Chimie et de Physique, iv. 
172. 

Emetocatha'rticus. (From 
tfiEU), to vomit, and xaOatpw, to 
purge) . Purging both by vomit and 
stool. 

Emine'nti* quadrage'mine. See 
Tubercula quadrigemina. 

Em men agog ues. Emmenagoga. 
(From epprjvia, the menses, and ayio, 
to move). Medicines possessing a 
power of promoting the catamenia. 
The articles belonging to this class 
may be referred to four orders : 

1. Antispasmodic emmenagognes , 
as assafostida, castor, and pediluvia : 
the constitutions to which these are 
more especially suited, are the deli- 
cate, the weak, and the irritable. — 

2. Tonic emmenagogiies, as ferrugi- 
nous preparations, cold bath, and ex- 
ercise, which are advantageously se- 
lected for the lax and phlegmatic. — 

3. Stimulating emmenagogues , as hy- 
drargyria and antimonial prepara- 
tions, which are principally adapted 
for the young, and those with pe- 
culiar insensibility of the uterus. — 

4. Irritating evimenagogucs, as aloes, 
savinc, and Spanish flies : these are 
to be preferred in torpid and chlo- 
rotic habits. 

Emme'nia. (Froni£i/, in, and p,rjv, 



a month). The menstrual dis- 
charge. 

Emo'llients. Emollientia. (From 
emollire, to soften). Substances 
which possess a power of relaxing 
the living and animal fibre, without 
producing that effect from any me- 
chanical action, and which may be 
comprehended under the following 
orders : 

1. Relaxing emollients, as altha?a 9 
malva, &c. These may be employed 
in all constitutions, while at the 
same time they do not claim a pre- 
ference to others from any particular 
habit of body. — 2. Lubricating emol- 
lients, as bland oils, fat, and lard. 
The same observation will hold of 
this order as was made of the last 
mentioned. — ^.Humcctant emollients , 
as warm water, and tepid vapours, 
which are fitted for the robust and 
those in the prime of life. — 4. Atonic 
t mollients, as opium and pediluvia : 
these are applicable to any consti- 
tution, but are to be preferred in 
habits where the effects of this class 
are required over the system in ge- 
neral. 

Empei'ria. (From tv, and ts-tipu), 
to endeavour). Professional expe- 
rience. 

Emphero'menus. (From e/iKpepu), 
to bear) . Urine, or other substance 
which has a sediment. 

Empiira'ctica. (From sf^pparlio, 
to obstruct. Inflate. Flatu distendoj. 
Emphractics. Medicines which, ap- 
plied to the skin, shut up the pores. 
Emthyse'ma. (From tfioiev, and 
(pixrao), to inflate). Pneumatosis. 

* # * Emphysema is generally con- 
fined to one place, but, in a few 
cases it spreads universally over the 
whole body, and occasions a con- 
siderable degree of swelling. It 
sometimes, though rarely, arises 
spontaneously, or comes on imme- 
diately after delivery, without any 
evident cause ; but it is mostly 
induced by some wound or injury 
done to the thorax, affecting the 
lungs ; in which case the air passes 
from thence, through the wound, 
into the surrounding cellular mem- 
brane, and whence it spreads over 



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the whole body. It is to be considered 
as a disease bv no means unattended 
with danger ; but more probably from 
the causes which give rise to it, than 
any hazard from the complaint itself. 

Inflation, wind-dropsy, elastic and 
sonorous distention of the body or 
its members, from air acccumulated 
in natural cavities, in which it is not 
originally present ; e. g. the cellular 
membrane, abdomen, uterus, ike. 

* # * The common cause of this af- 
fection is a fractured rib, by which 
the vesicles of the lungs being 
wounded, the air escapes into the 
cavity of the thorax. But, as the 
rib, at the time of its being broken, 
is thrust inwards, and wounds the 
pleura, which lines the ribs and in- 
tercostal muscles, part of the air 
most commonly passes through the 
pleura and the lacerated muscles, 
into the cellular membrane, on the 
outside of the chest ; thence it be- 
comes diffused through the same 
membrane over the whole body, so 
as sometimes to inflate it to an ex- 
traordinary degree. Hewsons Medical 
Observations and Enquiries. 

Emphysema is most frequent after 
a fractured rib, because there is a 
wide laceration of the lungs, and no 
exit for the air ; it is less frequent in 
large wounds with a knife, or broad- 
sword, because the air has an open 
and unimpeded issue ; it is again 
mere frequent in deep stabs, with 
bayonets or small swords ; and it is 
peculiarly frequent in gun-shot 
wounds, because the orifice of its 
skin inflames and swells, while the 
wound is wider within. (J. Bell on 
Wounds of the Breast, p. 265, ed.3). 
An emphysematous swelling, where- 
soever situated, is easily distinguish- 
ed from cedema or anasarca, by the 
crepitation which occurs on handling 
it, or noise like that which takes 
place on compressing a dry bladder 
half filled with air. (Encyclopedic 
Methodiqut, partie Chirurgicale, Art. 
Emphysema). 

To prove that the confinement of 
air in the chest is the cause of the 
dangerous symptoms attending em- 
physema, Hewson refers to the his- 



tories of some remarkable cases, 
published by Littre, Mery, William 
Hunter, and Cherton. (See Me- 
moir esde VAcad. Roy ale des Sciences, 
for 1713; — Medical Observations and 
Enquiries, vol. ii. ; and Pathological 
Enquiries). 

Emphysema has been known to 
arise from the bursting of a vomica, 
and ulceration of the surface of the 
lungs ; but the air which escapes in 
this instance, cannot find its way into 
the cavity of the thorax, because in- 
flammation, which precedes the ab- 
scess and ulceration of the air-cells, 
closes those that are adjacent, and 
produces an adhesion of the edges 
of the vomica, or ulcer, to the inner 
surface of the chest, so as entirely 
to separate the two cavities. 

A violent effort of respiration has 
sometimes produced a certain degree 
of emphysema, which makes its first 
appearance about the clavicles, and 
afterwards spreads over the neck 
and neighbouring parts. The efforts 
of labour have been known to pro- 
duce similar symptoms, but without 
any bad consequences. (Med. Com- 
munic. vol. i. p. 176 ; — Blackden in 
Med. Facts arid Experiments, vol. ii. ; 
arid JVilmer's Observations in Surg. 
p. 143). 

An emphysematous swelling of the 
head, neck, and chest, has also been 
noticed in typhus fevers ; an instance 
of which is related by Dr. Huxham, 
in a sailor of a scorbutic habit of 
body, (Med. Obs. and Enq. vol. iii. 
art. 4). A case of spontaneous em- 
physema has also been described by 
Dr. Baillie. (See Trans, for the Im- 
prov. of Med. and Chirurg. Know- 
ledge, vol. i. p. 202). 

Exclusive of the authors already 
quoted under this article, the fol- 
lowing may be consulted with ad- 
vantage : Dr. Hunter in Med. Obs. 
and E7iquiries, vol. ii. ; — Aberncthy*s 
Surgical J forks, vol. ii. ; — Allan 
Bums on the Surgical Anatomy of the 
Head and Neck, p. 52, &c. ; — JVil- 
mers Obs. in Surg. p. 143 ; — 
Richerand's Nosogreiphie Chirurgi- 
cale, torn. iv. p. 321, &c. ed. 1809 ; 
— J. 'Hainens Principles of Military 



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Surg. p. 376, ed. 8vo. Edinb. 1820 ; 
— C.Bell, Surg. Obs. vol. i. p. 161, 
&c. &c. 

Empiric. (Empiricus, eixtthcxhloq'. 
from ev, in, and weipa, experience). 
One who practises the healing art 
upon experience, and not theory. It 
is now applied in a very opposite 
sense to those who, contrary to the 
line of conduct pursued by scientific 
and regular practitioners, vend nostra, 
or puff their own praise in the public 
papers, and by hand-bills. See Ma- 
teria Medica and Remedies. 

Empla'stica. (From ep7r\aa<T(x) f 
to obstruct.) Emplastics. Medicines 
which, spread upon the skin, stop the 
pores. See Quack. 

Empla'strum. (From tinrXaacrit), 
to spread upon). A plaster. Plasters 
arc composed of unctuous sub- 
stances, united either to powders or 
metallic oxydcs, &c. 

%* Plasters ought to be of such 
a consistence as not to stick to the 
fingers when cold, but to become 
soft, so as to be spread out, in 
a moderate degree of heat, and in 
that of the human body, to continue 
tenacious enough to adhere to the 
skin. They owe their consistence 
either to metallic oxydcs, especially 
those of lead, or to wax, resin, &c. 
They are usually kept in rolls 
wrapped in paper, and spread, when 
wanted for use, upon thin leather ; 
if the plaster be not of itself suf- 
ficiently adhesive, it is to be sur- 
rounded at its margin by a boundary 
of resin plaster. 

Empla'strum ammoni'aci. Plaster 
Of ammon'mcum. This plaster ad- 
heres well to the skin, without irri- 
tating or producing any inconve- 
nience from its smell. 

Em PL antrum ammoni'aci cum 
iiydra'rgyro. Plaster of ammonia- 
cum with mercury. This is said to 
possess resolvent virtues ; and with 
this view is recommended to be ap- 
plied to nodes, tophs, indurated 
glands, and tumours. 

Empla'strum asafoz'tida. Em- 
plastrum antihystericum. Plaster of 
asafoetida. Anodyne and antispas- 
modic ; and occasionally directed to* 



be applied to the umbilical region in 
hysterical cases. 

Empla'strum cantha'ridis. See 
Emplastrum lytlce. 

Empla'strum ce'r;e. Wax plas- 
ter. This is a gently drawing plaster, 
calculated to promote a moderate 
discharge from a blistered surface, 
with which intention it is mostly 
used. Where the stronger prepara- 
tions irritate, this will be generally 
found to agree. 

Empla'strum cu'mini. Cumin 
plaster. A warm stomachic plaster, 
which, applied to the stomach, ex- 
pels flatulency ; also to indolent 
scrofulous tumours, where the ob- 
ject is to promote suppuration. 

Empla'strum Ga'lbani compo'si- 
tum. Compound Galbanum plaster, 
formerly called emplastrum It'tkar- 
gt/ri compositum and diachylon mag- 
num cum gummi. This plaster is 
used as a warm digestive and sup- 
purative, calculated to promote ma- 
turation of indolent or schirrous tu- 
mours, and to allay the pains of 
sciatica, arthrodynia, &c. 

Empl/strum iivdra'rgyri. Em- 
plastrum lithargyri cum hydrargyro. 
Mercurial plaster. 

Empla'strum la'bdani compo'si- 
tum. Compound plaster of labda- 
num. This may be used with the 
same intentions as the cumin-plaster, 
to which it is in no way superior, 
though composed of more expensive 
materials. 

Empla'strum litha'rgyri. See 
Emplastrum plumbi. 

Empla'strum litha'rgyri com- 
po'situm. See Emplastrum Galbani 
compositum. 

Empla'strum litha'rgyri cum 
RESi'na. See Emplastrum rcsince, 

Empla'strum Ly'tt;e. Emplastrum 
cantharidis. Emplastrum vesica to- 
rium. Blistering plaster. See Blister 
and Lytta. 

Empla'strum o'pii. Plaster of 
opium. 

%* Opium is said to produce 
somewhat, though in a similar de- 
gree, its specific effect when applied 
externally. 

Empla'strum pi'cis compo'situm. 
Y 2 



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Emplastrum jjicis Burgundies. Com- 
pound pitch plaster. From the slight 
degree of rubefaction this stimulating 
application produces, it is adapted to 
gently irritate the skin, and thus to 
relieve rheumatic pains : — Applied to 
the temples, it is sometimes of use 
in pains of the head. 

Empla'strum plu'mbi. Emplas- 
trum lithargyri. Emplastrum com- 
mune. Diachylon simplex. Lead 
plaster. Excoriations of the skin, 
slight burns, and the like, may be 
covered with this plaster: but it is in 
more general use, as a defensive, 
where the skin becomes red from 
lying a long time on the part. It is 
also a composition of great import- 
ance, as forming the basis of many 
other plasters. 

Empla'strum resi'ne. Emplas- 
trum adhtesivum. Resin plaster. 
Emplastrum lithargyri cum resina. 
Chiefly used for keeping on other 
dressings, and for retaining the edges 
of recent wounds together. 

Empla'strum sapo'nis. Soap 
plaster. An admirable defensive and 
soft application, spread on linen, to 
surround a fractured limb. 

Empla'strum thu'ris compo'si- 
tum. Compound frankincense plas- 
ter. This plaster is said to possess 
strengthening, as well as adhesive 
properties . By keeping the skin firm , 
it gives tone to the relaxed muscles 
it surrounds, but cannot, in anyway, 
impart more strength than the com- 
mon adhesive plaster. 

Empneumato'sis. (From ev, in, 
and 'srveio, to blow). Inflation of the 
stomach, or any other viscus. 

Empo'rium. (From epnopeio, to 
negotiate). A mart. The brain, as 
being the pla